天涯部落

小圈子,大声音!呼朋引伴网聚部落!

创建新部落?

解放军184医院在线咨询丽养生

楼主:互动微微 时间:2017年10月19日 04:02:12 点击:0 回复:0
脱水模式给他打赏只看楼主阅读设置
She was a genius before she was a refrigerator magnet, an ace manipulator of society and media nearly a century before social media came into existence. Born in 1907, dead at 47, Frida Kahlo achieved celebrity even in her brief lifetime that extended far beyond Mexico’s borders, although nothing like the cult status that would eventually make her the mother of the selfie, her indelible image recognizable everywhere.早在社交媒体出现之前,她就已经是操纵社会与媒体的高手,有她肖像的冰箱磁贴走进千家万户,但她首先是一位艺术天才。弗里达·卡罗(Frida Kahlo)生于1907年,去世时年仅47岁,在短短一生中,她的名气越过了墨西哥边境,虽然真实的她和那个受到小众崇拜、最后令她成为自拍之母的身份并无相似之处,但她那不可磨灭的肖像却无处不在。Yet, despite the many biographies, documentaries and biopics, there remains much to learn about this often misunderstood artist, a sexual pragmatist who conducted affairs with both men and women, a proto-feminist who invested her art with an autobiography filled with struggle and pain. She was also an ardent Communist who sometimes fudged her date of birth to align with the start of the Mexican Revolution, and an irresistibly magnetic seducer, especially whenever a camera was around.尽管有许多传记、纪录片和传记体电影讲述她的故事,这位经常遭人误解的艺术家身上仍然有许多东西值得去了解,她在性上是一个实用主义者,同男人和女人都有风流韵事;她是女性主义者的先驱,她的艺术和自传中充满挣扎和痛苦。她还是坚定的共产主义者,有时会就自己的出生日期撒谎,好同墨西哥革命的起源攀上关系。此外她还是极具魅力的诱惑者,特别是有镜头对准她的时候。In a welcome though unexpected convergence, an array of new books and exhibitions about Kahlo have suddenly appeared this spring, adding insight and depth to our understanding of a woman who would seem among the most overexposed artistic figures of all time.今年春天,一大堆关于卡罗的新书和展览突然冒了出来,令人欣喜而又颇为意外,这些书籍和展览有助于我们更深入地了解这个女人,这个艺术史上遭到曝光最多的艺术人物之一。While it seems clear that artists like Tracey Emin have fallen under the influence of her audacious self-disclosures; that designers — like Riccardo Tisci of Givenchy and Jean Paul Gaultier — have drawn inspiration from her style; and that entertainers like Lady Gaga and Beyoncé shrewdly adapted the lessons pioneered by a publicity-friendly solipsist who anticipated the Instagram era by many decades, Kahlo remains in some ways an enigma.翠西·艾敏(Tracey Emin)这类艺术家都深受她的影响,尤其是大胆自我暴露的这一面;让·保罗·高缇耶(Jean Paul Gaultier)和纪梵希的里卡多·堤西(Riccardo Tisci)等设计师从她的风格中汲取灵感;Lady Gaga和碧昂斯(Beyoncé)之类的艺人聪明地沿着她在Instagram出现几十年前便已开创的道路,塑造出对公众友好的唯我主义者形象……然而,卡罗在某些方面仍然是一个谜。In “Mirror, Mirror,” a portrait-survey that opens this month at Throckmorton Fine Art in Manhattan, Kahlo is revealed to have been an image wizard as canny as her spiritual descendant, Madonna.《镜子,镜子》(Mirror Mirror)肖像展将于本月在曼哈顿的斯洛克莫顿美术馆开幕,将卡罗呈现为一个塑造形象的魔法师,同她的精神后裔麦当娜(Madonna)一样狡黠多变。“Frida did not miss an opportunity to be photographed by anyone and everyone,” said Norberto Rivera, the photography director at the gallery. “She created this image to hide the pain,” he added, referring to the lifelong aftereffects of severe injuries Kahlo suffered in a streetcar accident when she was 18. Through self-portraits that unsparingly depict her physical travails and that make frank allusion to a tumultuous emotional life, Kahlo inadvertently vaulted herself into that strange constellation of bright-burning, ill-fated stars, alongside James Dean and Marilyn Monroe.“弗里达不放过任何让人给她拍照的机会,”美术馆的摄影部主任诺波托·里维拉(Norberto Rivera)说,“她籍着塑造这样的形象来掩藏痛苦。”18岁那年,卡罗因街车事故导致重伤,此后终生受其后遗症影响。她在自画像中毫无保留地描绘身体上的痛苦,坦率地暗示充满动荡的情感生活,漫不经心地令自己上升到那个由炽烈燃烧、命运多舛的星辰组成的奇异星座,其中包括詹姆斯·迪恩(James Dean)和玛丽莲·梦露(Marilyn Monroe)等人。So extensive is Frida Kahlo’s fame it’s difficult now to credit the fact that, at an auction of Latin American art held by Sotheby’s in May 1985, a painting depicting the artist as a hunted deer pierced by arrows, which was offered as the star lot, failed to sell. A decade later, another Kahlo painting was featured on a cover of a Sotheby’s catalog. This portrait, of the artist with a parrot and a monkey, was hammered down quickly for more than million, at the time a worldwide record for a Latin American artist. Five years later, a 1929 Kahlo self-portrait sold to an Argentine collector for .1 million.弗里达·卡罗的名气太广,1985年5月,在苏富比的一场拉丁美洲艺术拍卖会上,她的一幅自画像被作为明星拍品,图中她把自己描绘为全身中箭的鹿,但这幅画最终没有拍出去,现在想来实在不可思议。十年后,另一幅卡罗的自画像出现在苏富比的拍卖目录封面上。画中她身边有鹦鹉和猴子,这幅画很快以300多万美元的价格拍出,在当时创下了拉丁美洲艺术家的世界纪录。五年后,卡罗1929年的一幅自画像被一位阿根廷收藏家以510万美元买下。In under two decades, aided by a well-regarded biography and a soapy biopic, Kahlo had undergone transformation from a compelling cult figure to a universally recognized symbol of artistic triumph and feminist struggle. Somehow along the way she also became a centerpiece of a kitsch marketing bonanza. The “Fridamania” that elevated Kahlo to near-mythic dimensions also transformed her — brooding gaze, elaborate Tehuana coiffures, signature mono-brow — into an image emblazoned on sneakers, T-shirts, tote bags, coasters, cosmetics, even tequila and beer.20年来,由于一本备受好评的传记,以及一部肥皂剧式的传记电影,卡罗从一个迷人的小众形象变成了受到普遍认可的符号,象征着艺术的胜利与女性主义的斗争。在这个过程中,她也为刻奇的大众市场提供了丰盛的资源。这股“弗里达狂热”(Fridamania)将卡罗提升到一个接近神话的地步,她的形象——沉思般的目光、精心梳起的特旺纳发型、标志性的一字眉——出现在帆布鞋、T恤衫、手提包、杯垫、装饰品上,甚至是龙舌兰酒和啤酒商标上。“I remember buying as a gift Frida Kahlo Converse sneakers at 10 Corso Como,” said Robert Burke, a luxury consultant, referring to the high-end Milanese retailer. “Though that was fun and good, there’s only a certain amount of times an image can be used before it starts to fatigue and degrade.”“我记得在10 Corso Como买过一双弗里达·卡罗的匡威帆布鞋送人,”奢侈品顾问罗伯特·伯克(Robert Burke)说,10 Corso Como是米兰一家高端精品店。“尽管它很有趣,很漂亮,但是使用任何一种形象都是有特定时限的,之后它就会渐渐疲软、掉价。”Yet counter to Mr. Burke’s assertion, Frida Kahlo suddenly seems anything but exhausted as a subject.然而和伯克的看法正相反,弗里达·卡罗突然再度走红,根本没有出现令人产生审美疲劳的迹象。“Fridamania shows no signs of relenting,” said Graham W. J. Beal, the director of the Detroit Institute of Arts and curator of “Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo in Detroit,” which shrewdly examines Rivera and Kahlo’s pivotal though largely forgotten sojourn in the Motor City, where Rivera had been commissioned to paint the labor mural “Detroit Industry.” At the NSU Art Museum Fort Lauderdale in Florida, “Kahlo, Rivera and Mexican Modern Art” revisits the relationship between these protean artists, locating them equally and squarely at the center of Mexican modernism.“弗里达狂热完全没有平息下去的迹象,”格雷厄姆·W·J·比尔(Graham W. J. Beal)说,他是底特律艺术学院的院长,策展了“迭戈·里维拉与弗里达·卡罗在底特律”(Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo in Detroit)。当年里维拉曾接受任务,在这座汽车城创作关于劳工的壁画《底特律工业》(Detroit Industry),他与卡罗在底特律居留的这段时间非常重要,但却往往被人们忽略,此次的展览极具眼光地回顾了那个时期。此外,在佛罗里达的劳德代尔堡NSU艺术馆,“卡罗、里维拉与墨西哥现代艺术”展览回顾了这些变化多端的艺术家们之间的关系,公正平等地将他们置于墨西哥现代主义的中心。Fine catalogs accompanying each exhibition add to an ever-expanding Kahlo library, and yet in certain ways it is the newly published “Frida Kahlo: The Gisèle Freund Photographs,” that offers the most intimate insights into her life and working process. Its 100 rare images document a friendship that the Magnum photographer conducted with the couple in the last years before Kahlo’s death; both Kahlo and Rivera shine forth from these domestic images.两个展览都有精美的展品目录,为持续扩大的与卡罗相关书籍增添了新的成员。另外,新出版的《弗里达·卡罗:吉塞勒·弗洛因德摄影作品》(Frida Kahlo: The Gisèle Freund Photographs)是对她的生活与工作极为亲密的观察,内含100幅罕见的照片,记录了弗洛因德这位玛格南摄影师在卡罗去世前几年与这对夫妻结下的友情,卡罗与里维拉在这些家庭照上显得熠熠生辉。Complementing the revelations of the Freund book is “Frida Kahlo: Art, Garden, Life,” opening May 16 at the New York Botanical Garden. For this surprising exhibition, the Tony Award-winning stage designer Scott Pask traveled to Mexico City to immerse himself in the world of Kahlo and Rivera, returning to recreate in the leafy Bronx the grounds of their home, La Casa Azul.“弗里达·卡罗:艺术、花园、生活”展览为弗洛因德的书提供了极好的补充,它将于5月16日在纽约植物园开幕。 托尼奖得主,舞台设计师斯科特·帕斯克为布展特意去了墨西哥城,将自己浸淫在卡罗与里维拉的世界之中,回来便在林木茂密的纽约布朗克斯复现了他们的居所“蓝房子”(La Casa Azul),令展览更加引人入胜。A singular dwelling built by Kahlo’s father in what were then the outskirts of Mexico City, Casa Azul became the anchor of Kahlo’s and Rivera’s married lives. They filled it with their astounding collections of ex votos, folk art and important Mesoamerican sculpture, and also with fellow Communist Party members, varied lovers, artist friends and a menagerie including parrots, monkeys and a pack of hairless dogs called xoloitzcuintli.蓝房子是卡罗的父亲建造的一座独栋房屋,位于墨西哥城郊外,卡罗与里维拉婚后主要住在那里。房子里布满两人惊人的藏品,包括许愿物、民间艺术和重要的中美洲雕塑。他们的共产党同志、换来换去的情人、艺术家朋友们也常常住在那里,两人还养了一大堆动物,诸如鹦鹉、猴子以及一大群墨西哥无毛犬。“There are a lot of people that have Frida refrigerator magnets that have never seen a Frida painting,” Mr. Pask said. “When you see the house and the beautiful emotive space of the garden, you understand that the art, the love and the life are so intertwined.”“很多人都有弗里达的冰箱贴,但他们从没看过弗里达的画,”帕斯克说。“当你看到那栋房子,以及它那充满美妙情感的花园,你会理解她的艺术、生活与爱交织在一起,密不可分。”His rendition of a volcanic stone pyramid Rivera constructed in the garden to display his collection of pre-Columbian artifacts is Mr. Pask’s most theatrical gesture. But his more subtle accomplishment may be the evocation of “this atmosphere Frida surrounded herself with, incorporating the botanical influence of the markets of Mexico, her gardens, the fruits and plants and animals she lived with into the prism of her work.”里维拉在那座花园里用一块金字塔状的火山岩展示哥伦布发现美洲之前的美洲艺术品,帕斯克对之进行了复现,堪称最为戏剧化的手法。但帕斯克最为美妙的成就还要算是重新营造出了“弗里达在自己身边创造出的氛围,结合了墨西哥市场上的植物,她身边的花园、果实、植物与动物都被反映在她的作品之中”。The results are so singular it is little wonder Kahlo remains a figure of fascination.她的作品如此奇异,没有人会怀疑,她仍然是个极度迷人的人物。“Clearly, she has become this major icon,” said Bonnie Clearwater, the director of the NSU Art Museum Fort Lauderdale.“显然,她后来成了大众偶像,” 劳德代尔堡NSU艺术馆馆长邦尼·克莱尔沃特(Bonnie Clearwater)说。Her point is underscored by the strangely compelling 2013 book by the Japanese photographer Miyako Ishiuchi documenting Kahlo’s wardrobe and belongings, images of which later found their way into the hip Berlin glossy O32c. (A fetishistic regard for objects that touched Kahlo’s body is not unique to Ms. Ishiuchi; on loan to the Throckmorton Fine Art show will be one of the orthopedic corsets illness required Kahlo to wear, “authenticated” in the manner of saintly relics and decorated with a hammer and sickle by her.)2013年,日本摄影师石内都的影集进一步明了她的说法,这部影集拍摄的都是卡罗的衣物和其他物品,其中的照片后来还曾在柏林时尚的铜版纸杂志《O32c》上刊出。不是只有石内都一人对卡罗的贴身物品怀有恋物癖式的喜爱,斯洛克莫顿美术馆的展览中也有一件卡罗因病才穿在身上的整形胸衣,像圣人遗物一样“被鉴定为真品”,她还用锤子和镰刀装饰它。Unlike Che Guevara, who when he became a T-shirt and a poster was scarcely identifiable as “the leader of the Cuban revolution,” wrote Gérard de Cortanze, Kahlo’s French biographer, in an email, “Frida Kahlo remains Frida Kahlo.” If his gnomic remark is not supportable in any real biographical sense, there is little doubt Kahlo continues to exist as a potent figure of myth.卡罗的法语传记作者雷哈尔·德·科尔坦兹(Gérard de Cortanze)在接受电子邮件采访时写道,切·格瓦拉(Che Guevara)的头像刚一开始出现在T恤衫和海报上,马上就被人们等同为“古巴革命的领袖”,但是和他不同,“弗里达·卡罗就是弗里达·卡罗”。这句箴言般的或许无法在真实的传记中得到体现,但毫无疑问,卡罗仍然是一个极具说力的神秘人物。“I’m constantly fascinated by the numbers of teenagers who buy my books about Frida,” Mr. de Cortanze wrote, referring to “The Lovers of Coyoacán,” a novel fictionalizing Kahlo’s brief though torrid affair with Leon Trotsky. “It’s not the creator of the Red Army that interests young ers. It’s what Frida thinks and lives, how she drinks, makes love, cooks for friends, swears like a trooper.”“有很多十几岁的孩子会买我那些关于弗里达的书籍,这常常令我感到惊讶,”德·科尔坦兹写道,他指的是自己的小说《科约阿坎恋人》(The Lovers of Coyoacán),这本书用小说的方式叙述了卡罗与列夫·托洛茨基(Leon Trotsky)短暂而激烈的恋情。“吸引年轻读者的不是苏联红军的创始人,而是弗里达的思考与生活、她怎样喝酒、做爱、给朋友们做饭,像士兵一样咒骂。”For those ers, he said, Kahlo is “a sister, a friend, a woman ceaselessly in search of her autonomy.”他说,对于这些年轻读者们来说,卡罗就像“一个姊姊、一个朋友、以及一个不懈追求自由的女人”。In the telling of Ms. Clearwater, the artist Julian Schnabel not long ago traveled to Fort Lauderdale to dedicate a painting, a gift he made to the institution.克莱尔沃特说,艺术家朱利安·施纳贝尔(Julian Schnabel)不久前曾经来到劳德代尔堡艺术馆捐献了一幅油画,这是他特意为该馆创作的礼物。“All Julian kept saying was he couldn’t wait to see the Kahlo,” Ms. Clearwater said. “Who in the world would have thought very macho Julian Schnabel had been influenced by her?”“朱利安一直说,他简直等不及要看卡罗的展览,”克莱尔沃特说。“谁能想到那么大男子气的朱利安·施纳贝尔也受她的影响呢?”Yet, as it happens, the Brooklyn-born Mr. Schnabel also spent part of his youth in Brownsville, Tex.; from there in the ’60s he made a pilgrimage to Mexico City to visit the Museo Frida Kahlo, located inside her birthplace at La Casa Azul.是的,出生在布鲁克林的施纳贝尔年轻时曾在得克萨斯州的布朗斯维尔住过;60年代的时候,他曾经从那里出发到墨西哥朝圣,参观设立在蓝房子里的弗里达·卡罗物馆,卡罗就是在那栋房子里出生的。“He told me he was blown away by the emotional side” of Kahlo’s work, by her ability to transmit emotion through her work, Ms. Clearwater said.克莱尔沃特说,“他告诉我,(卡罗的作品中)情感的一面”,乃至她通过作品表达情感的方式都令他感到震撼。“If Julian had not said this to me, I would never have thought of him in those terms,” she added. “And yet, when you look at paintings like ‘Untitled (Goodbye Mike Kelley),’ you understand them as prayers to those you love and those who died.”“如果朱利安不说,我从来不会站在这些角度上去想他,”克莱尔沃特补充道。“不过,看到《无名lt;告别迈克·凯利gt;》(Untitled [Goodbye Mike Kelley])这样的作品,你就会明白,它们是为所爱之人乃至去世的人们献上的祈祷。”Like many of Kahlo’s spiritual descendants — who record the minutiae of their lives on social media in existential gestures that are, as much as anything, about the fact of their own occurrence — the artist was intent on leaving marks that testified to her existence.卡罗的众多精神后裔们常常在社交媒体上以存在主义的姿态记载生活中的细枝末节,写下自己生活中的种种事件,卡罗本人也热衷于为自己的存在留下种种痕迹。“This continues to hit a nerve with people,” Ms. Clearwater explained. “The paintings are Kahlo’s way of saying: ‘This is how I thought. This is what I lived. Remember me.’ ”“这些痕迹一直都能触动人们的心弦,”克莱尔沃特说。“那些油画就像是卡罗在说:‘这就是我的想法,这就是我的生活,记住我吧。’” /201505/374902Over 60 years have passed since Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay made history as the first successful summiteers of Mount Everest, yet the desire to climb the mountain hasn#39;t waned over the decades. We hear countless stories of the triumphant—or, more recently, tragic—attempts to reach the top. But many interesting facts about the mountain aren#39;t common knowledge.距离埃德蒙·希拉里爵士(Sir Edmund Hillary)和丹增·诺尔盖(Tenzing Norgay)首次登顶珠穆朗玛峰已有60余年,但人们的登峰却并未在这漫长的时间长河中消失殆尽。我们经常听到有人成功登顶,以及一些不幸失败的故事(尤其是最近)。但关于珠穆朗玛峰的趣实却远不止这些。10. Mountain Spiders10. 峰上蜘蛛Even high in the sky, with barely enough air to breathe, we still can#39;t hide from spiders. Euophrys omnisuperstes (;standing above everything;), better known as Himalayan jumping spiders, hide in nooks and crevices on the slopes of Everest, making them one of the Earth#39;s highest permanent residents. Climbers have spotted them as high as 6,700 meters (22,000 ft). The tiny spiders manage to feed on whatever stray insects the severe winds blow up the mountain. They#39;re virtually the only animals permanently based at such a high altitude, aside from a few species of bird. In addition, several previously unnamed grasshopper species were collected during the famously ill-fated 1924 British Everest expedition and are now on display in the British Natural History Museum.即使在几乎没有空气可供呼吸的珠穆朗玛峰,我们也有可能与蜘蛛不期而遇。在珠穆朗玛峰斜坡上的凹缝和裂隙之中,就可以见到被称为“喜马拉雅跳蛛”的Euophrysomnisuperstes(意为“万物之上”)蜘蛛,这些蜘蛛是世界上居住海拔最高的永久居民之一。登山者在海拔6700米(22000英尺)的地方发现了它们。这种小蜘蛛以被强风吹上山的迷途昆虫为食。除了一些品种独特的鸟之外,这些跳蛛可以说是生活在如此高海拔地区的唯一动物。并且,在1924年的那次以失败告终的英国珠峰探险之中,探险者就采集到了跳蛛样本,这些样本现在被陈列在英国自然历史物馆(British Natural History Museum)之中。9. Two Men Climbed It 21 Times9. 两个攀登珠峰21次的人Two Sherpas, Apa Sherpa and Phurba Tashi, hold the joint record for most Everest ascents. The pair have each managed to reach the summit an impressive 21 times. Phurba reached the top of the world three times in 2007 alone, and Apa has successfully summited the mountain almost every year between 1990 and 2011. Apa says that he has seen clear changes on Everest caused by global warming over the years. He has spoken of his concerns over melting snow and glaciers, which expose the rock and make it increasingly tough to climb. He also worries for the well-being of Sherpas, after losing his own home in a flood caused by the melted glaciers. Apa has dedicated several Everest ascents to raising awareness of climate change. 8The World#39;s Highest Brawl03两个夏尔巴人——阿帕·夏尔巴(Apa Sherpa)和普巴·塔西(Phurba Tashi)——共同保持着登顶珠峰次数最多的纪录。令人敬佩的是,他们两人各自成功登顶珠峰21次。普巴在2007年独自一人三次登顶珠穆朗玛峰这座“世界之巅”,而阿帕则是在1990年到2011年这段时间里,几乎每年都会成功登顶珠峰。阿帕说道,受全球变暖的影响,珠穆朗玛峰在这些年里发生了明显变化。他担心积雪和冰川的融化会使岩石裸露,这样的话,登顶珠峰将会变得愈加困难。他也对夏尔巴人幸福康乐的生活表示忧虑,因为他自己的家就毁于一次冰川融化造成的洪水泛滥之中。阿帕的好几次登峰探险都致力于提高人们对气候变化的意识。8. The World#39;s Highest Brawl8. 史上海拔最高的“珠峰纷争”Everest climbs aren#39;t always the harmonious triumphs you might imagine. In 2013, climbers Ueli Steck, Simone Moro, and Jonathan Griffith found themselves in a violent brawl with Sherpas after allegedly ignoring orders to halt their climb. The Sherpas accused the climbers of getting in their way and causing an avalanche that hit other Sherpas laying ropes downhill. The climbers denied the accusations, and the confrontation turned violent. The Sherpas kicked, punched, and beat the men with rocks, and Moro says one angry Sherpa even threatened to kill him. The fight might have ended considerably worse, but American climber Melissa Arnot warned the trio to flee to the basecamp before the rest formed a mob and stoned them to death. After the incident, a Nepal army official stood witness as both sides signed a peace agreement to settle the dispute. 7A 450-Million-Year History04登顶珠穆朗玛峰的探险,并不如你所想的那样,总是洋溢着和谐的欢欣气氛。2013年,三个登山爱好者乌里·斯特克(Ueli Steck)、西蒙尼·尔(Simone Moro)和乔纳森·格里菲斯(Jonathan Griffith)罔顾夏尔巴人暂作歇息的命令而继续攀爬的行为,触怒了当地夏尔巴人,从而引发了一场激烈纷争。夏尔巴人指责这三个登山者妨碍了他们安装绳索,并且他们不顾命令继续攀爬的行为致使山上冰块坍塌,将正在山上安装绳子的其他几个夏尔巴人砸下了山。但这几个登山者却否认夏尔巴人的控诉,由此冲突愈演愈烈。夏尔巴人向这三个登山者投掷石子,拳脚相向,尔还透露说,一个愤怒的夏尔巴人甚至威胁要杀掉他。尽管双方最后还是结束了这次纷争,但美国登山者梅利莎·阿诺特(Melissa Arnot)还是警告这三个人趁着夏尔巴人未开始新一轮的暴乱,将他们用石头投掷致死之前,逃回他们的宿营基地。在这次纷争之后,双方在一位尼泊尔军官的见下签署了一份和平协议。7. A 450-Million-Year History7. 珠峰有着4.5亿年的历史Although the Himalayan Mountains formed 60 million years ago, Everest#39;s history actually goes back a lot further. The limestone and sandstone rock at the summit of the mountain was once part of sedimentary layers below sea level 450 million years ago. Over time, ocean floor rocks were forced together and pushed upward at a speed of up to 11 centimeters (4.5 in) per year, eventually reaching the current position. The upper formations of Everest now contain marine fossils of sea creatures and shells that once occupied the earlier ocean. Explorer Noel Odell first discovered the fossils embedded within Everest#39;s rocks in 1924, proving that the mountain had once been below sea level. The first rock specimens from Everest were brought back by Swiss climbers in 1956 and by an American climbing team in 1963.6Height Dispute05尽管喜马拉雅山脉是在6000万年前形成,但实际上珠穆朗玛峰却远在这之前就已形成。峰顶上的石灰岩和砂岩曾是4.5亿年前的海底沉积岩的一部分。随着时间的推移,海底岩石因受挤压而聚拢在一起,并且以每年11厘米(4.5英寸)的速度上升,最终形成了现在的高度。我们如今仍能在珠穆朗玛峰的上面部分见到几亿年前的海生物和贝壳化石。探险家诺埃尔·奥德尔(Noel Odell)在1924年第一次发现了嵌入珠穆朗玛峰岩石中的海洋化石,明了珠峰所在地区原是一片海洋。1956年的瑞士登山队和1963年的美国登山队首次带回了珠穆朗玛峰的岩石样本。6. Height Dispute6. 关于珠峰的海拔高度之争Exactly how tall is Mount Everest? That depends on what side of the border you#39;re on. China has said the peak is at 8,844 meters (29,016 ft), while Nepal says 8,848 meters (29,029 ft). That#39;s because China argues that the mountain should purely be measured by rock height, excluding the meters of snow at the very top. Whether or not that#39;s the better measure, the international community regularly includes snow when describing the heights of peaks around the world. The two countries came to an agreement in 2010, settling the official height as 8,848 meters. 5It#39;s Growing06珠穆朗玛峰究竟有多高?这可就得取决于你持哪一国的言论了。中国认为珠穆朗玛峰的高度为8844米(29016英尺),而尼泊尔却坚持认为珠峰的海拔高度为8848米(29029英尺)。这是因为中方认为对珠穆朗玛峰海拔的测量应该仅仅只以岩石高度为基准,而不能将峰顶积雪计算在内。不管那是否是更加合理的测量方法,国际社会公认的珠峰高度是将峰顶积雪计算在内的覆雪高度。两国在2010年就珠穆朗玛峰海拔问题达成一致,正式将珠穆朗玛峰的高度确定为8848米。5. It#39;s Growing5. 不断增长的高度Both Chinese and Nepalese ideas of the mountain#39;s height may be wrong, according to more recent measurements.A research team discovered in 1994 that Everest continues to grow approximately 4 millimeters (0.16 in) every year. The Indian subcontinent was originally an independent landmass that collided with Asia, forming the Himalayas, and the continental plates are still moving, pushing the mountains ever higher.Researchers from the American Millennium Expedition in 1999 placed a global positioning satellite device below the summit to measure growth. Their more accurate findings from the modern technology led to the official height of Everest being changed to 8,850 meters (29,035 ft). Meanwhile, other tectonic activity actually costs the mountain height, but the overall movement seems to be upward. 4Multiple Names07最新的测量结果显示,中国与尼泊尔关于珠穆朗玛峰高度的说法可能都不准确。1994年的一个研究小组发现,珠穆朗玛峰以每年4毫米(0.16英寸)左右的速度继续上升。印度次大陆原本是一个相当独立的地理单元,后来在漂移的过程中与欧亚大陆发生碰撞,形成了喜马拉雅山脉,然后印度板块推动着欧亚板块一起漂移,使喜马拉雅山脉逐年升高。1999年美国“千禧年珠峰测量计划”的研究人员在峰顶上安置了全球卫星定位系统,以此来测量珠峰高度。这种依靠现代科技测量出来的海拔高度更为精确,由此美国将珠穆朗玛峰的海拔高度正式更改为8850米(29035英尺)。同时,其他的一些地壳运动实际上会使珠穆朗玛峰的高度有所削减,但珠峰的整体运动似乎还是趋向于上升的。4. Multiple Names4. 多样的名称Although we know the mountain as ;Everest,; Tibetan natives have called the mountain by the ancient name ;;Chomolungma; (also spelled ;Qomolangma;) for centuries. The Tibetan name means ;Goddess Mother of Mountains.; But that isn#39;t the only other name it goes by. The Nepalese people know it as ;Sagarmatha,; meaning ;Forehead in the Sky,; so the mountain is now a part of the Nepalese ;Sagarmatha National Park.;The mountain was only named ;Everest; when British surveyor Andrew Waugh failed to find a commonly used local name. After studying maps of the surrounding areas and still being unable to make a decision, he named the mountain after Indian Surveyor General George Everest, head of the British team that first surveyed the Himalayas. Colonel Everest objected to the honor, but the British officially changed their name for the mountain from ;Peak XV; to ;Mount Everest; in 1865.3A Human Traffic Jam08尽管我们通常称此山为“埃佛勒斯峰(Everest)”,但藏族人民在几个世纪里对它的传统称谓却是“珠穆朗玛峰(Chomolungma或Qomolangma)”。将它的藏语名称简译出来就是“神女峰”(Goddess Mother of Mountains)。但这并不是这座山峰唯一的名字。尼泊尔人民将它称为“萨迦玛塔(Sagarmatha)”,其意是“高达天庭的山峰”(Forehead in the Sky),因此这座山峰如今属于“萨迦玛塔国家公园”(Sagarmatha National Park)的一部分。英国测量员安德鲁·华夫(Andrew Waugh)在测量此山时首次将其命名为 “埃佛勒斯峰”(Everest),因为他是在印度平原遥测的,并未进入西藏和尼泊尔,所以对这座山峰的其他当地名称一概不知。当他在地图上对周边地区巡视了一番之后,仍不能确定它的名称,于是他以印度测量局前任局长,即此次英国测量队的领头人乔治·埃佛勒斯(George Everest )的名字命名此山。尽管埃佛勒斯上校本人反对这个称谓,但英国还是在1865年正式将此山的名字由“第15峰(Peak XV)”更改为“埃佛勒斯山”。3. A Human Traffic Jam3. 珠峰上的“交通拥堵”Despite Everest costing thousands of dollars to climb, more people than ever are trying to summit it. In 2012, German mountaineer Ralf Dujmovits captured a shocking image showing hundreds of climbers lining up to reach the summit. Ralf had made the decision to turn back at the South Col of the mountain due to poor weather conditions when he spotted the painfully long queue. On May 19, 2012, climbers crowding one landmark near the summit faced a two-hour wait. In the course of just half a day, 234 people managed to reach the peak—but four people died, raising major concerns over the climbing process. Nepal specialists that year added a new fixed rope to ease congestion, and there have even been talks of installing permanent ladders.2The World#39;s Dirtiest Mountain09尽管登顶珠峰所需花费高达上万,但仍有越来越多的人尝试登顶珠峰。2012年,德国登山家拉尔夫·杜伊莫维茨(Ralf Dujmovits)拍摄了一张令人震撼的照片,照片拍摄的是一群攀登珠峰的登山者排队登顶的情景。拉尔夫在抵达珠峰南坳时,由于遇到恶劣的天气状况,他决定就此返回,但就在下山途中,他看到了这样一费力攀爬的登山长队。2012年5月19日,涌向这座“世界之巅”的大批登山者被堵在了峰顶附近,并在此滞留了两个多小时。仅在这半天里,就有234人成功登顶珠峰——但有四人在下山时丧生,这提高了人们在登峰过程中的安全意识。尼泊尔当局在那年还额外安装了一根新的固定绳索,以此来缓解珠峰上的交通拥堵,甚至曾经还有人提出要在珠峰上安装几架永久梯子。2. The World#39;s Dirtiest Mountain2. 世上最“脏”的山Countless photos document climbers on their way to the Everest summit, but we rarely see images of what they leave behind. Everest is littered with not just the corpses of climbers but an estimated 50 tons of waste, with more left behind each season. The slopes are strewn with disregarded oxygen bottles, climbing equipment, and plenty of human feces. The Eco Everest Expedition has hit the mountain each year since 2008 to tackle the problem, and they#39;ve collected over 13 tons of waste so far. The Nepalese government have enforced a new rule starting in 2014 that climbers must each bring down 8 kilograms (18 lb) of waste on their descent, else lose their ,000 deposit. Artists working on the “Everest 8848 Art Project” have turned 8 tons of the rubbish, including broken tents and beer cans, into 75 pieces of art. Sixty-five porters worked over two spring expeditions to carry down the trash, and the artists turned it into sculptures to highlight the issue of mess on the mountain. 1It#39;s Not The Tallest Mountain10有数不尽的照片记录着登山者攀登珠穆朗玛峰的过程,但我们却极少看到记录这些登山者遗留物的照片。珠穆朗玛峰上除了遇难登山者的尸体之外,还约有50余吨的废弃物,而且每个季节都会产生新的垃圾。被废弃的氧气罐、登山装备和人类排泄物在珠峰上随处可见。自2008年以来,珠峰生态探险队(Eco Everest Expedition)每年都会登上珠穆朗玛峰来处理垃圾污染问题,截至目前,他们已经拾捡了13余吨垃圾。尼泊尔政府就此还出台了一项新规定,从2014年开始,每位登山者必须携带8公斤(18磅)垃圾下山,否则他们的4000美元保金将被扣押。“珠峰8848艺术项目”(Everest 8848 Art Project)的艺术家们把8吨珠峰垃圾(包括破旧的帐篷和啤酒罐)变为75件艺术展品。65人在春季登顶珠峰两次,才将这些垃圾从珠峰上带了下来,艺术家们的这次“变废为宝”的展览是为了引起人们对珠峰环境问题的重视。1. It#39;s Not The Tallest Mountain 1. 珠穆朗玛峰并非世界最高峰Although Mount Everest is the highest point on Earth from sea level, Mauna Kea, an inactive Hawaiian volcano, holds the record as the world#39;s tallest mountain. Everest#39;s peak is at a higher altitude, but that doesn#39;t make it taller. Mauna Kea may only reach a height of 4,205 meters (13,796 ft) above sea level, but the volcano extends an incredible 6,000 meters (20,000 ft) below the water#39;s surface. Measured from its base on the ocean floor, its full height stands at 10,200 meters (33,465 ft) making it almost a mile taller that Everest. In fact, depending on how you measure it, Everest is neither the tallest mountain nor the highest peak. Chimborazo, in Ecuador, only reaches 6,267 meters (20,661 ft) above sea level, but it#39;s the highest point from the exact center of the Earth. This is because Chimborazo lies just one degree south of the equator. The Earth bulges at its midsection, so Ecuador#39;s sea level sits farther from the planet#39;s center than Nepal#39;s.虽然珠穆朗玛峰是地球上距海平面最高的山峰,但世界最高峰却是夏威夷的一座死火山——莫纳克亚山(Mauna Kea)。尽管珠穆朗玛峰峰顶处于高海拔,但那并不能额外延伸珠峰高度。而莫纳克亚山在海平面以上的高度虽然只有4205米(13796英尺),但不可思议的是,这座山却在海平面之下延伸了6000米(20000英尺)。如果从海底开始测量,那它的总高度将达到10200米(33465英尺),差不多比珠穆朗玛峰高了整整一英里。实际上,不论你采取何种测量方式,珠穆朗玛峰既不是海拔最高,也不是总高度最高的山峰。厄瓜多尔的钦拉索山(Chimborazo)虽然在海平面以上的高度只有6267米(20661英尺),但它却是离地心最远的地方。因为钦拉索山位于赤道以南一度左右的地方。地球刚好在它的中部区域凸出来,因此,厄瓜多尔的海平面离地心的距离较尼泊尔更远。注:文章转载自前十网,译者:李念 /201504/369937

Lenore Skenazy, a New York City mother of two, earned the sobriquet “America’s Worst Mom” after reporting in a newspaper column that she had allowed her younger son, then 9, to ride the subway alone.家住纽约市的莉诺·斯科纳兹(Lenore Skenazy)是两个孩子的母亲,自从报纸专栏报道了她让9岁的小儿子独自乘坐地铁的事情之后,“美国最差妈妈”的绰号就落在了她的头上。The damning criticism she endured, including a threat of arrest for child endangerment, intensified her desire to encourage anxious parents to give their children the freedom they need to develop the self-confidence and resilience to cope effectively with life’s many challenges.她承受了严厉的谴责,甚至面临着因危害儿童罪而受到逮捕的威胁,但这一切反而令她的信念更加坚定,她期望能通过自己的努力,鼓励焦虑的家长们放手,给孩子更多自由,让孩子们有机会建立自信心和适应力,从而更有效地应对生活中的诸多挑战。One result was the publication in 2009 of her book “Free Range Kids: How to Raise Safe, Self-Reliant Children (Without Going Nuts With Worry).” A second result is the Free Range Kids Project and a 13-part series, starting Thursday on Discovery Life Channel, called “World’s Worst Mom.” In it, Ms. Skenazy intervenes to rescue bubble-wrapped kids from their overprotective parents by guiding the children safely through a sequence of once-forbidden activities and showing their anxious parents how well the children perform and how proud they are of what they accomplished.为此,她在2009年出版了一本书,名为《放养孩子》(Free Range Kids: How to Raise Safe, Self-Reliant Children [Without Going Nuts With Worry])。此外她还建立了“放养孩子计划”(Free Range Kids Project),并拍摄了名为《世界上最糟糕的妈妈》(‘World’s Worst Mom’)的13集系列片,从周四开始在探索生活频道(Discovery Life Channel)播出。在这个节目里,斯科纳兹试图通过干预将受到过度保护的“花骨朵”们从父母手中解放出来,指导他们安全地完成一系列一度被父母严格禁止的活动,向那些总是忧心忡忡的父母们显示,他们的孩子有多棒,以及他们的孩子对自己的成就有多么感到自豪。The term “helicopter parents” applies to far more than those who hover relentlessly over their children’s academic and musical development. As depicted in the first episode of the series, it applies to 10-year-old Sam’s very loving mother who wouldn’t let him ride a bike (“she’s afraid I’ll fall and get hurt”), cut up his own meat (“Mom thinks I’ll cut my fingers off”), or play “rough sports” like skating. The plea from a stressed-out, thwarted Sam: “I just want to do things by myself.”“直升机父母”这个词常形容的是那些每分每秒都悬在孩子头顶,督促他们在学业和音乐上不断进步的父母,但其实这个词的适用范围远远不止于此。斯科纳兹系列片的第一集中介绍的、10岁男孩山姆的母亲就是典型的“直升机父母”。她对自己的儿子过分爱护,以至于不允许他骑自行车(“她怕我会跌倒受伤”),不许他自己用餐刀切碎盘中肉食(“妈妈认为我肯定会切到手指头”),更不许参加滑冰之类“粗野的运动”。压力山大且倍受挫折的山姆恳求道:“我想要的,不过是自己的事情自己做而已。”In an interview, Ms. Skenazy said, “Having been brainwashed by all the stories we hear, there’s a prevailing fear that any time you’re not directly supervising your child, you’re putting the child in danger.” The widesp publicity now given to crimes has created an exaggerated fear of the dangers children face if left to navigate and play on their own.斯科纳兹女士在一次采访中说:“被道听途说的传闻洗脑之后,人们普遍存在这么一种忧虑:只要没有紧紧盯着自己孩子的一举一动,就是将孩子置于险境。”现如今对犯罪行为的广泛宣传,也大大夸大了让儿童独立行动和玩耍时可能遇到的危险。Yet, according to Peter Gray, a research psychologist at Boston College, “the actual rate of strangers abducting or molesting children is very small. It’s more likely to happen at the hands of a relative or family friend. The statistics show no increase in childhood dangers. If anything, there’s been a decrease.”然而,美国波士顿学院(Boston College)的研究心理学家彼得·格雷(Peter Gray)指出:“实际上,陌生人拐骗或猥亵儿童的案发率非常低,亲戚或家庭友人作案的机率反而更大。而且,统计数据并未显示儿童面临的危险增加,实情是此类事件是呈下降趋势的。”Experts say there is no more crime against children by strangers today — and probably significantly less — than when I was growing up in the 1940s and ’50s, a time when I walked to school alone and played outdoors with friends unsupervised by adults. “The world is not perfect — it never was — but we used to trust our children in it, and they learned to be resourceful,” Ms. Skenazy said. “The message these anxious parents are giving to their children is ‘I love you, but I don’t believe in you. I don’t believe you’re as competent as I am.’ ”专家们表示,与我小时候,也就是20世纪40年代和50年代相比,今天由陌生人实施的针对儿童的犯罪非但没有增加,很可能还显著减少了。要知道,我们那时候是自己步行上学,还在户外跟朋友玩耍,旁边都没有成年人的监管。“世界不是完美的——从来就不是,但过去我们一直相信孩子们自己能行,相信他们可以从中学会随机应变,”斯科纳兹女士说。“而如今的这些焦虑的父母传达给子女们的信息却是:‘我爱你,但我不信任你。我不相信你像我一样能干。’ ”Dr. Gray, author of “Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life,” said in an interview, “If children are not allowed to take routine risks, they’ll be less likely to be able to handle real risks when they do occur.”格雷士撰写了《会玩才会学——当野孩子有什么不好?》(Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life)一书。他在接受采访时说,“如果孩子们从没有机会面对日常风险,那么,当真正的危险降临时,他们越不可能有能力应对。”Case in point: His college’s counseling office has seen a doubling in the rate of emergency calls in the last five years, “mainly for problems kids used to solve on their own,” like being called a bad name by a roommate or finding a mouse in the room. “Students are prepared academically, but they’re not prepared to deal with day-to-day life, which comes from a lack of opportunity to deal with ordinary problems,” Dr. Gray said. “Over the past 60 years, there’s been a huge change, well documented by social scientists, in the hours a day children play outdoors — less than half as much as parents did at their children’s ages,” he said.举例为:在过去五年内,他所在学院的辅导办公室接到的紧急求助电话翻了一番,“基本上都是为了一些以往孩子们可以独立解决的问题”,比如被室友起了个难听的昵称或是在房间里发现一只老鼠等等。“学生们只准备好了如何搞定学业上的困难,却并没有准备好要如何应对日常生活,因为他们一直没什么机会去处理那些寻常的问题,”格雷士说。“社会科学家的资料显示,在过去的60年里发生了巨大的变化——现在孩子们每天在户外玩耍的时间还不到他们父母当初的一半,”他说。In decades past, children made up their own games and acquired important life skills in the process. “In pickup games,” Dr. Gray said, “children make the rules, negotiate, and figure out what’s fair to keep everyone happy. They develop creativity, empathy and the ability to the minds of other players, instead of having adults make the rules and solve all the problems.”几十年前,孩子们自创游戏,并从这一过程中习得重要的生活技能。格雷士说:“在临时组织的比赛中,孩子们自己制定规则并相互协商,最后确定下来让每个人都满意的最公平的玩法。由此他们的创造力得到了开发,也学会了揣度和体谅其他玩家的心理,而不是任由成年人给他们定下规矩并大包大揽地解决所有问题。”Dr. Gray links the astronomical rise in childhood depression and anxiety disorders, which are five to eight times more common than they were in the 1950s, to the decline in free play among young children. “Young people today are less likely to have a sense of control over their own lives and more likely to feel they are the victims of circumstances, which is predictive of anxiety and depression,” he said.格雷士认为,今天儿童抑郁症和焦虑症会飙升至20世纪50年代的五到八倍,与儿童自由玩耍时间的减少有关。他说:“如今的年轻人对生活的掌控力较弱,相反,他们更容易觉得自己不过是客观环境下的牺牲品,这当然会产生焦虑和抑郁情绪。”There are also physical consequences to restricting children’s outdoor play because there are no adults available to supervise it. Children today spend many more hours indoors than in years past, which in part accounts for the rise in childhood obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Many elementary schools have even canceled recess, believing it is time better spent cramming children’s heads with facts and figures.由于成年人没有足够的时间和精力来监管,就限制孩子们能在户外玩耍的时间,这对他们的身体也会造成影响。与以前相比,如今的孩子们待在室内的时间大大增加,从某种程度上导致了儿童肥胖和2型糖尿病的多发。很多小学甚至把课间休息也取消了,他们认为与其休息,还不如抓紧这些时间把资料和数字塞进孩子们的脑袋里。“Childhood should be a time of freedom and play, not building a résumé for college,” Dr. Gray said.格雷士说:“童年本就应该自由玩耍,这段时光不是用来打造漂亮的大学入学简历的。”As Ms. Skenazy put it, “if parents truly believe children must be supervised every second of the day, then they can’t walk to school, play in the park, or wake up Saturday morning, get on their bikes and go have an adventure.”正如斯科纳兹女士所说的那样:“如果家长真的认为自己的子女每分每秒都离不开照管,那么孩子们就不能自己走路去上学或是在公园玩耍,更不能在星期六早上起床后骑上自行车出门去探索新天地。”Some 2,000 families were screened by the Discovery Life Channel to find 13 families crippled by anxiety yet willing to have an intervention. “The parents weren’t easy pushovers,” Ms. Skenazy said. “Some were very unhappy to see me at first. But once pride in what their children achieved replaced their fears, they were ecstatic — relaxed and happy instead of crippled with fear.”探索生活频道筛查了约2000个家庭,从中找到了13个深受焦虑困扰却愿意尝试接受干预的家庭。“要说父母们可不是件容易的事,”斯科纳兹说。“有些人一开始根本不想见到我。但当他们对孩子成就的自豪感冲淡了恐惧,每个人都欣喜若狂,变得又轻松又快乐。”Ms. Skenazy spent four days with each family, introducing a different challenge each day. Sam learned to cut cheese and slice a tomato with a sharp knife and then made sandwiches for his parents. He also learned to ride a two-wheeler.斯科纳兹与每个家庭都共处了四天,每一天都给他们提出不同的挑战课题。山姆学会了用锋利的餐刀将奶酪和西红柿切片,然后给父母做三明治。他还学会了骑两轮脚踏车。“I don’t guarantee I’ll take away all their worry, just give them the confidence to loosen the reins on their kids,” she said. “Kids need roots and wings. Parents give them roots. I give them wings.”“我无法保我可以解除他们所有的忧虑,我只是给了他们一点信心,让他们放松对孩子们的束缚而已,”斯科纳兹说。“孩子们需要根基和翅膀。如果说父母给了他们根基,那么,就让我来给他们翅膀吧。” /201503/367277

Life inthe Russian Countryside,Happy One俄罗斯乡下的美好生活Pictures from amodern Russian village don#39;t have to be always gloomy. These ones, taken in Ushakovovillage, for example, portray the best we normally may imagine whenthink about joys and pleasures of life in a countryside.现代俄罗斯乡下的照片也不一定就都是愁云惨雾的样子。这些图片拍摄于Ushakovo村,其中是一派乡村生活其乐融融的景象。 /201501/353096

  • 鹰潭市长城医院治疗妇科怎么样
  • 鹰潭的人工流产医院天极报道
  • 鹰潭少女妇科检查询价养生堂
  • 江西中医学院第三附属医院网上预约电话
  • 鹰潭做四维彩超哪家好太平洋分析
  • 鹰潭妇幼保健医院妇产科怎样和讯平台鹰潭哪有好的妇科医院
  • 康泰时讯鹰潭市妇保医院彩超检查好吗
  • 大河时讯鹰潭市人民医院四维彩超价格京东明医
  • 江西鹰潭市解放军184医院预约四维彩超
  • 鹰潭做人流要用多少钱北青认证
  • 江西省鹰潭处女膜修复哪家医院最好的华东医院江西鹰潭市解放军184医院可以做引产吗
  • 南昌铁路局鹰潭医院体检收费标准
  • 网易网络鹰潭希正医院无痛人流多少钱
  • 鹰潭市妇科疾病多少钱
  • 中国移动站解放军184医院有微创手术吗西西助手
  • 就医微微贵溪银矿职工医院生孩子好吗
  • 贵溪人民医院引产需要多少钱华北时评余江县第二人民医院咨询电话
  • 腾讯医生贵溪市妇幼保健医院治疗不孕不育好吗门诊查询
  • 鹰潭市妇幼保健院无痛人流要多少钱知道门户
  • 鹰潭信江新区怀孕检测多少钱
  • 鹰潭市人民医院生殖科
  • 医院分享鹰潭的人流医院
  • 新浪答疑鹰潭希正妇科医院做产前检查怎么样好不好
  • 余江县第二人民医院四维彩超多少钱和讯科技
  • 鹰潭希正妇科医院做无痛人流多少钱
  • 鹰潭妇保医院治疗不能怀孕
  • 南昌铁路局鹰潭医院妇科人流
  • 信江新区人民中医院四维彩超多少钱国际热点
  • 医院门户余江县盆腔炎哪家医院最好的
  • 鹰潭是解放军184医院引产多少钱
  • 相关阅读
  • 瞒天过海!集体耕地上建厂房!村民:相关部门集体哑火(三)
  • 暮影战神武灵攻略大全
  • 唐嫣赵丽颖吴昕林允儿李易峰和谁最有感(图)
  • 酒类电商双罢斗
  • 南京查处违规补缴社保证明份购房证明被注销
  • 内蒙古自治区政协原副主席赵黎平一审被判处死刑
  • 近日李念与刚斩获年北京青年电影节影帝的巩峥出现在街边
  • 徐娇穿白袜撑伞古典韵味十足邻家有女初长成
  • 单机斗地主下载:首存优惠
  • 小学生作业本开口说话曝光盗伐林木团伙
  • 相关推荐

    发表回复

    请遵守天涯社区公约言论规则,不得违反国家法律法规