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贵溪市治疗痛经哪家医院最好的鹰潭人流手术妇科医院鹰潭铁路医院联系电话 Business商业报道General Motors woes通用的悲鸣What do you recall?你召回什么?GM is forced to confront its faults通用被迫面对它的错误WHEN Mary Barra took the wheel at General Motors in January she inherited a company in good shape.Mary Barra 在二月份接掌通用汽车时,公司运转态势良好。Five years after bankruptcy, its profits were exceeding expectations and its share price was rising.破产5年之后,它的利润增长超过预期,股价也在持续上升。But the new bosss to-do list was long: fixing GMs loss-making European arm, keeping up momentum in China amid signs of a slowdown and rejuvenating the product line.但是新的掌门人面临着一系列的问题:整顿欧洲分的亏损问题;在出现衰退迹象的情况下,保持中国市场的发展势头并发展生产线。Ms Barras predecessor, Dan Akerson, warned her that she would also face “curve balls”.Barra女士的前任Dan Akerson 告诫她可能也会面临“曲线球”。The first has arrived sooner than she might have expected.第一个比她预期的来得更快。What appeared to be a routine recall in mid-February of about 800,000 older models, linked to a faulty ignition switch, has turned out to be anything but.在二月中旬看似是例行召回的800000辆旧款车结果显示只是因为点火开关的缺陷。The number of cars recalled has leapt to more than 2.6m.被召回的车已经超过260万辆。The companys inept handling of a safety problem that first became apparent a decade ago is now linked to the deaths of at least 13 motorists.公司对于安全问题的笨拙处理,在十年之前首次显露。现在已经与至少13位驾驶者的死亡有关。Called before Congress on April 1st to answer for GMs failings Ms Barra said she was “deeply sorry” but insisted that the post-bankruptcy “new GM” was not like the “old GM”, which had failed to deal with the ignition switches for years.4月1号被召到国会回答通用失败的原因,Barra说她“深表遗憾”,但是她强调破产重组后的“新通用”和处理点火开关多年未果的“老通用”不同。Politicians and the public alike want to know how such a problem could have remained unaddressed for so long.政客和公众想知道为什么这样一个问题能够悬而未决这么久。Cars are becoming ever more complex machines, with thousands of mechanical and electronic parts.汽车构造越来越复杂,有着成千上万的机械以及电气构造。Recalls are not uncommon.召回并不罕见。Last year it happened to 22m vehicles in America, compared with 18m in 2012.去年美国有2200万汽车召回,而2012年召回了1800万辆。In fact, GM was one of only three brands that recalled fewer vehicles than it sold.实际上,通用曾是召回比售出少的三巨头之一。Niggling problems, like squeaks or rattles, that do not affect safety are more common still.不影响安全的类似于发出吱吱声或者为嗡嗡声的琐碎问题愈发常见。 They may be fixed at a routine service; the owner may never know.它们有可能在例行务中被处理好,汽车所有者可能永远都不会知道。The growing number of recalls is testament to an improving system for picking up faults.增加的召回数量是发现问题体系在不断完善的明。But it is very complicated.但是这个系统很复杂。Dealers must record replacements of parts under warranty.经销商必须在授权下记录置换部分。The carmaker needs to spot the trend, recognise it as a problem and then determine whether or not it is a design fault that requires wholesale replacement.汽车制造者需要发现这一趋势,认定其为一个问题,然后确认是否为需要全部替换的设计失误。It relies on accurate recording of every warranty replacement in every region, says Andrew Bergbaum of AlixPartners, a firm of consultants.咨询公司AlixPartners的Andrew Bergbaum说:它依赖于每一地区的每一个授权置换的精确记录。This system appears to have broken down at “old GM”.但是这一体系在“老通用”貌似没能施行。Ms Barra needs to find out why.Barra需要找出其原因。At the heart of the matter is a widely used ignition switch that has a tendency to slip from the “on” position to “off” if a driver uses a heavy keychain or bounces down a rough road.问题的核心是:广泛使用的点火开关在驾驶者使用重钥匙串或者在崎岖路上颠簸时有从“开”滑落到“关”的趋向。A modification was made in 2008 to prevent the problem, which can lead to the engine shutting off, disabling the airbags.一个装置在2008年被设计出来解决这一问题,但是它可能导致引擎熄火和安全气囊的失效。But despite a growing list of crashes and deaths, GM failed to order a recall for a component that would have cost a few dollars at most.尽管有着上升的撞车及死亡记录,但是通用并没有进行召回,虽然这些召回最多只是花一点钱。This is odd.这很奇怪。Most carmakers want to identify and fix problems speedily despite having to bear the cost of buying and fitting a new component.大多数汽车制造者希望及时发现并处理问题,尽管会付购买以及安装新元件的费用。A small part can do great harm, if bad publicity leads to reputational corrosion, lost sales and litigation, which in America can include hefty punitive damages.千里之堤溃于蚁穴,如果坏的消息传开导致名誉受损、销量下降以及被起诉,这在美国预示着高额惩罚性赔偿。Appearing to put profits before safety is also liable to batter a firms shares, as GM has discovered.通用实了,表现得重利益甚于重视安全也会引起公司股票的大跌。So far Ms Barra has handled the situation well.Barra到目前为止将这个局面处理得很好。She seems to have acted as soon as she found out something was awry.她似乎在一发现事情不对,就立即采取行动。And she has borrowed strategies from Toyota, which was forced into recalling more than 10m vehicles in and 2010 after worrying instances of “unintended acceleration”.她借鉴了丰田公司的策略。丰田在担心“突然加速”的例子,在年和2010年先后召回了1000万辆汽车。Akio Toyoda, Toyotas boss, also appeared before Congress, contrite and apologetic.丰田公司掌门人Akio Toyoda也在国会现身,赔礼道歉。GM, like Toyota, has appointed a worldwide safety tsar to cut through the bureaucracy that may have delayed action on the faulty switch.通用和丰田一样,任命了一个全球性的安全特使来整饬可能导致拖延问题开关处理的官僚作风。And in a frenzy of housecleaning, GM has recalled another 2m vehicles in America alone.在一场狂风骤雨般的清理中,通用单单在美国就另外召回了200万辆车。GM looks set to accept moral, if not legal, responsibility.如果不是法律要求的,通用似乎也会接受道德责任。The terms of its exit from bankruptcy give immunity to lawsuits for injuries arising beforehand.通用退出破产的条件赋予其豁免于之前伤害诉讼的权利。But GM is likely to compensate survivors and victims families anyway.但是通用不管怎样,可能赔偿幸存者以及遇难者家属。Toyota had a terrible year after its big recalls, battered by mounting costs and falling sales.丰田在它的大召回后经历了困难的一年,深陷于大量的费用以及减少的销量之中。But it has since regained the lost ground.但是它已经重新夺回失去的市场。It is not yet clear how much of a hammering GM will take.通用会经受怎样的打击现在还不清楚。But hours before Ms Barras meeting with Congress, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety issued a coveted “Top Safety Pick” endorsement for the new Chevrolet Malibu, one of a growing number of well-received cars from GM.但是在Barra出席国会之前,高速公路安全保险机构颁发了一个令人垂涎的“最高安全评价”的认给了通用销量大涨、广受欢迎的雪佛兰迈锐宝。That suggests it is at least on the road to redemption.这表明通用至少在救赎的路上。 /201404/285978余江县不孕不育多少钱

余江县治疗子宫内膜炎多少钱月湖区人民中医院引产多少钱 Science and technology科学技术Animal cognition动物的认知Mans best friend人类的挚友Can dogs really show empathy towards humans?真的能感受人类的情绪吗?I feel your pain.我能体会你的痛楚DOGS quickly become part of the family.很快成了人类家庭中的一员,Tales abound of dogs celebrating joy in a household or commiserating when tragedy strikes.它们庆祝家庭喜事,怜悯悲剧的发生,这种故事屡见不鲜。This may not seem surprising after 15,000 years of co-evolution.在人类与共同进化了一万五千年之后,这点或许并不稀奇。But what hard evidence is there of dogs empathy with humans?但有没有确凿的据能够明能体会人类的感受呢?A new experiment suggests that behind all the waggy tails there really is something deeper going on.最近一项新的实验表明,背后的确隐藏着更深的含义。Past experiments have hinted that animals can feel sympathy.以往的一些实验已经间接地表明动物们也具有同情心。Rats and monkeys had been found to forgo food to avoid delivering electric shocks to relatives.科学家发现,老鼠和猴子会放弃食物,以防自己受到电击而危害同伴。Similarly, apes have recently been documented consoling one another after conflicts.类似的还有大猩猩,它们会在发生争斗后彼此安慰。However, all these experiments and observations were demonstrating an animals sensitivity to distress in other members of the same species.然而这些实验和观察都只能明同物种的动物相互之间拥有感受痛楚的能力。Deborah Custance and Jennifer Mayer of Goldsmiths College, London,伦敦金史密斯大学的黛拉·科斯坦斯与詹妮弗·梅耶正在着手研究,set out to see if dogs could detect the emotional state of humans.看它们能否察觉人类的情绪状态。To do this, Dr Custance and Ms Mayer conducted an experiment to study the response of dogs when a nearby human suddenly began to cry.为了研究这个问题,科斯坦斯士与梅耶女士进行了一项试验。The researchers knew that interpreting responses would be difficult,他们将安排在一个人身边,观察在此人突然开始哭泣时的反应。他们深知想要解读的反应是十分困难的,since dogs tend to whine, nuzzle, lick, lay their heads in laps and fetch toys for people in distress.因为在这种条件下经常会发出呜呜声,把鼻子贴在人的大腿上并蹭蹭舔舔,还会在人类悲伤时叼来玩具哄人开心。Although such actions hint at a dog wishing to offer comfort, they could also be signs of curiosity, or suggest that a dog is simply distressed by seeing its master upset.尽管这样的行为暗示着它们想要给主人提供安慰,但同时也可能仅仅代表了它们的好奇心,又或者它们只是看到主人懊恼感到忧虑罢了。To work round this, the researchers presented 18 dogs of various breeds with four separate 20-second conditions.为了能够正确解读的反应,研究者在实验中采用了18条不同品种的并将它们分别置于时长均为20秒的四种不同的情境中,They included their owner crying, a stranger crying and both taking it in turns to hum Mary had a little lamb.分别为主人在一旁哭泣、陌生人在一旁哭泣、主人与陌生人轮流对哼唱玛丽有只小羊羔。All four of these conditions were preceded by two minutes of mundane conversation between Ms Mayer, who filled the role of the stranger, and the dogs owner.在每种情境开始前,梅耶女士都会充当陌生人的角色与的主人进行时长两分钟的常规交谈。Dr Custance and Ms Mayer suspected that if exposure to crying led dogs to feel distress, then regardless of who was crying, the dog would go to their master to seek comfort.科斯坦斯士与梅耶女士猜想如果看到人类哭泣会感到悲伤的话,无论是其主人还是陌生人,都会去主人那里寻求安慰。They also theorised that if curiosity, rather than empathy, was the driving force, then the humming would cause dogs to engage with people.他们还建立了一个理论,如果使接近人类的是它们好奇心而非感情上的共鸣,那么哼唱小曲同样会使跟人类进行互动。As they report in Animal Cognition, person-oriented behaviour did sometimes take place when either the stranger or the owner hummed,正如他们在动物的认知中描述的一样,不管是陌生人还是的主人哼唱小曲儿,有时候的确会对人类的这些活动作出一定回应,but it was more than twice as likely to occur if someone was crying.但哭泣的人吸引到注意的概率比唱歌的人要高出两倍以上。This indicated that dogs were differentiating between odd behaviour and crying.这表明能区分哭泣与其他一些奇怪的行为。And of the 15 dogs in the experiment that showed person-oriented responses when the stranger cried,在此次实验中有15条在看到陌生人哭泣时表现出了同情人类的行为,all of them directed their attention towards the stranger rather than their owner.这些都把注意力转向了哭泣的陌生人而非它们的主人。These discoveries suggest that dogs do have the ability to express empathetic concern.这些发现表明的确有表达关心的能力。But although the results are clear enough, Dr Custance argues that more work needs to be done to be sure that such behaviour is true empathy.科斯坦斯士说,尽管结论已经十分明确,我们仍需要更多做工来确定它们的行为是否真的因为它们能体会人类的感受。It is possible, she points out, that the dogs were drawing on previous experiences in which they were rewarded for approaching distressed human companions.她指出,可能是出于以往获得的经验即靠近它们的人类同伴能获得奖励进而表现出这种行为。Dog-owners, however, are unlikely to need any more convincing.而对于能通人性这一点主人已经十分清楚了。 /201307/249548鹰潭人流比较好的妇科医院

江西鹰潭市治疗妇科多少钱 Business商业报道Schumpeter熊彼特Montessori management蒙特梭利管理The backlash against running firms like progressive schools has begun反对公司管理像学校改革的运动已经开始THE INTERNSHIP, a film about two middle-aged no-hopers who land work experience at Google, is a dire offering even by the standards of Hollywood summer comedies.《挨踢实习生》是一部关于两个有工作经验没有希望转正的中年人在谷歌的故事,即使是按好莱坞夏天喜剧的标准,这也是一部顶级作品。But it does get one thing right: that it is rather absurd for a technology firm to provide slides for staff to play on, and to let them wear silly propeller-hats.但有一件事情是对的:一家科技公司为员工提供幻灯片演讲是相当荒谬的,而且让他们戴上傻螺旋桨一样的帽子。Google is not alone in its juvenile tastes.在对青年人的口味上谷歌不是唯一一家。Box, a Silicon Valley company, has installed swings in its headquarters.硅谷的Box公司在其总部安装秋千。Red Bull, an energy-drinks firm, has a reception desk in the shape of a giant skateboard in its London office.能量饮料公司红牛在其伦敦办公室内有一个巨大的滑板样的接待桌。Businesses of all types have moved towards sitting workers in groups in open-plan rooms, just like at nursery school.各类企业都在逐渐为员工提供开放式办公室,就像托儿所。Time was when firms modelled themselves on the armed forces, with officers and chains of command.企业在模仿军队的指挥官和指挥链。Now many model themselves on learning-through-play Montessori schools.现在有很多通过在实践中学习蒙台梭利学校的模式。Montessori management has plenty of supporters in the higher reaches of business.蒙台梭利的管理拥有很多公司高层的持。The bosses of Google, Amazon and Wikipedia were all educated in Montessori schools.谷歌,亚马逊和维基百科的老板都在蒙特梭利学校接受过教育。So was Will Wright, a -game pioneer.视频游戏先锋威尔·赖特也是这样。Messrs Page and Brin credit their Montessori education with their enthusiasm for thinking differently.佩奇和布林把他们对不同思维方式的热情归于他们在蒙台梭利接受的教育。Mr Bezos thanks it for his enthusiasm for experimentation—for planting seeds and going down blind alleys as he puts it.Bezos先生感谢蒙台梭利是因为他对实验的热情,正如他所说的播种和减少弯路。Mr Wright says SimCity comes right out of Montessori.赖特先生说模拟城市正是出自蒙特梭利。The nostrums of some management gurus sound remarkably like those of the progressive educationalists of the 1960s.一些管理大师的秘方听起来非常像那些20世纪60年代的教育改革者。For example Gary Hamel, of London Business School, and Jeffrey Pfeffer, of Stanford Business School, praise companies that dismantle hierarchies and encourage experimentation.例如伦敦商学院的加里·哈默尔和斯坦福大学商学院的杰弗里·普费弗,称赞公司消除等级和鼓励试验。It is not just rich-world businesses that are buying into this philosophy:不只是富有的世界级企业相信这一理念:HCL Technologies, an Indian software company, invites workers to write assessments of their bosses—and publishes them.印度软件公司HCL邀请工人对老板进行评价并进行公开。But it would be wrong to conclude that the success of Google and Amazon vindicates Montessori management.但是仅用谷歌和亚马逊的成功就持蒙特梭利管理的推断或许是错误的。Both companies have pragmatically mixed progressive ideas with more traditional ones such as encouraging internal competition and measuring performance.这两家公司都追求实用主义,混合了务实进取的理念,如传统的鼓励内部竞争和绩效量化。Mr Bezos is also an enthusiastic employer of ex-military personnel.贝索斯先生也是一位喜欢雇佣前军事人员的雇主。As in education, where traditionalists have staged a counter-revolution against the progressives, some academics are now questioning Montessori managements basic assumptions—particularly its faith in free-flowing creativity, endless collaboration and all things open-plan.在教育界,保守者上演了一场反改革的运动,现在一些学者质疑蒙特梭利管理的基本假设,特别是其对自由流动的创造力,无限的协作和完全开放的信念。For example, Morten Hansen of the University of California, Berkeley studied 182 teams who were trying to win a contract on behalf of a professional-services firm.例如,加州大学伯克利分校的莫滕·汉森研究了试图赢得代表一个专业务公司的合同的182个团队。He found that the more time they spent consulting others, the less likely they were to win a deal.他发现,他们越是花更多的时间咨询别人就越不太可能赢得这笔交易。This shows, he says, that collaboration has costs as well as benefits.他说这说明合作有效益也有成本。These need to be weighed against each other, instead of simply assuming that the more teamwork the better.这些都需要对各方面进行权衡,而不是简单地假设团队合作越多结果就越好。Mark de Rond, a Cambridge academic who once rowed for the university, argues that the most successful teams are marked by internal competition and clashing egos as well as Kum Bay Yah-style togetherness.曾为剑桥大学赛艇的学者马克·德·ROND认为最成功的球队是存住内部竞争和冲突以及自我风格的统一性。A focus on interpersonal harmony can actually hurt team performance, he suggests.他说把重点放在人际和谐上会对球队的表现不利。Jake Breeden, a management thinker at Duke Corporate Education, worries that too much reliance on teamwork can create a culture of learned helplessness in which managers are terrified to take decisions without yet another round of consultations.杜克大学企业教育管理思想家杰克·布里登担心在管理者害怕在征求他人意见之前做出决定的团队里过于依赖团队合作会创造一种后天性无助的文化。Excessive collaboration can lead to the very opposite of creativity:过多的合作可能会走向创造力的反面:groupthink, conformity and mediocrity.群体思维,整合和平庸。It is especially damaging at the top of an organisation. BlackBerry, a smartphone-maker, believed that having two CEOs with complementary skills would produce the best of both worlds:这对组织的顶部害处特别大。智能手机制造商黑莓相信两位具有互补技能的CEOs 会有最好的产出:Jim Balsillie was a professional manager and Mike Lazaridis was a technician.吉姆·贝尔斯利是一名职业经理人,迈克·拉扎里迪斯是技术员。The company soon discovered the truth of Napoleons dictum that one bad general is worth two good ones.该公司很快就发现了拿破仑的名言:一个不好的将军好于两个好将军的真理。According to one survey around 70% of all offices in America have gone open-plan.据一项调查显示,美国约70%的办公室已经是开放式的。Yet evidence is mounting that this is a bad idea.然而越来越多的据显示这是一个坏主意。Over the past five years Gensler, a design firm, has asked more than 90,000 people in 155 companies in ten industries what they think of this way of working.设计公司 Gensler,在过去的五年里调查十大行业155家公司的90,000人怎么评价这种工作方式。It has found an astonishing amount of antipathy.发现绝大多数人对此反感。Workers say that open-plan offices make it more difficult to concentrate, because the hubbub of human and electronic noise is so distracting.他们说开放式办公室使他们更难以集中精神,因为其他人的喧闹和电子噪音是如此令人分心。What they really value is the ability to focus on their jobs with as few distractions as possible.他们看重的是尽可能少分心把注意力放在工作上。Ironically, going open-plan defeats another of Montessori managements main objectives:具有讽刺意味的是,开放式的方式击败了另一个对蒙特梭利管理的主要目标:workers say it prevents them from collaborating, because they cannot talk without disturbing others or inviting an audience.工作人员说这会阻碍他们合作,因为他们不邀请别人或者想不打扰别人时就没法进行讨论。Other studies show that people who work in open-plan offices are more likely to suffer from high blood pressure, stress and airborne infections such as flu.其他研究表明,在开放式办公室工作的人更容易患高血压,压力更大大,更易被传染,如流感。Time for some discipline—and separate offices是时候进行惩罚了-和单独的办公室It was the unthinking and indiscriminate application of child-centred education techniques, with little attention paid to outcomes, that eventually brought about a backlash.以儿童为中心的教育技术没头没脑的和不分青红皂白的应用,而且很少重视结果,最终带来了反弹。The more thoughtful critics did not wish to turn the clock back entirely and return to rote learning and tyrannical teachers; they simply said that structure and order have their place too.深思熟虑的批评不希望时光完全倒流到死记硬背和教师强横的时代,他们只是说结构和顺序也有自己的位置。The same seems to be happening now in business.现在在商业领域似乎也有同样的情况。Mr Breeden argues, sensibly, that managers should treat collaboration and creativity as techniques rather than dogmas.布里登辩解说,很明显管理者应该把协作和创造力当做技巧而非教条。Diane Hoskins of Gensler speculates that her companys findings about open-plan offices are so striking that they may mark the beginning of a new era in workplace organisation.公司Gensler的黛安·霍斯金斯推测,她们公司的开放办公室表现是如此引人注目,标志着办公室组织方式的一个新时代。When workers start being moved back into separate booths, and the office slide is replaced with a noticeboard bearing a list of staff instructions, you will know that the counter-revolution is well under way.当工人开始被搬回到单独的办公间,办公室不知不觉替换的一个列着员工说明的布告板,你就会知道,反改革的工作正在顺利进行。 /201309/257659信江新区人流手术多少钱鹰潭贵溪市打胎多少钱



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