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来源:搜狐答疑    发布时间:2017年10月21日 23:41:23    编辑:admin         

In 1965,17-year-old high school student, Randy Gardner stayed awake for 264 hours.1965年,17岁的高中生兰迪·加德纳264小时没有睡觉。Thats 11 days to see how hed cope without sleep.累计11天,来看看他是怎么应对不睡觉的。On the second day, his eyes stopped focusing.第二天,他的目光停止对焦。Next, he lost the ability to identify objects by touch.接下来,他失去了通过触摸来识别物体的能力。By day three, Gardner was moody and uncoordinated.到第三天,加德纳喜怒无常,变得不协调。At the end of the experiment, he was struggling to concentrate,在实验结束时,他奋力集中,had trouble with short-term memory, became paranoid, and started hallucinating.但短期记忆了出现问题,变得偏执,并且开始出现幻觉。Although Gardner recovered without long-term psychological or physical damage,虽然加德纳恢复了,并没有长期的心理或物理伤害,for others, losing shuteye can result in hormonal imbalance, illness, and, in extreme cases, death.但对有些人来说,失去睡眠可能会导致荷尔蒙失调、疾病,并且在极端情况下死亡。Were only beginning to understand why we sleep to begin with, but we do know its essential.我们才刚刚开始理解为什么我们要睡觉,但我们知道这是必不可少的。Adults need seven to eight hours of sleep a night, and adolescents need about ten.成年人需要一个晚上七八个小时的睡眠,青少年需要大约十个小时。We grow sleepy due to signals from our body telling our brain we are tired, and signals from the environment telling us its dark outside.我们犯困是由于我们的身体信号告诉我们的大脑我们累了,环境就是告诉我们天黑了的信号。The rise in sleep-inducing chemicals, like adenosine and melatonin,催眠化学品的兴起,像腺苷和褪黑激素,send us into a light doze that grows deeper, making our breathing and heart rate slow down and our muscles relax.把我们从打盹变成深眠,使我们的呼吸和心脏速率减慢,让我们的肌肉放松。This non-REM sleep is when DNA is repaired and our bodies replenish themselves for the day ahead.此非REM睡眠时是DNA提前一天修复我们的身体、补充自己的时候。In the ed States, its estimated that 30% of adults and 66% of adolescents are regularly sleep-deprived.在美国,据估计,30%的成人,66%的青少年经常睡眠不足。This isnt just a minor inconvenience. Staying awake can cause serious bodily harm.这不仅是一个小小的麻烦。保持清醒会导致严重的人身伤害。When we lose sleep, learning, memory, mood, and reaction time are affected.当我们失眠时,学习、记忆、心情和反应时间都受到影响。Sleeplessness may also cause inflammation, hallucinations, high blood pressure, and its even been linked to diabetes and obesity.失眠也可引起炎症、幻觉、高血压,它甚至被认为与糖尿病和肥胖症有关。In 2014, a devoted soccer fan died after staying awake for 48 hours to watch the World Cup.2014年,一个忠实的足球迷在48小时不睡觉观看世界杯后死亡。While his untimely death was due to a stroke,虽然他的英年早逝是由于中风,studies show that chronically sleeping fewer than six hours a night研究表明,长期每晚睡眠少于六小时的人increases stroke risk by four and half times compared to those getting a consistent seven to eight hours of shuteye.中风风险是那些每晚睡七至八小时的4.5倍。For a handful of people on the planet who carry a rare inherited genetic mutation, sleeplessness is a daily reality.对在这个星球上携带着一种罕见基因突变的人类来说,失眠是一种日常现实。This condition, known as Fatal Familial Insomnia, places the body in a nightmarish state of wakefulness,这种情况被称为致死性家族失眠症,身体在清醒的一个噩梦般的状态,forbidding it from entering the sanctuary of sleep.禁止它进入睡眠的避难所。Within months or years, this progressively worsening condition leads to dementia and death.在几个月或几年,这种逐步恶化的状况导致痴呆和死亡。How can sleep deprivation cause such immense suffering?睡眠剥夺为何引起如此巨大的痛苦?Scientists think the answer lies with the accumulation of waste products in the brain.科学家认为,在于大脑中废物的积累。During our waking hours, our cells are busy using up our days energy sources,在我们醒着的时候,我们的细胞都在忙着用我们一天的能源,which get broken down into various byproducts, including adenosine.其中细分为各种副产品,包括腺苷。As adenosine builds up, it increases the urge to sleep, also known as sleep pressure.随着腺苷的积聚,它增加了冲动睡觉,也被称为睡眠压力。In fact, caffeine works by blocking adenosines receptor pathways.事实上,咖啡因通过阻断腺苷的受体途径来起作用。Other waste products also build up in the brain, and if theyre not cleared away,其他废物也在脑中积聚,如果他们不清理掉they collectively overload the brain and are thought to lead to the many negative symptoms of sleep deprivation.就会共同使大脑超载,这被认为是导致睡眠剥夺的诸多不良症状的原因。So, whats happening in our brain when we sleep to prevent this?那么,当我们睡觉时,我们的大脑是怎样阻止这种情况的呢?Scientists found something called the lymphatic system,科学家们发现了淋巴系统,a clean-up mechanism that removes this buildup and is much more active when were asleep.一种能消除这种堆积,并且当我们睡着时更加活跃的机制。It works by using cerebrospinal fluid to flush away toxic byproducts that accumulate between cells.它的工作原理是利用脑脊液冲走在细胞之间的有毒物质。Lymphatic vessels, which serve as pathways for immune cells, have recently been discovered in the brain,淋巴管,为免疫细胞提供路径的血管,最近被发现存在于大脑中,and they may also play a role in clearing out the brains daily waste products.他们也可能在清除大脑日常代谢物中扮演了重要的角色。While scientists continue exploring the restorative mechanisms behind sleep,虽然科学家还在继续探索关于睡眠的恢复机制,we can be sure that slipping into slumber is a necessity if we want to maintain our health and our sanity.我们可以肯定的是,如果我们要保持我们的健康和理智,打瞌睡是必需的。201706/515431。

Anti-vaccine activists endured a cold, rainy day in Washington to make their point.为了达到抵制目的,这些反疫苗活动人士们在阴雨连绵的华盛顿忍受了一天的严寒。;As parents, its our decision whether or not we want to vaccinate.;“作为父母,我们有权决定是否要给孩子接种疫苗。”The movement has gained so much momentum that doctors are alarmed.这场运动发展势头迅猛,医生们对此也感到十分震惊。;We now, in the state of Texas, have 50,000 kids whose parents are opting them out of getting vaccinated.;“德克萨斯州现在就有5万名孩子的家长选择不接种疫苗。”Activists say thats because vaccines can cause everything from autism to severe allergies.活动人士们表示,之所以不让孩子接种疫苗,是因为疫苗会导致各种不良反应,从自闭症到严重过敏都有可能出现。And that the centers for disease control is covering up study showing harmful health effects.疾病控制中心如今都在掩盖那些会对身体产生有害影响的研究。But thats not the case.但事实却并非如此。;Occasionally there is an adverse reaction, but it is so rare, that its to be almost unmeasurable.;“确实会偶尔出现不良反应,但是这个概率特别小,几乎是不可测的。”;The most common side effects to any of the vaccines are pain at the injection site and fever for 24 to 48 hours.;“对于所有疫苗来说,最常见的副作用就是注射部位疼痛以及发烧24至48小时。”But the activists are convinced harmful ingredients are added to the vaccines.但是活动人士坚信疫苗当中都添加了有害成分。;Now its aluminum that has been added as an adjuvant.“铝佐剂被添加到疫苗当中。Add to that formaldehyde, polysorbate-80, and significant amount of human aborted fetal cell lines,还加入甲醛、聚山梨醇酯-80,并使用大量的流产胎儿细胞系、bovine cells, pig, sheep, monkey, dog, these cells are not meant to be injected into the human body.;牛细胞、猪细胞、羊细胞、猴细胞和细胞。这些细胞本不该被注入到人体当中去的。”Again, the science says otherwise.然而这一次,科学再次明并非如此。;The vaccines that the children are getting today are very much more pure and are very safe and effective.;“现在孩子们接种的疫苗都十分纯净,而且也非常安全有效。”So effective that some diseases are no longer perceived as a threat.这些疫苗当真有效,所以有一些疾病如今已经不再被视为威胁。;Currently, if you speak with any young mother or young father in Italy, where I come from,“我来自意大利,目前,你跟任何一个意大利的年轻父亲或母亲聊天都会发现,they dont know diphtheria. Theyve never seen it, they dont know that you can lose your child from diphtheria.;他们根本不知道白喉症。因为他们从来都没见过。所以他们也不知道一个人居然可以因为白喉症而痛失骨肉。”The World Health Organization has an online site to help parents find reliable information on vaccine safety.世卫组织开通了一个在线网站,帮助父母找到可靠的疫苗安全信息。The CDC does the same.而疾控中心也是这么做的。;I think that there will be a certain number of people, a certain percentage of people,“我觉得肯定还会有相当数量和比例的人群,who no matter what you say to convince them with evidence, theyre not going to be convinced,不管你如何用据来说他们,他们就是不会相信你,but I think the approach towards people who are anti-vaccinating is to respect their opinion and dont denigrate them and dont criticize them,不过在我看来,面对这些反对接种疫苗的人,我们能做的就是尊重他们的意见,不要去贬低或者批评他们,but try to explain to them on the basis of solid evidence why the risk/benefit of vaccines clearly,而要用真凭实据向他们解释明白:接种疫苗虽有利有弊,但权衡之下,clearly favors very, very heavily towards vaccinating your children.;很明显,利大于弊,父母还是应该为自己的孩子接种疫苗。”And thats why Dr. Peter Hotez urges scientists to get out of their laboratories and to talk to people about vaccines.正因如此,彼得·霍特兹士才鼓励科学家们走出实验室,跟人们去讨论有关疫苗的话题。Otherwise, he says, children the world over will unnecessary suffer and die from diseases that can be prevented by safe, effective vaccines.否则的话,他表示,世界各地的孩子都可能患上某些疾病并最终导致死亡,但我们本可以通过为他们接种安全有效的疫苗来预防这些疾病。Carol Pearson, VOA news, Washington.VOA新闻,卡洛·皮尔森于华盛顿为您播报。201706/513119。

【新闻精讲】From merely rich to Uber rich从小富到超级富- uber super- uber-wealthyMethods of managing wealth as well as consuming it are trickling down. Until recently only people called Rockefeller and Morgan could afford so-called “family offices” that manage their investments, taxes and charitable giving (and get entry into the best hedge funds). Now people with as little as m to invest can afford to do so thanks to a boom in so-called “multi-family” offices. Banks such as Citigroup have set up multi-family divisions. Even blue-blooded wealth advisers such as Rockefeller amp; Co, in Manhattan, are offering family-office services to the “merely” crowd.除了消费财富,管理财富的方法也正一点点向下渗透。以往只有那些名叫洛克菲勒和根的名门望族才有能力设立所谓“家族理财室”来管理自己的投资、税务及慈善捐赠(并涉足最优质的对冲基金)。现在,由于“多家族理财办公室”的兴起,即使只有500万美元投资资金的人们也能享用这一务。花旗集团等已设立了多家族理财部门。连曼哈顿的洛克菲勒公司(Rockefeller amp; Co)这类高贵的投资咨询公司也开始为小富人群提供家族理财务。trickle down 下移charitable adj.慈善的hedge fund 对冲基金boom n.快速发展muli- 多...division n.部门blue-blooded adj.贵族的- a woman of blue bloodThat things are getting better for more rich people does not contradict Mr Frank’s broader worry, but among the Art Basel class it is a notable shift. Once upon a time you had to be born rich to join the global elite. Then you had to make a hundred million dollars, and then the threshold rose to a billion. Now goods and services that used to be confined to a handful of tycoons are available to the millionaire or pretend-millionaire next door, thanks to the magic of the sharing economy. The super-rich may be floating off into their own country. But more people can join them, even if temporarily, than ever before.更多富人的生活质量得到提升与弗兰克更宽泛的忧虑并不矛盾,但在巴塞尔艺术展的观众人群中,这是个显著的转变。在过去,你必须出身富贵才能打入全球精英圈子。之后是你得赚上一亿美元,后来门槛又上升到十亿。然而由于分享经济的魔力,以前仅限于少数大亨专享的商品和务现在连隔壁的百万小富或装阔之人也能享用。超级富豪们也许是越来越自成一国,但史无前例地,更多的人可以加入其中,即便只是暂借的奢华。contradict v.反对notable adj.显著的shift n.转变elite n.精英threshold n.门槛- If your income rises above certain threshold, your tax rate also rises.confine v.限制tycoon n.大亨pretend v.假装temporarily adv.暂时地201703/498339。

TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想201605/441511。

On Friday, May 27th 2016, Barack Obama will become the first U.S. president to visit Hiroshima, 2016年5月27日周五,奥巴马将成为美国第一位访问广岛的总统,where an atomic bomb dropped on Aug. 6, 1945, killing thousands instantly and some 140,000 by the years end.1945年8月6日,美国在广岛投下原子弹,数千人当场死亡,另有140,000人年底前死亡。Its a gesture Washington and Tokyo hope will breathe life into fallen efforts to abolish nuclear arms. Even before it occurs, though, the visit has stirred debate.华盛顿和东京的举止希望注入活力废除使用核武器。即使在发生之前,访问已经引发争论。Critics are accusing both sides of having selective memories, and pointing out paradoxes in policies relying on nuclear weaponry while calling for an end to atomic arms.批评人士指责双方具有选择性记忆,并指出政策上依靠核武器的悖论,同时呼吁结束原子武器。The two governments hope Obamas tour of Hiroshima will highlight a new level of reconciliation between the former enemies.两国政府希望奥巴马的广岛之行将强调两个以往敌对国家和解的新水平。译文属。 /201605/446157。

You know, weve been hearing a lot about Cyber Security lately.你知道的 关于网络安全我们已经听得太多Largely because of what happened toSony.主要是因为索尼事件Companies and individuals are more concerned about公司和个人比以往任何时候the safety and privacy of their information than ever.都关注他们的信息隐私安全President Obama has unveiled a number of new proposals this week to crack down on hackers这周总统奥巴马公布了新一轮的建议怎么打倒黑客and he plans to address this in the states union speech on Tuesday.以及他计划在周二的国家联合演讲中解决这问题Its great that the government is working on this but the truth this matter is这很棒 政府正致力于这事 但事情的真相是we need to do a better job of protecting ourselves. You know,我们需要更好地保护我们自己 你知道的the most popular password in ed State is password 123美国最热门的密码是123and as long as were, as long as thats the case we are vulnerable.似乎我们 似乎表明我们很是脆弱So, today we set a camera on the Hollywood boulevard to help people那么 今儿我们来看看设置在好莱坞大道的相机怎么帮助人们by asking them to tell us their password and this is how that went.通过向他们要密码 这便是事情的具细Were talking about Cyber Security today and how safe peoples passwords are.今儿我们正在讨论网络安全以及人们的密码到底有多安全What is one of your online passwords currently?说说你最近的一个网上密码It is my dogs name and the year I graduated from high school.是我名字还有我从高中毕业的年份Oh... What kind of dog you have?Ive a 12-year old puppy. And whats his name? Jameson.噢 你养了个啥 我有一个12岁的老 那他的名字呢 詹姆森Jameson.And where did you go to school?I went to school back in Greensburg in pennsylvania.詹姆森 那你曾经在哪上学? 宾夕法尼亚的格林斯堡What school?Hempfield area senior high school. When did you graduate?In . Oh, great.啥学校? 县城高中 你啥时候毕业的? 年 噢 很好Its like my cats name and then just like random number. Ok.就像我猫的名字然后随机数字 好的As if you have this cat for a while?Yeah, she is my childhood pet.就是说有段时间你养过猫?没错 是我童年的宠物Whats her name?Her name is Joelie.她的名字? 她的名字叫乔莉Joelie. So I got password of yours would be Joelie and a number.乔莉 那我知道你的密码是乔莉以及一个数字Like number one? Uh...Like my birthday.数字1? 呃 我的生日Oh, when is your birthday?June twelfth. Oh, nice. What year you were born?-95噢 你生日是啥时候? 六月12 噢 很好 你是哪一年生的? 95年Oh, great.So, Joelie 61295. Yes. Got it.噢 棒死了 那么 joelie61295 不错 是那个So, you mean to give my password right now? No, I can not do that.那 你的意思现在得给出我的密码? 不 我不能那么做But, we all wanna know what it is.So we can tell you if its strong enough.但是 我们都想知道是啥 那样我们就能告诉你密码强度够不够Oh, my goodness. Um... Let me think. Ok, one is Tel Aviv, yeah.噢 我的天 呃 我想想 好的 一个是telaviv468 and an Israel. Its only three, but Its...486以及lsael 密码只有三 但是它You know its... For me, Its strong enough. Ireland 1234.你知道 它 对我来说 已经够强了 Ireland1234Gemma 123. Spelled: GEMMA. Well, most of them are Italian.gemma123 拼写 GEMMA 好的 他们大多数是意大利文Oh, beautiful.yeah, so like... Whats, whats a good Italian password?噢 真美 是的 就像 怎样才算是好的意大利密码?Um...My grandmas name. Whats your grandmas name?Um...Maria.呃 我奶奶的名字 你奶奶的名字是什么? 呃 玛丽亚Maria. So, Maria is your password? Oh, yeah. Now, you know my password. Haha... Yeah.玛丽亚 那么 玛丽亚是你的密码? 噢 不错 现在 你知道我的密码了 哈哈哈 没错Yeah, well, the important thing is they aly learned, they uh... a terrible lesson.是的 好吧 最重要的事情就是他们已经学到 他们 呃 上了糟糕的一课I am Jimmy Kimmel. Did you know there are things other than pronography on the Internet?我是吉米·希梅尔 想知道除了春宫外网上的其他事?Watch them on the Jimmy Kimmel live YouTube channel去吉米·希梅尔的油管频道观看which much like your own body.I encourage you to explore.像是你自己的身体 我鼓励你去探索201706/513306。

In 1258, in the very hall that defined his majesty, Westminster,1258年 就在亨利加冕的威斯敏斯特教堂里seven of the most powerful barons confronted the king.七位位高权重的男爵挑战了国王的权威Fully armed, they paused only to leave their swords outside.他们全副武装 只有卸剑的时候稍事停顿They demanded that Henry meet them at a parliament in Oxford and stop trying to turn his European dreams into reality.他们要求亨利前往牛津参与议会 并且放弃统一欧洲的梦想The barons were led, in all but name,by the most improbable revolutionary, in all of British history Simon De Montfort.实际上 男爵们的首领 发动了不列颠史上最离奇的革命 他就是西蒙·德·蒙德福特Here at Kenilworth, he presided over a little empire of culture.在凯尼尔沃思 他曾创办过 一个小小的文化帝国A French aristocrat who inherited the earldom of Leicester,这个世袭了莱斯特伯爵爵位的法国贵族Simon became convinced that he was more English than the English.坚信自己比真正的英国人更像英国人What was good for De Montfort was good for the nation.德·蒙德福特的利益就是这个国家的利益Love him or hate him,everyone knew that Simon De Montfort was a man with a mission.无论爱戴还是憎恶 人人都知道西蒙·德·蒙德福特 肩负着重大的历史使命That mission, embarked on with his fellow barons,was to bring the wayward, self-glorifying monarchy to book,这一历史使命 得到了他男爵同僚的持 就是要求任意妄为 狂妄自大的君主制to make it the servant, not the master of the realm.为民务 而不是独揽大权At Oxford, amidst wildfire rumours, a camp of soldiers,and the growling hunger of a famine,在牛津城 谣言四起 军备森严 哀鸿遍野Henry III was treated to the emasculation of his sovereignty.亨利三世不得不削弱自己的王权 /201610/470613。

And for just what exactly had Becket laid down some would say thrown away his life?而对于贝克特被杀害的原因 有人表示 算了吧 他这种人Some fantastic notion, aly out of date,that the church could lay down the law to the state?自认为教会凌驾于法律之上 这种天真的想法早就过时了All our modern instincts seem to say, Oh, come on!Look at Henry and you find reality.我们现在回头看也许会说 得了吧 看看亨利 他带来的才是现实the guardian of the common law, the engineer of government,;the smasher of anarchy.;And youd be quite wrong.《普通法》的守护者 国家的引路人 ;混乱的终结者; 那你可就大错特错Becket, headstrong, infuriating, over the top,theatrical Becket, made a huge difference.贝克特顽冥不化 令人愤怒 夸大其词 但正是他 带来了戏剧性的巨大改变His view of the church lasted.The Angevin Empire did not.他对教会的主张延续了下去 比安茹王朝更长命百岁The actual murderers got off pretty lightly,hiding out in Yorkshire, excommunicated,told to go on crusade.真正的凶手们只受到从轻发落 犯人被逐出教会 躲藏在约克郡 之后受令参加了十字军东征But the real judgement, Henry reserved for himself and the verdict was guilty as charged.但亨利将真正的审判留给了自己 并被判为有罪In 1174, he made a pilgrimage to Canterbury,where Beckets blood was said to work miracles.1174年 他前往坎特伯雷朝圣 在那儿 传说贝克特的鲜血能行奇迹Over the last miles, Henry walked barefoot in a hair shirt,as Becket had done four years earlier.距离教堂最后几英里时 亨利穿着刚毛衬衣光脚步行 就像四年前的贝克特那样At the tomb, he confessed his sins and was whipped by the monks.在贝克特的墓前 他供认了他的罪行 并接受了教士的鞭打However tough his punishment, though,the blood would never wash away.尽管他遭受了严厉的处罚 但依然无法洗刷他的血债Henry, the hero of the common law, will always be remembered as the biggest of Englands crowned criminals.The murderer in the cathedral.亨利二世 《普通法》的典范 将会永远被刻上英格兰最大国王罪犯的烙印 大教堂里的刽子手 /201609/468151。

I spent a soaking night in the chinese jungle.我在中国丛林中度过了湿漉漉的一夜The rain has eased for a moment,雨势变弱一阵子了and Im checking the traps to see if theyve caught anything.而我要检查下有没有捕到什么Ive got a rat thats squashed under this.我抓到只老鼠 压扁在这下面了Its funny, cause, actually, the more elaborate,这很搞笑 因为实际上更精确的bigger deadfall trap didnt get anything,but this really simple figure-of-four大型的陷阱 都抓不到什么 但这个非常简单的四角固定的trap that Ive used loads of times before has worked.我用过很多次的陷阱 却有收获了But Im gonna keep the rat for later.但等会儿再想老鼠的事Now the rain has stopped,I want to make some progress through this jungle whilst the goings good.现在雨已经停了 我要在丛林中前进 赶在一切都很顺利时The jungle has thinned a little now,and I can make quick progress here.现在丛林的密度已经变小一些了 我能在这里走快一些Its important to the terrain and I can make quick progress here.so you can pick up features ahead of you.通过观察地形 来了解树木非常重要 因为你可以了解前面的情况Sometimes moving through the jungle efficiently is just about finding your rhythm.有时候在丛林里有效的前进 就是寻找到你的节奏You can see loads of rainwater has collected just in the bowl of this tree.你能看到许多雨水淤积在 这棵树的树洞里It rained loads last night.昨夜下了很多雨In the jungle, where youre sweating so much and its so humid, youve got to keep drinking.在丛林里 你会流很多汗 而这里很潮湿 所以你要一直喝水The easiest way of getting this out,use a bit of bamboo.最简单的弄出它的方法是 用一些竹子And its a technique that the San Bushmen in Africa showed me.Just drink it straight up.这个技术是那些 非洲以采集狩猎为生的人教给我的 就直接喝吧You should always avoid drinking from stagnant pools,but I know this water is fresh because it rained so much last night.你要始终避免饮用死水 但我知道这水是干净的 因为昨晚的雨下得太大了201607/456853。