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In 618, Li Yuan established the Tang Dynasty after the fall of the Sui Dynasty, and the Tang Dynasty lasted for 289 years till 907, when Zhu Wen destroyed it.从公元618年唐朝建立到907年被朱温灭掉,大唐王朝共存在了289年。Usually, the Tang Dynasty is divided into two periods by historians ,namely the early stage or prosperous stage, and the later stage or declining stage, with the “An-and-Shi Rebellion” as their dividing line.唐朝一般分为两个时期,即前期和后期,中间以安史之乱为界限,前期是昌盛期,后期则是衰亡期。It was Li Yuan, Emperor Tang Gaozu who established the Tang Dynasty, but it was his son, Li Shimin, Emperor Tang Taizong who spent 10 years unifying the whole country by fighting wars.建立唐朝的是唐高祖,唐太宗李世民领兵用十年时间完成统一大业。Li Shimin ascended the throne upon the “Xuanwu Gate Coup D’Amato”.玄武门之变,李世民登位。During his reign, he devoted all his efforts to make the country prosperous, that the famous period “Zhenguan Times of Peace”,when politics, economy and culture, etc. achieved great success ranked the leading status in the world.他经过励精图治,使唐朝在中国封建社会空前繁荣,出现了“贞观之治”,在政治、经济、文化等各方面都居于当时世界领先地位。Afterwards, during the period of Emperor Tang Xuanzong, the country was strong and the common people were wealthy, the peaceful period went forth again, thafs uKaiyuan Flourishing Age”. However, it was also during the reign of Emperor Tang Xuanzong, the lt;4an-and-shi rebellionm broke out, thus drove the tang dynasty towards decline and fall.lt;4an-and-shi rebellionm broke out, thus drove the tang dynasty towards decline and fall.lt;4an-and-shi rebellionm broke out, thus drove the tang dynasty towards decline and fall.此后的唐玄宗时期又出现了“开元盛世”,国强民富,升平之世再次出现,但唐玄宗时期,发生了安史之乱,从此唐朝走向了衰亡。In the late period of the Tang Dynasty, the state was in anarchy, from “Party Struggles between Niu and Li ” to “Eunuch Grabbing All the Powers”, while farmers’ revolts emerging from time to time. At last, Huang Chao Revolt burst out. Zhu Wen, one of its leaders replaced the Tang Dynasty with the Post-Liang,he first dynasty of the Five Dynasties Period.唐朝后期政治混乱,从牛、李党争到宦官专权,其间农民起义不断发生,终于爆发了大规模的黄巢起义,起义领袖之一朱温开始叛降唐朝,后又取代唐朝自立为帝,建立了五代的第一个王朝——后梁。The Tang Dynasty is one of the most splendid dynasties in the Chinese history. With its puissant national power, prosperous economy and glorious culture, it reached the height of Chinese feudal society.唐朝是中国历史上最为辉煌的一个王朝,其国力强盛,经济繁荣,文化灿烂,达到了中国封建社会发展史上的最高峰。As the strongest and most advanced country, its high civilization influenced Japan, Korea and many other countries and areas.它的高度文明影响了日本、朝鲜等许多国 家和地区,是当时世界上最强大、最先进的国家。The Tang Dynasty experienced 289 years and 20 emperors (including 16 years when Wu Zetian replaced the Tang with the Zhou), Together with the Han Dynasty ,it was considered as the strongest and most prosperous dynasty in Chinese history.唐共传二十二帝,历国289年(其间有武则天改唐为周16年),其与汉朝并称为中国历史上两大强盛王朝。At its prime time, the Tang territory extended to Andong Prefecture (now Pyongyang in Korea) in the east, the Anxi Prefecture (now kuche in Xinjiang) in the west, the Rinan Prefecture(now Qinghua in Vietnam) in the south and the An-bei Prefecture(now Halahelin in Inner Mongolia) in the north.其盛时疆域东至安东府(今朝鲜平壤),西至安西府 (今新疆库车),南至日南郡(今越南清化),北至安北府(今蒙古哈拉和林)。After the Revolts of An Lushan and Shi Siming, Hexi and Longyou were conquered by the Turfan and not recovered until the reign of Dazhong (847 ?860) and the reign of Xiantong (860 ?874).安史之乱后,河西、陇右陷于吐蕃,至大中(847 ~ 860 )、咸通(860 ~ 874)始复。During the early stage of the Tang Dynasty,from Emperor Tang Tai-zong to Kaiyuan reign of Emperor Tang Xuanzong, the country kept developing rapidly, its economy, politics, military, foreign affairs and culture, etc. reached all-time prosperity.唐王朝的前期,由唐太宗李世民至玄宗开元年间国家一直处于大发展阶段,经济、政治、军事、外交、文化等方面都空前繁荣。The “Zhenguan Times of Peace” and “Kaiyuan Flourishing Age” structured the “Tang Flourishing Atmosphere” which gave all Chinese people matchless pride and made China distinct in the world.在此期间出现的“贞观之治”、“开元盛世”构成了中华民族引以骄傲的盛唐气象。从而,使中国的世界地位显赫一时。The “An and Shi Rebellion” appeared during the late period of Emperor Tang Xuanzong’s reign, made the Tang Dynasty begin to decline.唐玄宗后期出现的安史之乱,使唐王朝逐渐没落。In the middle and late stage of Tang Dynasty, the emperors lost their power in economy, politics and military affairs.在中晚唐时期,皇帝在经济、政治、军事上已无实权,致使藩镇割据局面形成。Eventually, vassal states broke away from the rule of the Tang Dynasty to set up separatist regimes one after another.最后,各方纷纷脱离唐王朝的统治而成立各自独立的政权。In 617,the late stage of the Sui Dynasty,when the peasants’revolts were flourished, Li Yuan raised troops in Taiyuan.公元617年,隋末农民起义蓬勃发展时,李渊在太原起兵。At that time, the Wagang Troop and Hebei peasants Troop were fighting bravely in central plains; their fighting held down a great deal army corps of the Sui Dynasty, thus the defending forces in Chang,an,the capital and the nearby areas were very weak. In the autumn, Li Yuan led 30000 soldiers to leave Taiyuan for Guanzhong.这时瓦岗军和河北农民军正在中原地区奋战,牵制了大量隋军,隋京都长安地区的防守力量很薄弱这年秋天,李渊率三万人由太原出发,向关中进军。In the end of the year, Li Yuan captured Chang,an,and kinged the Sui prince Yang You as the puppet em-peror.年底,李渊攻克长安,立隋朝代王杨侑为傀儡皇帝。In 618, Emperor Yang of Sui was killed; Li Yuan dethroned Yang You and made himself the emperor, namely, emperor Tang Gaozu. Li Yuan and his son LiShimin wiped out separate forces everywhere, suppressed peasants revolting armies and eventually unified the whole country.公元618年,隋炀帝被杀,李渊废杨侑,在长安称帝,是为唐高祖。李渊和他的儿子李世民消灭了各地割据势力,镇压了各股农民起义军,统一了全国。During the process of establishing the Tang Dynasty, Li Yuan,s second son, Li Shimin’s contribution was greatest, but the eldest son, Li Jiancheng was selected as the crown prince.唐高祖李渊建立唐朝,次子李世民功不可没,但长子李建成被立为太子。In order to consolidate his position as the heir of emperor, Li Jiancheng hooked in his forth younger brother. Li Yuanji to cope with Li Shimin. Thus the conflict between them grew in intensity.李建成为了巩固自己的地位,遂拉拢四弟李元吉共同对付李世民,双方矛盾愈演愈烈。In 626(the ninth year of Wude), Li Shimin anticipated Li Jiancheng and Li Yuanji by laying an ambush at the Xuanwu Gate and shooting them, thus his rivals were perished. The event was called the “Xuanwu Gate Coup D’Amato” in history.公元626年(武德九年),李世民先发制人,在皇宫的玄武门设下埋伏,射杀李建成和李元吉,消灭了对手,史称“玄武门之变”。Shortly afterwards, Li Yuan gave up the throne to Li Shimin, who is the historically famous Emperor Tang Taizong, and the title of his reign is Zhenguan.此后不久,李渊就把帝位让给了李世民,史称唐太宗,年号贞观(627 ~ 649)。In Zhenguan period, the Tang Dynasty came to be strong.贞观年间,唐朝强大起来。The fact that the Sui Dynasty was overthrown by farmers’ revolts impressed Li Shimin deeply.隋末农民战争推翻隋王朝的事实,给李世民留下深刻的印象。After being an emperor, he often summed up the historic lessons from the perish of the Sui with his officials.称帝后,经常和臣下总结前朝灭亡的历史教训。He always said, “The emperor is just like a boat, while the common people like water; water can carry the boat, and it also can overturn the boat.”他常说:人君好比舟,人民好比水;水能载舟,也能覆舟。In order to avoid the disaster of “overturning the boat”,he aroused all his efforts to make the country prosperous.为了避免 “覆舟”之祸,他勤于政事,励精图治。He took much account of selecting officials, thus the important officials around him, such as Fang Xuanling, Wei Zheng, Li Jing, Wen Yanbo, Dai Zhou, etc. all were elites of the time with their own strong points.唐太宗很重视选官用人,他左右掌权的大臣, 如房玄龄、魏征、李靖、温彦及戴胄等人各有所长,都是一时之俊。At the beginning of his reign, the society and e-conomy suffered serious destroy, the masses had no means to live.唐太宗即位之初,社会经济遭到严重破坏,民不聊生。However,only a few years later,The situation changed, according to the history record, “There appeared bumper harvest throughout the country, outcasts all returned their home-town. The price of 10 litres rice was only 0.3 ~0.4 hang . The number of criminals sentenced to death was only 29 in one year.几年之后,据史书载:天下大稔,流散者咸 归乡里,斗米不过三四钱,终岁断死刑才29人。From as far as the sea in the east to the Five Ridges in the south, all the common families needed not bolt their doors at night.”.东至于海,南极五岭,皆外户不闭。In the second year of his reign, Emperor Tang Taizong appointed General Li Jing, the minister of Department of War to crusade against the Turkis and won completely, hence eliminated the threat from the Western Regions.贞观二年,太宗命兵部尚书大将李靖讨伐突厥,大获全胜,从此消除了西域各族对中原的威胁。Meanwhile, Taizong adopted many political measures to maintain the unification and to strengthen centralized emperor rule.与此同时,太宗采取了许多有利于维护统一和加强君主专治中央集权的政治措施。Under his rule, with a series of political, economic, cultural and educational reforms, the great Tang Empire flourished unparalleled. The period was called ^Zhenguan Times of Peace(namely, the golden ageof the Tang) ” in history and became the time which was yearned towards by later ages.在其统治下,通过一系列的政治、经济、文教等方面的改革,大唐帝国空前繁荣,史称“贞观之治”,也成为后世向往的理想时代。 /201601/421844

Meetings to Put Down the War :In the middle of the Spring and Autumn, the contention between Jin and Chu intensified, endless wars brought nothing but disasters to the people, and small states also got tired of it.Additionally, Jin and Chu matched each other in strength, so it was impossible for them to wipe out the opponent.弭兵之会:春秋中期,晋、楚争霸激烈。连续不断的战争给人民带来巨大的灾难,也引起中小国家的厌倦,加以晋楚两大国势均力敌,谁都无法吃掉对方。Therefore, in 579 B. C. and again in 546 B. C. , the state of Song, which had suffered enormously from the warfare among the big states, called a peace conference to stop wars. It succeeded in attaining its goal that the two big states Jin and Chu shared the hegemony equally.于是饱受大国战争之苦的宋,于周简王七年(.公元前579年)和周灵王二十六年(公元 前546年),发起举行了两次弭兵会盟,晋楚两国平分了霸权。Since then, wars decreased greatly, which was good to help all states to restore and develop economy, and stabilize the people#39;s life.从此,战争大大减少。这种形势对恢复、发展各国的社会经济,安定人民的生活,都有很大的好处。The collapse of the well fields system and the emergence of the private ownership of lands brought out great changes in politics.井田制的瓦解和土地私有制的产生引起政治上的巨大变化。Many lords were trapped in warfare, which led to financial difficulties and a declining authority, while nobles took the possession of vast lands, mastering mighty political and military power, a result, contradictions continued to sharpen between the sovereign and the nobles ,even among the nobles themselves.许多诸侯长期陷于争战之中,经济困难,政治权力日弱,而卿大夫却拥有大量的土地,掌握了强大的政治、军事权力。为此诸侯王与卿大夫等贵族势力之间的矛盾,以及贵族之间的矛盾不断激化。The most representative events were the division of Jin by three clans—Han, Zhao and Wei and the expedition against Qi from the Tians.其中最有代表性的事件是“韩、赵、魏三家分晋”和“田氏代齐”。The Division of Jin by Three Families: In the middle of the Spring and Autumn ,the regime of the state Jin had been controlled by six ministers gradually.三家分晋:在春秋中期,晋的政权已逐渐为六卿所控制。The so-called six ministers refer to the six noble families, Zhao, Han, Wei, Zhi, Fan and Zhonghang.所谓六卿,就是赵、 韩、魏、知、范、中行氏六家。Later the Fan and Zhonghang families collapsed due to the joint efforts of the other four families.后来,赵、韩、魏、知四家联合起来,消灭了范氏和中行氏。In 453 B. C. , Zhao, Wei and Han divided Zhi among them. The political power and the Lands were then set for the three remaining families to divide whenever they liked.至公元前453年,赵、韩、魏三家又联合起来,消灭了知氏,晋国的政权就控制在这三家手中,晋国的绝大部分土地也在他们的控制之下。In 403 B. C. , the King Weilie of Zhou recognized the three families, Han, Zhao and Wei as vassals, and the state Jin existed in name only.公元前403年,周威烈王承认韩、赵、魏三家为诸侯,晋国名存实亡。After this, Han, Zhao and Wei evolved into strong states in the central plain ; consequently Jin disappeared.此后韩、 赵、魏成为中原大国,晋亡。It marks the beginning of the Warring States Period.战国时期也由此开始。The Tians Attacked : Qi Like Jin, the noble families in Qi grew in power after the death of Duke Huan.田氏代齐:同晋国一样,齐桓公死后,齐国的贵族势力逐渐强大起来。Among them were Guo, Gao, Yan and Tian, the last one Tian was most powerful, eventually overwhelming all the others and controlled the state.田氏是虢氏、高氏、鲍氏、晏氏等贵族中势力最强大的,并最终取代各家,把持朝政。The Tian clan was the descendants of Chen.田氏原是陈国后裔。Under Duke Huan of Qi,they fled to Qi dodging the internal disorders.在齐桓公时,为避陈之内争,逃来齐国。In the middle of the Spring and Autumn, the influence of Tians was increasing.春秋中期,田氏势力逐渐强大。In 490 B. C. , Guo and Gao made Duke Tu the monarch after the death of Duke Jing.公元前490年,齐景公死,贵族虢氏、高氏立景公的儿子公子荼为国君。Tian Qi took this opportunity to launch an armed coup, defeated Guo and Gao, and then crowned Duke Yangsheng, anoth-er son of Duke Jing. Tian Qi became the prime minister.田氏乘机发动武装政变,打败了虢氏、高氏,立景公的另一个儿子公子阳生为国君(齐悼公),田乞为相。In 481 B. C. , Tian Chang, the son of Tian Qi, did the same thing again. He went as far as killing Duke Jian of Qi. From then on, Tians held the political power in Qi.公元前481年,田常田乞之子又发动武装政变,并杀死了齐简公,政权完全控制在田氏手中。It was in 391 B. C. , Tian He, the great-grandson of Tian Chang, replaced Duke Kang of Qi, and took the sovereign himself.到田常的曾孙田和时,其于公元前391年废掉齐康公,自立为国君。 /201511/407432

Turns out, you#39;re not just what you eat—you#39;re also where you eat.研究明,不仅你“吃的是什么”很重要,你“在哪儿吃的”也很重要。Researchers from Cornell University#39;s Food and Brand Lab found that study participants snacked on double the number of calories when standing in a messy kitchen compared to when they stood in an orderly one.康奈尔大学食物与品牌实验室的研究人员发现,当人身处脏乱的厨房中,他们摄入的热量是身处整洁厨房时的两倍。The researchers had 98 women spend 10 minutes in a kitchen, under the guise of asking them to wait for someone. Half of the participants stood in a cluttered kitchen, which was scattered with piles of newspapers and dirty dishes and had a ringing phone. The other half of the women waited in an organized kitchen.研究人员邀请了98位女性参与实验,假装请她们在厨房中等人,待上10分钟。其中,一半等在脏乱的厨房中,四下散落着报纸与脏盘子,外加一部疯狂作响的电话。另一半则在一间井井有条的厨房中等候。Both kitchens contained bowls of crackers, cookies and carrots, laid out for the participants to munch on. Each woman in the chaotic environment ate twice as many cookies—a total of 53 more calories—compared to those in the clean kitchen.当然,两间厨房中均摆着一盘盘饼干、曲奇与胡萝卜,供实验对象享用。结果发现,身处脏乱厨房的女士比整洁厨房中的多吃了一倍曲奇,多摄入了整整53卡路里。Why did this happen?这究竟是怎么回事呢?;Being in a chaotic environment and feeling out of control is bad for diets,; psychology professor and study author Lenny Vartanian said in a statement. ;It seems to lead people to think, #39;Everything else is out of control, so why shouldn#39;t I be?#39;;实验报告作者、心理学教授莱尼·瓦塔尼安表示:“身处杂乱的环境中,人容易失去自控力,因而不利于健康饮食。人们会觉得:#39;反正都乱作一团了,我干吗不也放纵一下自己呢?#39;”Vartanian said he suspects the same behavior would be true for men, but he#39;d need to confirm it with research.瓦塔尼安认为,男性在此实验中也会表现出类似的行为,不过这还有待实。While the study#39;s sample size was small, the findings emphasize something we know all too well: Stress is bad for you. Stress often causes people to overeat, as cortisol, the stress hormone, can trigger an increase in appetite. Beyond weight gain, too much stress can also increase a person#39;s heart rate, decrease sex drive and lead to painful conditions like headaches, irritable bowel syndrome and ulcers.尽管该研究样本很小,但结果却强调了我们不得不承认的一个事实:焦虑伤身。压力常常会导致人们暴饮暴食,因为人体内的皮质醇(压力荷尔蒙)能增强食欲。压力大不仅会使你体重增加,还可能引发心率升高、性欲低迷、头痛腹泻、溃疡等不良反应。While there are many ways to manage stress, including meditation, exercise and therapy, this particular study underscores the fact that there are easy and quick things you can do to find calm. The next time you procrastinate tidying up the kitchen, remember that the exercise will benefit you in so many ways. Plus, less clutter decreases the chances of unwanted, four-legged kitchen visitors coming around.当然,纾解压力的方法数不胜数,比如冥想、运动、理疗等。不过,该研究也表明,舒缓身心可从身边的小事做起,简简单单,成效迅速。下回当你面对“满厨疮痍”,不幸又犯拖延症时,不妨告诉自己,打扫厨房,好处多多。另外,把屋子打扫得干干净净,也不怕“小强”造访啦。 /201602/427448

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