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2017年10月24日 19:11:23来源:京东大全

  • This week, the international yoga community said goodbye to a beloved teacher, B.K.S. Iyengar, who died at the age of 95. He is credited with bringing yoga to the Western world and making it accessible to every age and walk of life. To learn more about what makes Iyengar yoga so special to those who practice it, I spoke with Carrie Owerko, a teacher at the Iyengar Yoga Institute of Greater New York. She was also a student of B.K.S. Iyengar, and studied with him in India in February. Heres an edited version of our conversation.本周,国际瑜伽界跟深受敬爱的老师B·K·S·艾扬B.K.S. Iyengar)告别。他享年95岁。他被认为是把瑜伽带到西方世界的功臣,让所有年龄段和各个阶层的人都能接触到它。为更多地了解艾扬格瑜伽对练习者来说为何如此特别,我采访了大纽约区艾扬格瑜伽协Iyengar Yoga Institute of Greater New York)的老师卡丽·奥沃Carrie Owerko)。她也是B·K·S·艾扬格的学生,今月份跟他在印度学习。下面是我们谈话的剪辑版。Q. Why was B.K.S. Iyengar such an important teacher?问:为什么B·K·S·艾扬格是一位重要的老师?A. B.K.S. Iyengar was really a pioneer. He was one of the people who brought yoga to the West and really made it popular because he made it approachable for anyone. He felt that yoga was for everybody. No matter what the challenges physical challenges, mental challenges or age he didnt see any limitation.答:B·K·S·艾扬格真的是一位先驱。他是最早把瑜伽带到西方社会的人之一,他让它变得真正流行,让任何人都能接触到它。他觉得瑜伽属于所有人。身体或精神上的缺陷乃至年龄在他看来都不是限制。I think one of his main contributions was making yoga accessible, but also the degree of attention he gave to the practices of asana, or postural yoga, and to pranayama, the breathing exercises, was immense. He was also an amazing communicator. He was constantly finding new ways to help his students increase their capacity to be aware of what was going on in their bodies and minds.我觉得他的主要贡献之一是让所有人都能练瑜伽,而且他十分关注瑜伽体位和呼吸。他还非常擅于沟通,不断寻找新方法帮助学生提高了解自己身心的能力。Iyengar is a lot of the yoga people experience in the ed States. The teacher may not be teaching Iyengar, but that teacher has been influenced by Iyengar yoga in some way.在美国,很多瑜伽练习者都练过艾扬格瑜伀?他们的老师教的可能不是艾扬格瑜伽,但是那位老师在某些方面总会受过艾扬格瑜伽的影响。Q. What is unique about Iyengar yoga?问:艾扬格瑜伽的独特之处是什么?A. What distinguishes Iyengar yoga is the very high degree of attention paid to alignment. Props may be used to increase awareness and to make the poses accessible. Sometimes we hold the poses longer than students might be used to in a flow-style class. There is an emphasis on movement, but then learning how to calmly abide in the body.答:艾扬格瑜伽的一个特点是非常注重校正。可能会使用道具来增强意识,帮助练习者做出某些姿势。有时我们练习某些姿势的时间比流瑜伽的课程要长一点。我们注重运动,但是然后就要学习如何平静地活在自己的身体里。The diversity of practice is another distinguishing element. We dont do one sequence every day. That is the case in other popular types of yoga where there might be a consistent sequence repeated day to day. Even though we do repeat some of the same poses, there is a lot of diversity in the sequencing. In my experience that helps prevent injury and overuse. His approach is therapeutic in nature. That is a huge aspect to the practice.另一个显著的特点是练习的多样化。我们不是每天都重复一套动作。其他流行的瑜伽派别可能每天重复一套动作。虽然我们确实也重复某些姿势,但是在顺序上有很多变化。根据我的经验,那能帮助防止受伤和劳损。他的方法在本质上是治疗性的。那是这项锻炼很重要的一个方面。Q. Why did B.K.S. Iyengar use props in his teaching?问:为什么B·K·S·艾扬格在教学中使用道具?A. Take the yoga block. Everybody knows a yoga block. Its something you can get at Bed Bath amp; Beyond. The prototype of the yoga block was actually a rock or cinder block from B.K.S. Iyengars garden. When he was teaching students, he would sometimes place students over his knee for a supported back arch if they couldnt support themselves. The story goes that he asked his daughter to go in the yard and bring this cinder block to help. That was the beginning of the yoga block. He would use whatever was in the environment tables, chairs, ropes. The more common props belts, straps, blocks and chairs, this is the type of equipment that was not really used in the practice of yoga. Now everybody is using them. There are never enough props to go around.答:以瑜伽砖为例。每个人都知道瑜伽砖,在Bed Bath amp; Beyond商店就能买到。瑜伽砖的来源实际上是B·K·S·艾扬格花园里的一块石头或煤渣砖。教学生的时候,有时如果学生自己不起来的话,他会把学生放在自己膝盖上作为背部拱起的撑。据说他让女儿去院子里找一块煤渣砖帮忙。那就是瑜伽砖的起源。他会利用周围的任何东西——桌子、椅子和绳子。更常见的道具是腰带、带子、砖块和椅子,过去它们并不用于瑜伽练习。如今每个人都在用。道具再多也不嫌多。Q. Is there a distinguishing pose or style of pose that is unique to Iyengar?问:艾扬格瑜伽有没有一种独特的姿势或者一种独特的体式风格?A. I dont know of a pose that we do exclusively in Iyengar that is not done in other styles. But the headstand and shoulder stand are really important poses in our practice. They are not always taught in other styles of yoga. We have alternatives for people who are not able to do them. If someone comes to an Iyengar class, they know there will be some inverted pose that is taught. We dont require to people do them but we try to make them accessible and safe. We insist on a yoga blanket to prevent overstretching of the neck area. Iyengar yoga is very cautious and mindful.答:我没听说有哪种瑜伽体式是艾扬格瑜伽独有的。但是头倒立和肩倒立对我们的练习非常重要。其他类型的瑜伽并不都教这些体式。对那些做不到这些体式的人,我们有一些替代体式。来上艾扬格瑜伽课程的人知道我们会教一些倒立的体式。我们不强求,但是会尽量让学生接触到这些体式,并保他们的安全。我们坚决要求用瑜伽垫,防止颈部的过度伸长。艾扬格瑜伽非常谨慎小心。Q. When did you last practice with Mr. Iyengar?问:你上次跟B·K·S·艾扬格一起练瑜伽是什么时候?In February of this year, I was in India, and B.K.S. Iyengar was in the practice. Even though his daughter and son and now his granddaughter are teaching the majority of the classes now, he would be in the practice hall every single day correcting people and engaging people. Even at 95 years old, he couldnt help himself. He had to teach. It was his calling.答:今年2月我在印度时B·K·S·艾扬格还在教课。虽然现在他女儿、儿子和孙女在教大部分的课程,但是他每天都在练习厅纠正学生,和学生交谈。虽5岁了,他也闲不住。他必须得教。那是他的使呀?Q. Do you have any special memories of him?问:你对他有没有什么特殊的记忆?A. There were several different times where we had exchanges and encounters. He notices everything. One memory that stands out I hadnt been to India for a few years. He saw me and said, ;Oh, a little bit thin.I had only lost like three pounds and thought, ;How could he possibly notice that?We were laughing. My mother doesnt even do that.答:我们有过几次交流。他什么都能注意到。有一件事让我记忆犹新——我有几年没去印度了。他见到我说,“哦,瘦了一点。”我当时只瘦了大概三磅,心想,“他怎么可能注意到了呢?”我们都大笑起来。连我妈妈都做不到。Another time when he was in the ed States for his book tour, we had done a demonstration of poses at the City Center in New York to celebrate his book tour. He loved the theatrical, and we did this demonstration and he was very enthusiastic.还有一次,他来美国宣传新书,我们在纽约的市中心剧院(City Center)展示一些瑜伽姿势,庆祝他的新书宣传活动。他喜欢那个剧院,我们做了展示,他非常热心。I remember when we were at the institute he looked me in the eye and said, ;You have to maintain. To someone who doesnt practice yoga, that might not mean anything, but we had worked so hard. It pushes you to break into new territory and challenge yourself, and after doing that you might back off. But that thing about maintaining the practice, that really stuck. Excellence is what he wanted of us. Its hard to put into words what you feel for someone who has changed your life.我记得有一次我们在协会,他凝视着我说,“你必须坚持下去。”对不练瑜伽的人来说,这话可能没什么意义,但是我们练得很辛苦。它推动你进入新的领域,挑战自己,在那之后,你可能想后退。但是,坚持练习这件事,真的让你感觉很困难。他希望我们一直优秀。你很难用语言描述你对于改变你生命的人的感觉。来 /201409/325774。
  • The UK has begun taking orders for a government bond denominated in China’s currency a first for a western country.英国发行了一只以人民币计价的政府债券,这在西方国家中为首例。According to the Treasury, the sale is proof of the strengthening relationship between the UK and China.英国财政部表示,人民币债券的发行,显示出英中关系日益强化。The sale is expected to raise about Rmb2bn, or #163;200m, the same size as the first Islamic government bond sold by UK this year which attracted global investor orders of more than #163;2bn. In total the UK government plans to borrow #163;127bn from bond markets this financial year.此次发行预计筹集0亿元人民币(亿英镑),发行规模等同于英国今年发行的第一伊斯兰债券,后者已吸引全球投资者0亿英镑的申购。英国政府计划本财年总共从债券市场筹集1270亿英镑。By issuing debt in renminbi the UK is making a statement about its belief in the Chinese currency’s future in the international economic system. “Key to our long-term economic plan is increasing our exports to fast-growing economies like China,said George Osborne, chancellor, last week. “To do that, we need to make sure China’s currency, the renminbi, is used and traded here.”通过此次发行人民币债券,英国政府表现出对人民币在未来国际经济体系中地位的信心。英国财政大臣乔#8226;奥斯George Osborne)上周表示:“对于我们的长期经济规划来说,关键在于加大对中国等快速增长的经济体的出口……要做到这一点,我们必须确保中国的货币——人民币——在英国得到使用和交易。”The UK joins a host of governments and central banks in diverting reserves into the Chinese currency. Australia has announced its intention of holding 5 per cent of reserves in Chinese bonds, while Nigeria’s central bank keeps at least a 10th of its FX holdings in renminbi.许多政府和央行正将人民币纳入外汇储备,英国也是其中之一。澳大利亚已宣布计划将其外汇储备的大%投资于中国国债,而尼日利亚央行外汇储备中,人民币资产占到至少十分之一。The pace of internationalisation has picked up in the past year with new currency swap agreements, clearing banks and renminbi investment as being agreed in several financial centres. Russia this week set up a currency swap facility with the People’s Bank of China.过去一年人民币加快了国际化的步伐。数国与中国签订了新的货币互换协议、建立起清算行,几个世界金融中心间也就人民币投资配额达成协议。本周,俄罗斯也与中国央People’s Bank of China)建立了货币互换机制。While the UK bond is a first for a national government, the Canadian province of British Columbia became the first foreign government entity to sell a dim sum bond in late 2013.尽管英国政府是首个发行人民币债券的国家级政府,但加拿大的不列颠哥伦比亚省却是首个发行人民币债券的外国政府实体,该省013年底发行了“点心债”。The dim sum bond market renminbi-denominated issues outside mainland China began in late . So far this year dim sum issuance has doubled last year’s, according to figures from Dealogic, a data provider. The offshore market has typically offered lower funding costs than the onshore market.点心债是在中国内地以外发行的以人民币计价的债券。这一市场建立009年底。根据数据供应商Dealogic的数据,今年到目前为止点心债发行量比去年增加了一倍。对融资者而言,离岸市场的融资成本通常比中国在岸市场低。Most of the stellar growth has come from demand for capital from Chinese companies rather than multinationals.这轮强劲增长主要来自中国企业的资金需求,而不是跨国公司。Bank of China, HS and Standard Chartered have been employed to arrange the UK bond sale.中国(Bank of China)、汇丰银HS)和渣打银Standard Chartered)为英国人民币债券的指定承销行。The three banks joined the Treasury in holding an investor presentation about the bond in London this week and an online presentation aimed at Asian investors.本周,这三家与英国财政部共同在伦敦举行了债券发行路演,以及面向亚洲投资者的网络路演。来 /201410/336007。
  • The U.S. Department of Homeland Security could begin deporting families in the country illegally by early January, according to a published report.有媒体报道,美国国土安全部可能从明年1月初开始驱逐非法移民家庭。The Washington Post reported late Wednesday that the U.S. is preparing a series of raids that would target families who have come to the ed States illegally since the start of last year.华盛顿邮报星期三晚间报道说,美国有关当局正准备展开一系列突袭,目标是自去年年初以来非法进入美国的家庭。The paper, citing unnamed sources, says the nationwide campaign by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement could start as early as January 2016.华盛顿邮报援引匿名消息人士的话说,美国移民及海关执法局最早将016月在全国范围内展开驱逐行动。The report says it would be the first large-scale effort to deport the more than 100,000 families who have entered the country through the southern border since last year. Many of those families were fleeing violence in Central America.报道说,这将是美国当局首次采取大规模行动,驱逐去年以来越过南部边界非法进入美国的10万多个家庭。其中很多家庭进入美国是为了逃离中美洲的暴力。But the Post says the operation is expected to target only adults and children who have aly been ordered by an immigration judge to leave the country, and the operation has not been given final approval by the Department of Homeland Security.不过,华盛顿邮报也表示,预计这次行动只针对那些已被移民法官勒令离境的成人及儿童,而且这项行动尚未得到国土安全部的最后批准。来 /201512/418101。
  • TOKYO Hiroyuki Hara has increased prices at his flower shop in recent months, part of a broad reversal of the deflation that has long plagued Japan’s economy. Getting prices rising is a national goal, but Mr. Hara isn’t sure the new landscape is any more vibrant.东京——最近几个月,原裕之(Hiroyuki Hara,音译)经营的花店涨价了。这反映了一个宏观趋势,即长期困扰日本经济的通货紧缩正在扭转。让物价上涨是一项国家目标,但原裕之不确定的是,新的状态是否算得上更具活力。“We used to get a lot of office workers in here, but now it’s mostly just older people, the ones with savings,he says. Sales are down this year. He blames the shrinking buying power of his customerspaychecks.“过去我们的顾客中有许多白领,现在主要是年龄稍大的人,有积蓄的那些,”原裕之说。销售额在今年出现了下降。他认为这是因为顾客收入的购买力缩水了。Mr. Hara’s own costs are mounting too, as a precipitous decline in the value of Japan’s currency has made imported flowers pricier. And although he is charging more, the extra money is going to the government, which controversially raised sales taxes in April. A further tax increase is planned for next year. “It has me worried,Mr. Hara says.原裕之的经营成本也在上涨,因为日元的急剧贬值已经让进口花卉变得更昂贵。尽管他提高了价格,但多收的钱都流向了政府。今月,日本政府在争议声中提高了消费税。还有计划明年再次增税。“这让我很担心,”原裕之说。Japan’s audacious campaign to reinvigorate its economy is entering a make-or-break phase.日本旨在振兴经济的大胆行动,正在进入一个成败攸关的阶段。After nearly two years of aggressive stimulus under Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, joblessness has plunged, big companies like Toyota are earning record profits and corrosive price declines have been replaced by something Japan has rarely seen in decades inflation.在首相安倍晋Shinzo Abe)政府积极的经济刺激措施实施了近两年之后,失业率大幅下降,丰Toyota)等大型企业的利润正创下新高,对经济有害的价格下跌的状况消失了,取而代之的是几十年来在日本十分罕见的通货膨胀。Yet the benefits of Abenomics, as the program is known, have been unevenly distributed. Many consumers and businesses simply don’t feel better off.然而,这种被称为“安倍经济学”的政策带来的益处并不均衡。许多顾客和企业并没有感到情况出现了改善。The problem threatens to undermine support for the effort at a critical juncture. Economic output fell sharply in the second quarter, immediately after April’s sales tax increase evidence that consumer confidence remains fragile. Mr. Abe will soon have to decide whether to move forward with the next tax increase or table it.这一问题可能会在当前的紧要关头削弱对刺激政策的持。在4月份上调了消费税之后,二季度经济产出大幅下降,这明了消费者信心仍然相当脆弱。安倍晋三很快需要决定,是再次增税,还是暂时搁置这一计划。“There is a sping sense of disappointment with Abenomics,says Masazumi Wakatabe, an economics professor at Waseda University in Tokyo. The fact that prices are rising is not, by itself, a bad thing. Just the opposite: The government and most economists see it as preferable to the deflation that has dogged Japan since the late 1990s.“对安倍经济学的失望情绪正在蔓延,”东京早稻田大学(Waseda University)的经济学教授若田部昌Masazumi Wakatabe)说。物价上涨本身不是坏事。恰恰相反:日本政府和多数经济学家认为,它比通货紧缩要好。自上世0年代末开始,日本就一直受到通货紧缩的困扰。When prices fall, it encourages households and businesses to squirrel away cash, holding back growth. Deflation also makes it difficult for central banks to rally an economy by cutting interest rates, which in Japan have been stuck at zero for years.当物价下降时,就会鼓励家庭和企业把现金囤积起来,这就抑制了增长。通货紧缩还让央行更加难以通过下调利率来提振经济。日本已连续多年保持零利率水平。Yet the public is showing clear signs of inflation fatigue. In a poll published on Monday by the Tokyo Broadcasting System, a national television network, nine in 10 respondents said they had no “real feelingthat the government initiatives were improving living standards.然而公众正明显表现出通胀疲劳的迹象。在东京广播公司(Tokyo Broadcasting System)周一公布的民意调查中,每10个受访者中就有九人表示,没有“真正感到”政府的行动正在改善生活水平。Instead of the balanced rise in prices and wages that Mr. Abe promised, pay has lagged, in effect making workers poorer. Adjusted for price changes, household incomes were down a full 6 percent in September compared with a year earlier.工资水平没有像安倍承诺的那样,与物价同步增长,而是停滞不前,实际上让工薪阶层更贫穷了。根据物价水平变化进行调整之后,日本人的家庭收入9月同比下降了6%。Kathy M. Matsui, an analyst at Goldman Sachs, says sluggish wage growth is partly the flip side to Japan’s protective employment practices. “The social contract is what? It’s when times are tough, unlike in the West, we’ll keep you on the payroll, although we’ll slash your wages,she says. “But then when times get good, you don’t get as much of what you might get elsewhere.”高盛公Goldman Sachs)的分析师凯茜·松井(Kathy M. Matsui)说,工资增长缓慢一定程度上是日本保护性雇佣惯例的副作用。“社会契约是什么?就是我们和西方不同,在经济困难的时期,我们还是会给你发工资,虽然会减薪,”她说。“但当情况好转之后,你也不会获得可以在其他地方拿到的高工资。”Rather than ease efforts to create inflation, the central bank has redoubled them. In an unexpected decision, the Bank of Japan said on Friday that it would expand its program of buying government bonds and other assets to the equivalent of more than 0 billion a year. The move, intended to stimulate borrowing and spending, spurred a rally in global stocks.央行没有放松制造通胀的做法,而是付出了加倍的努力。日本银Bank of Japan)周五出人意料地宣布,将扩大购买政府债券和其他资产的行动,使之达到每年价值000亿美元的规模。此举旨在刺激借贷和消费,全球股市应声上扬。“We are at a critical point for escaping deflation,Haruhiko Kuroda, the central bank governor, said, adding that “half measureswould only bring back Japan’s “deflationary mind-set.Hinting at what could be more stimulus to come, he added that the Bank of Japan would do whatever it took to meet its official target of 2 percent “coreprice increases, a measure that excludes the effect of taxes and other items.“我们正处在摆脱通货紧缩的关键时刻,”央行行长黑田东Haruhiko Kuroda)说,“半途而废”只会让日本的“通缩思维”卷土重来。他说,日本央行将采取一切必要手段,达到“核心”通胀%的官方目标,这一指标剔除了税负和其他项目的影响。这一表态暗示着,未来可能会推出更多刺激措施。But the aggressive stimulus, which has pushed down the value of the yen, is only complicating matters. At the outset, the currency’s retreat was universally embraced as a relief for Japan’s many exporters. Now it is feeding concerns that imports are too expensive. The value of the yen is down more than 30 percent against the dollar since 2012. Exports were supposed to flourish in response, but the trade balance has instead been stuck in deficit.但积极的刺激措施只是让事情变得更加复杂了。这些做法压低了日元汇率。一开始,日元的贬值受到了普遍的欢迎,被当做了许多日本出口商的福音。如今,它却开始激发进口商品过于昂贵的担忧。自012年以来,日元对美元贬值超0%。出口本应该因此增长,但恰恰相反,日本仍处于贸易逆差。It is not just the flowers in Mr. Hara’s shop that are costlier, but also big-ticket items like oil and natural gas, consumption of which has soared since the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011. Nuclear power plants remain closed nationwide, and electricity bills have leapt by double digits as a consequence.涨价的不光是原裕之店里的花卉,还有石油和天然气等高价商品。自2011年福岛核事故发生以来,石油和天然气的消耗量飙升。日本各地的核电站仍处于关闭状态,电费因此出现了两位数的上涨。“If the yen weakens any further, it would be bad for Japan’s economy as a whole,Genichi Tamatsuka, the president of Lawson, one of Japan’s biggest convenience store chains, told reporters this week.“如果日元进一步走低,会对整个日本经济造成不良影响,”日本大型便利连锁店罗森(Lawson)的总裁玉塚元一(Genichi Tamatsuka)本周告诉记者。In parliament on Tuesday, Mr. Abe was forced to defend the central bank actions that have depressed the currency. “When the yen falls, there are issues that go with that fall, and we have to deal with them,he said, though he gave no sign that he would pressure Mr. Kuroda to reverse course.周二在国会,安倍晋三不得不为央行压低日元汇率的行为进行了辩解。他说,“日元贬值时,会产生很多问题,需要我们加以解决。”不过他没有表示会要求黑田东彦改变路线。The sales tax increase has drawn the most intense opposition. The two-stage rise was authorized by a previous government, as a means of tackling Japan’s vast public debt. The second part, which is scheduled for October, will take the rate to 10 percent double what it was before the first increase.提高消费税税率一事招致了最为激烈的反对。增税是由之前的政府批准的,分两阶段进行,为的是消化日本的巨额公共债务。第二阶段定于明0月执行,将把税率提至10%,是第一次增税前税率的两倍还多。Mr. Abe has the authority to stop it if he judges the economy too fragile. But he must make his choice by next month to get a revised tax law through parliament in time. So far he has been coy, saying only that he wants to make a “coolheaded decision.”如果安倍晋三认为经济过于脆弱,他有权不予实斀?不过,他必须在下月作出决定,才能让修定的税法及时获得国会通过。截至目前,他一直不愿明确态度,只是表示自己希望做出“冷静的决定”。Some lawmakers and economists close to the government have urged the prime minister to postpone, by perhaps 18 months, thus, giving time, they hope, for wages to catch up to prices and create a less painful kind of inflation. “We need to prioritize economic growth,Kozo Yamamoto, a lawmaker in Mr. Abe’s Liberal Democratic Party who helped plan the stimulus policies, said in an interview.一批与政府关系密切的议员和经济学家敦促他推迟增税,比如延期18个月。他们希望,这样就能留出时间来,让民众的薪资赶上物价的上涨,创造一种不那么令人痛苦的通胀。“我们需要把经济增长放到首位,”山本幸三议Kozo Yamamoto)接受采访时称。他来自来安倍晋三所在的自民党,参与了经济刺激政策的筹划工作。Most of Japan’s business and political leaders are lined up on the other side of the debate, citing potential danger to the country’s creditworthiness if financial markets conclude the country is turning away from fiscal discipline. The powerful finance ministry, corporate executives, bankers and even the largest opposition party favor going ahead as planned. Sadayuki Sakakibara, chairman of Keidanren, the lobby group that represents Japan’s biggest companies, has called the tax increase a “national issuethat “can’t be avoided.”不过,日本商界与政界的多数领导人物都持相反的看法。他们的理由是,假如金融市场断定日本背离财政自律,有可能会让国家信誉受损。颇有权势的财务省、企业高管、业高层、乃至最大的反对党,一致青睐按原定计划增税。代表日本大企业的游说团体“日本经济团体联合会Keidanren)的会长榊原定Sadayuki Sakakibara)表示,增税是“不可逃避”的“国家问题”。Even Mr. Kuroda, the Bank of Japan governor, is pushing for the tax rise to go ahead. He is doing so despite complaints that it will widen the gap between wages and prices and discourage the precise thing he is trying to foster, consumer spending.就连日本央行行长黑田东彦也在推动如期增税。尽管有人抱怨,增税将拉大薪资与物价的差距,抑制他正竭力促进的消费性开,但他依然主张这样做。A finance ministry official before he became a central banker, he views the tax as essential to addressing the debt, which relative to the size of the economy is the largest in the world. By printing money freely, he is creating what he hopes will be a cushion against its economic impact.供职央行之前,黑田东彦曾是财务省的官员。日本国债的规模与经济总量的比例为全球第一。他认为,消费税是应对这一问题的关键所在。他希望通过大肆印钞,来创造出一个缓冲,减轻增税对经济的影响。“If there were a loss of confidence in the government’s finances,Mr. Kuroda said last week, “it would be extremely difficult to deal with.”“如果对政府的财务状况丧失了信心,”黑田东彦本周称。“应对起来就会非常困难。”来 /201411/341510。
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