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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年10月24日 08:28:34
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PARIS Before the applause had even settled in the suburban convention center where the Paris Agreement was adopted by consensus Saturday night, world leaders warned that momentum for the historic accord must not be allowed to dissipate.巴黎——上周六晚间,各国在巴黎郊外的会议中心一致通过《巴黎协议Paris Agreement)。就在会议中心里的热烈掌声仍然响彻耳际之时,世界领导人已经发出警告,绝不允许这个具有历史意义的协议的动力有所消退。“Today, we celebrate,said Miguel Arias the European Unions energy commissioner and top climate negotiator. “Tomorrow, we have to act.”“今天,我们欢呼庆祝,”欧盟能源委员、首席气候谈判代表米格尔·阿里亚斯·卡涅Miguel Arias Canete)说。“明天,我们就必须行动起来。”With nearly every nation on earth having now pledged to gradually reduce emissions of the heat-trapping gases that are warming the planet a universal commitment that had eluded negotiators and activists since the first Earth Day summit meeting, in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 much of the burden for maintaining the momentum now shifts back to the countries to figure out, and put in place, the concrete steps needed to deliver on their pledges.现在,几乎地球上每个国家现在都承诺逐渐减少导致全球变暖的温室气体的排放。这是自1992年首届地球日峰会在里约热内卢召开以来,谈判代表及活动人士首次获得这种普遍承诺。保持动力的大部分重担目前已转回到各个国家,它们需要制定并落实兑现承诺所需的具体步骤。The task may prove most challenging for India, which is struggling to lift more than half of its population of 1.25 billion out of poverty and to provide basic electricity to 300 million of them. Rich countries are intent that India not get stuck on a coal-dependent development path.这项任务可能对于印度来说尤为艰难,该国正在努力帮助超过一半的人口摆脱贫困,并为其亿人提供基本电力。印度的总人口为12.5亿。富裕国家则一心希望,印度不要陷入依赖煤炭的发展道路。“It is essential that the developing countries are able to transform their energy system before they develop a level of dependence on coal that we have in the industrialized countries,said Jan Burck of the activist group Germanwatch.活动人士组织德国观察(Germanwatch)的扬·伯克(Jan Burck)表示,“重要的是,发展中国家在达到像发达国家一样的对煤炭的依赖水平之前,能够改变能源系统。”During negotiations, India insisted that it would not be able to make the transition without assistance.在谈判期间,印度坚称该国无法在没有援助的情况下完成转变。“There will have to be new mechanisms,Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar told reporters after the agreement was adopted.印度环境部长普拉卡什·雅瓦德卡Prakash Javadekar)在该协议获得通过后对记者表示,“必须要有新机制。”China, meanwhile, is investing so heavily in clean energy that some observers think its carbon emissions might have hit a peak a milestone that China had only promised to reach by 2030.与此同时,中国正在大力投资清洁能源。其巨大力度让一些观察人士认为,中国的碳排放量可能已经达到峰值。中国曾承诺030年前达到这一里程碑。Its top climate negotiator, Xie Zhenhua, said Saturday that “China will actively implement its nationally determined contributions so as to reach a peak as soon as possible,but privately its officials have expressed pride that it no longer has the coal-stained reputation it had during the climate talks in Copenhagen, Denmark.中国代表团团长解振华在周六表示,“中国将积极实施国家自主贡献计划,以尽快达到峰值,”但该国官员们私下表示,中国已经摆脱009年丹麦哥本哈根气候谈判期间被煤炭玷污的名声,他们为此感到骄傲。Giza Gaspar Martins, an Angolan diplomat who represents the Least Developed Countries, which negotiated in Paris as a bloc, said of the accord: “This is but one stop on a long journey. This puts a system in place to do climate action, but we will have a lot of work to do.”最不发达国家组Least Developed Countries)作为一个阵营在巴黎参加谈判,其代表、安哥拉外交官吉扎·加斯帕·马丁Giza Gaspar Martins)提到该协议时说,“这只是漫漫长路中的一站。它提供了一个采取气候行动的系统,但我们还有很多工作要做。”He said the pledges were designed to emphasize participation rather than ambition, but now “we have to make sure our national contributions are aligned with what the scientists tell us we need to be doing.”他表示,这些承诺旨在强调参与而不是目标,但现在“我们需要确保各国的自主贡献计划与科学家们认定的需要采取的举措保持一致”。Leaders here agreed that while legislation and regulation are essential to set the ground rules for the marketplace, the ultimate goal of replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy will require accelerated research and investment, and technological breakthroughs.与会的领导人们同意以下观点,即虽然需要通过法律法规为市场设定基本规则,但完成利用可再生能源替代化石燃料的最终目标则将需要加快研究、投资及技术突破的步伐。By calling albeit indirectly, and in delicately crafted phrases for net carbon emissions to be effectively brought down to zero “in the second half of this century,the Paris Agreement could mark “the beginning of the end of the fossil-fuel era,as Marcelo Mena Carrasco, a Chilean biochemical engineer and climate negotiator, put it.就像智利生化工程师、气候谈判代表马塞洛·梅纳·卡拉斯科(Marcelo Mena Carrasco)说的那样,通过要求——虽然是以间接、小心准备的措辞提出——“在本世纪下半叶”实现温室气体净零排放,《巴黎协议》可以算是标志着“终结化石燃料时代的起点”。That is certainly the hope of the Obama administration. Secretary of State John Kerry said the U.S. government had helped catalyze the agreement by toughening fuel-efficiency standards for cars and light trucks, cracking down on emissions from coal-fired power plants, and reaching a deal with China, the only country that emits even more greenhouse gases.这肯定是奥巴马政府希望看到的。美国国务卿约翰·克里(John Kerry)表示,美国政府曾通过收紧汽车及轻型卡车的燃油效率标准,控制燃煤发电站的排放量,与中国达成一致,在一定程度上推动了协议的达成。中国是唯一一个比美国排放更多温室气体的国家。President Barack Obama has endorsed the idea of a price on carbon in the form of a tax, or a cap-and-trade system like Californias and leaders of Canada, Chile, Ethiopia, France, Germany and Mexico endorsed the idea at the start of the Paris conference, but there was not nearly enough support to incorporate it into the Paris Agreement.贝拉克·奥巴马总统持给碳定价的计划,其方式是通过征税或模仿加州设立排放限额与交易系统。该计划在巴黎峰会开始时获得了加拿大、智利、埃塞尔比亚、法囀?德国和墨西哥的领导人的持,但因为没有获得足够多的持,无法纳入《巴黎协议》。While attention is shifting to the marketplace, the U.N. process will move ahead. The Paris Agreements provisions will not kick in until 2020. Indeed, though adopted “by consensus,no nation has signed it. Countries will be invited to do so in a ceremony at the U.N. headquarters in New York on April 22; the agreement officially will take effect after at least 55 countries, representing at least 55 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions, have signed on.注意力正在转向市场,而联合国的相关进程也将继续。《巴黎协议》的规定020年才会开始推行。实际上,虽然协议获得“一致”通过,但尚无国家签署协议。各国将获邀于明2日前往纽约联合国总部参加签订仪式;该协议在至5个国家——代表至5%的温室气体排放总量——签署后,才会正式生效。The ed States will be one of them; through careful legal craftsmanship, the Paris Agreement will not be considered as its own treaty under U.S. law but rather as an extension of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, which the Senate ratified in 1992.美国将是签署国之一;经过谨慎的法律制定,《巴黎协议》不会被视作依据美国法律制定的条约,而是《联合国气候变化框架公约ed NationsFramework Convention on Climate Change)的延伸,美国参议院于1992年批准了该公约。The ed Nations has several short-term priorities. One is to get the remaining countries that have not submitted emissions-reduction pledges to do so. Venezuela and St. Kitts and Nevis submitted their plans Saturday, bringing the total to 188.联合国有几个短期优先计划。一个是让尚未提交减排承诺的国家做出承诺。委内瑞拉、圣基茨和尼维斯联邦于周六提交了计划,使提交计划的国家总数达到188个。By May, the U.N. climate staff will update its estimate for the combined impact of the national pledges (now known as nationally determined contributions, the qualifying word “intendedhaving been dropped). Estimates of the first round of pledges suggested that, if carried out, they would still result in a rise of 2.7 to 3.5 degrees Celsius (4.9 to 6.3 degrees Fahrenheit) above preindustrial levels far above the newly adopted aspiration of an increase of just 1.5 degrees Celsius.月底之前,联合国气候官员将会更新对国家承诺(现在被称为国家自主贡献计划,去掉了限定词“预期”)带来的总体影响的预测。有关第一轮承诺的预测显示,如果实施计划,仍旧会导致气温比工业化前水平.7.5摄氏度,远高于新制定的目标——升.5摄氏度。Climate activists have long used a “power of the peopleapproach to promote sustainability and organize globally, and the world leaders who met here credited “civil societyfor keeping up the pressure.气候活动人士很早就利用“人民的力量”促进可持续发展,在全球进行组织,前来参加巴黎峰会的世界领导人们将持续加大的压力归功于“公民社会”。“Now the work to hold them to their promises begins,U.S. environmentalist and activist Bill McKibben wrote on Twitter, moments after the gavel fell on the Paris Agreement. .5? Game on.”“如今,让它们信守承诺的工作开始了,“美国环保人士、活动人士比尔·麦克奇Bill McKibben)在《巴黎协议》敲定后不久在Twitter写道。.5度?游戏开始了。”来 /201512/415993

BEIJING - Guo Boxiong, a former Chinese military leader, was expelled from the Communist Party of China (CPC) for taking bribes, according to a decision made at a meeting of the CPC Central Committee’s Political Bureau on Thursday.北京—郭伯雄,原中国军委领导,根据中共中央政治局在周四举行的一次会议上作出决定,郭伯雄因受贿被开除党籍。The political bureau also decided to transfer his case and relevant evidence to military prosecutors for handling in accordance with the law.政治局决定将郭伯雄涉嫌犯罪问题及线索移送司法机关依法处理。Guo, 73, served as vice chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) from 2002 to 2012.郭伯雄,73岁,2002年到2012年期间,任中央军委副主席一职。The decision was made after members of the political bureau reviewed and approved a report by the CMC disciplinary inspection authority on Guo’s investigation on Thursday.经中央军委纪律检查局于星期四对郭的调查报告,由政治局委员审阅后作出这个决定。Investigations found that Guo took advantage of his post to seek promotions and benefits for others and accepted bribes personally or through his family, said the statement issued after the meeting.这次会议后发布的声明中称,郭伯雄利用职务便利,为他人谋取职务晋升等方面利益,直接或通过家人收受贿赂;His acts seriously violated the CPC’s discipline and left a vile impact,; it said.“他严重违反党的纪律,情节严重,影响恶劣,”声明中说道。The statement said the CPC Central Committee on April 9 decided to put Guo under investigation according to the Party’s disciplinary rules.2015日,中共中央依照党的纪律条例,决定对郭伯雄进行组织调查。FIRM HAND AINST CORRUPTION坚决打击腐败The punishment of Guo demonstrates the firm determination of the CPC Central Committee, with Xi Jinping as general secretary, to strictly govern the Party and armed forces in line with the law, the statement said.It also shows the CPC leadership’s strong will to firmly punish corrupt officials and control corruption, the statement said.会议认为,严肃查处郭伯雄严重违纪涉嫌违法犯罪问题,充分体现了以习近平同志为总书记的党中央推进全面从严治党、依法治军从严治军的坚定政治决心,表明了党中央坚定不移惩治腐败的坚强意志。The whole Party and armed forces should be aware that the battle against corruption is still tough and complicated and should progress unwaveringly.全党和全军委都应意识到反腐这个斗争是艰苦和复杂的,我们必须坚定不移地进行下去。来 /201508/389747

  

  The Chinese People’s Liberation Army on Tuesday accused the US of stoking tensions in the South China Sea as it released a muscular new military doctrine envisaging far-flung combat operations.中国军方周二发布了一份彰显军事实力、展望远程作战的军事白皮书,并谴责美国加剧了南中国海(South China Sea)的紧张局势。At the launch of a security white paper, PLA spokesman Yang Yujun said unnamed “outside powerswere trying to “tarnish the Chinese military’s reputation and create an atmosphere of exaggerated tension在发布这份防白皮书时,中国国防部新闻发言人杨宇军表示,“外来势力”正在努力“抹黑中国军队,刻意渲染地区紧张局势”。他并未说明外来势力是指谁。“We cannot eliminate the possibility that this is to create excuses for the actions that certain countries may be planning to take,said Colonel Yang. “This is not a new trick, and has been used many times in the past.”“也不排除这是为个别国家今后可能采取的一些行动寻找借口,”杨宇军大校说,“这也不是什么新的伎俩,历史上大家已经见过多次了。”International concerns have risen in recent months over China’s accelerating efforts to create habitable islands on remote coral reefs in the South China Sea, mirroring efforts by neighbours including Vietnam, Taiwan and the Philippines intended to buttress maritime claims in the region.近几个月来,国际社会对中国在南中国海域遥远的珊瑚礁上建造可居住岛屿感到日益担忧。中国的做法跟越南、台湾和菲律宾等邻国或地区类似,以持本国在该地区的海上主权要求。In the past month, the US has stepped up surveillance flights over the Chinese construction projects. In one case, a P-8 Poseidon aircraft carried a camera crew from television network CNN, which broadcast radio warnings issued by the Chinese navy. The US is considering flying surveillance missions even closer to the islands, as well as sailing warships within a few miles of them, as part of a new, more robust US military posture in the area.过去一个月里,美国增加了对中国海上工程的监视飞行。几天前,一架P-8海神(Poseidon)海上巡逻机搭载了CNN的一个摄制组执行了一次这样的飞行任务,后者报道称,中国海军对此发出了无线电警告。美国正考虑派飞机前往距离这些岛屿更近的区域执行监视任务,并派战舰驶入距这些岛屿几英里的海域内,以彰显美国在该地区更强硬的军事力量。“I think in the past few weeks, it seems that suddenly there is a lot of uproar regarding this,said Colonel Yang. “There has been a lot of hype surrounding this news. Is it because the South China Sea has shrunk and become more crowded?”“为什么最近这一段时间或者说最近几周以来,突然这个事情就闹起来了,这个信息就炒起来了,是不是南海突然间缩小了?”杨宇军大校说。“我可以告诉大家,南海很宽阔,一点也没有缩小。”The war of words takes place against a broad rethink of China’s defence policy, presented in the white paper on Tuesday.这场口水战发生之际,各方正对中国防务策略进行广泛的反思。这种反思在周二发布的白皮书中也有呈现。“China’s Military Strategy the eighth such white paper since 1998, emphasises the evolution of the country’s security needs away from simple territorial defence towards an offensive capacity overseas.这是中国998年以来发布的第八什?中国的军事战略》白皮书,强调中国的安全需求正从简单的国土防御转向海外进攻能力。The paper also highlighted information and propaganda as key strategic elements in the “winning of informationised local warsthe same day as the PLA opened an account on Weibo, China’s equivalent of Twitter.白皮书强调,中国要将军事斗争准备基点放在“打赢信息化局部战争上”。中国国防部在发布白皮书的同日,还在新浪微上开通“国防部发布”账号。Army operations would “continue to reorient from theatre defence to trans-theatre mobility according to the document, while the navy would shift its focus from “offshore waters defenceto “open-seas protection The air force, meanwhile, would shift focus from “territorial air defenceto “defence and offence白皮书称,中国陆军要继续实现”机动作战、立体攻防”的战略要求,海军要将战略重点从“近海防御”转向“远海护卫”,空军则要实现“国土防空型向攻防兼备型转变”。A new counter-terrorism law still under discussion would for the first time legalise the stationing of Chinese troops abroad without a UN mandate, seen as a precursor to military operations further afield.中国正在讨论制定一部反恐法。这部法律将首次授权中国军队在没有获得联合国授权的情况下执行海外任务。外界认为,此举可能为中国在更远地区采取军事行动铺平道路。While the white paper promised that China would never attack first, it also made clear that China perceived itself to be surrounded by threats. It described “new threats from hegemonism, power politics and neo-interventionismas well as from terrorism, separatism,while insisting that “anti-China forces have never given up their attempt to instigate a “colour revolutionin the country.尽管白皮书承诺中国将不会率先发起攻击,但它也明确表示,中国面对多元复杂的安全威胁,包括“霸权主义、强权政治和新干涉主义”,以及恐怖主义和分裂势力,并强调“反华势力”一直没有放弃在中国制造“颜色革命”的努力。来 /201505/377415。

  Fran#231;ois Hollande, France’s president, rightly called it “an act of exceptional barbarity . . . against freedom of expression But the murder on Wednesday of 12 people at the Paris offices of Charlie Hebdo, a satirical magazine, will not surprise anyone familiar with the rising tensions among France’s 5m or more Muslim citizens and the poisonous legacy of French colonialism in north Africa.法国总统弗朗索瓦#8226;奥朗Fran#231;ois Hollande)恰如其分地将周三发生的击案称为“针对言论自由的……惨无人道之举”。不过,任何一个人,如果熟悉法国穆斯林公民群体中日渐紧张的情绪,以及法国对北非那段殖民历史延续至今的遗毒,那么他对讽刺漫画杂志《查理周刊Charlie Hebdo)巴黎总部12人被杀一事就不会感到意外。如今,法国的穆斯林公民人口已达00万甚至更多。For now, the perpetrators are unidentified. We need to keep in mind that the worst terrorist outrage in Europe of recent years, the murder of 77 people in Norway in 2011, was committed not by Islamist militants but by a far-right fanatic, Anders Behring Breivik.目前,袭击者的身份已经查明。我们不能忘记的是,欧洲近年来最严重恐怖事件的制造者,不是伊斯兰武装分子,而是极右翼狂热分子安德斯#8226;贝林#8226;布雷维克(Anders Behring Breivik)。在2011年发生在挪威的那次事件中,他杀害了77人。Like other politically motivated attacks, from 9/11 to the killing last May of four people at the Jewish museum in Brussels, the atrocity at Charlie Hebdo was despicable and indefensible. Among the first to condemn it was the French Council of the Muslim Faith, which termed it “a barbaric act against democracy and freedom of the press#8226;11事件到去月的布鲁塞尔犹太物馆事件(那次事件导致4人丧生),再到针对《查理周刊》的暴行,这种政治动机驱动的恐怖袭击都是卑鄙而不可原谅的。法国穆斯林信仰理事French Council of the Muslim Faith)是最先发声谴责的团体之一,称这次事件是“针对民主和出版自由的野蛮行径”。Charlie Hebdo is a bastion of the French tradition of hard-hitting satire. It has a long record of mocking, baiting and needling Muslims. Two years ago the magazine published a 65-page strip cartoon book portraying the Prophet’s life. And this week it gave special coverage to Soumission (“Submission, a new novel by Michel Houellebecq, the idiosyncratic author, which depicts France in the grip of an Islamic regime led by a Muslim president.《查理周刊》是法国媒体尖锐讽刺传统的一座堡垒。长期以来它都不乏揶揄、讥讽和针砭穆斯林的内容。两年前,该杂志出版过一5页的连环漫画书,描绘伊斯兰先the Prophet)的生活。就在本周,该杂志为米歇#8226;维勒贝克(Michel Houellebecq)的新小说《屈Soumission)制作了一组专题报道。维勒贝克是一位特立独行的作家,《屈》描绘的是一位穆斯林总统领导的伊斯兰政权控制下的法国。This is not in the slightest to condone the murderers, who must be caught and punished, or to suggest that freedom of expression should not extend to satirical portrayals of religion. It is merely to say that some common sense would be useful at publications such as Charlie Hebdo, and Denmark’s Jyllands-Posten, which purport to strike a blow for freedom when they provoke Muslims.这么说并没有任何为凶手开脱的意思,凶手必须被绳之以法。这么说也并非暗示言论自由不适用于对宗教的讽刺。我只是想说,对《查理周刊》和丹麦的《日德兰邮报Jyllands-Posten)这类刊物来说,用“常识”来思考会有帮助。这些杂志在激怒穆斯林的时候,总是自称是为了自由而战。Emotions are understandably high in France, where the next question is what impact Wednesday’s murders will have on the political climate, and in particular the fortunes of Marine Le Pen and her far-right National Front. Anti-Islamism is part of the electoral attraction of a party that topped the polls in May in France’s European Parliament elections.法国现在群情激奋,这可以理解。下一个问题是,这一杀事件会对法国政局带来什么影响,特别是对马琳#8226;勒庞(Marine Le Pen)及其领导的极右翼党派国民阵线(National Front)带来什么影响。该党在去年5月举行的法国欧洲议会选举中得票率第一,反伊斯兰主义正是其高人气的一个因素。Ms Le Pen has taken care to distance her party from the anti-Semitism that stained it and limited its appeal under her father, Jean-Marie Le Pen. But she has left anti-Islamism in place and even reinforced it.勒庞已谨慎地让其政党和反犹太主义保持一定距离。在她父亲让-玛丽#8226;勒庞(Jean-Marie Le Pen)领导国民阵线时,反犹太主义曾是该党的政治污点,并影响到它对选民的吸引力。但勒庞并未改变反伊斯兰主义的态度,甚至有所强化。In 2010 Ms Le Pen compared Muslims praying in the streets to the 1940-44 Nazi occupation of France. Less than 18 months later she collected 17.9 per cent of the vote in France’s presidential election. She has a good chance of increasing her share of the vote enough to win the first round though not the second, decisive round of the 2017 election.2010年,勒庞把穆斯林在街头祈祷比940-44年纳粹占领法囀?不8个月之后,她在法国总统选举中赢得了17.9%的选票。在2017年的选举中,她很可能会在第一轮中以更大的优势胜出——虽然不是在决定性的第二轮。Anti-Islamism and a hard line on immigration will shore up Ms Le Pen’s core vote, but they will not unlock the doors of the Elysée Palace. Surveys show that a majority of French people rejects racism and dislikes extremism.反伊斯兰主义以及对移民的强硬态度,将为勒庞拉来核心选票,但这不会为她打开通往爱丽舍宫(Elysée Palace)的大门。调查显示,多数法国人反对种族主义,也不喜欢极端主义。The English author Andrew Hussey, who lives in Paris, published a book last year called The French Intifada, in which he described France as “the world capital of liberty, equality and fraternity#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;under attack from the angry and dispossessed heirs to the French colonial project在巴黎生活的英国作家安德鲁·赫Andrew Hussey)去年出版了新书《法国起义The French Intifada),他在书中把法国形容为“自由、平等、友爱的世界首都,但承受着那些愤怒的、失势的法国殖民计划继承者的攻击。”The murders in Paris throw down a challenge to French politicians and citizens to stand up for the republic’s core values and defeat political violence without succumbing to the siren songs of the far right.巴黎发生的杀事件对法国政客和公民发出了挑战,将考验他们是否有勇气为法国的核心价值观挺身而出,击败政治暴力,拒绝屈于极右翼狂热分子的塞壬之歌。来 /201501/353356

  With just hours to spare, Congress has averted a partial U.S. government shutdown by passing a stopgap spending bill to keep federal agencies open past a midnight funding deadline.美国国会赶在午夜截止期限前通过了一个临时开法案,以维持联邦政府机构所需的资金,从而避免了美国部分政府部门关门。The House of Representatives approved the measure 271-151. Earlier Wednesday, it cleared the Senate 78-20. The bill, which extends the governments spending authority until December 11, now goes to the White House for President Barack Obamas signature.众议院以27151的投票表决结果批准了这项措施。周三早些时候,这项法案在参议院80的投票结果过关。将政府的出权延长21日的法案目前已送往白宫由奥巴马总统签署;The most important thing we can do is keep the government open for business and continue vital programs that all Americans rely on,; said Republican Congressman Hal Rogers. ;This legislation is the best path forward at this time, but we all know it is only a Band-Aid.;共和党众议员哈尔罗杰斯说:“我们所能做的最重要的事情是保持政府开门营业,继续所有美国人依靠的重要项目。”他说:“这项立法是眼下最好的前进道路,但我们都知道这只是个应急措斀?”The two congressional votes averted a partial government shutdown, similiar to the standoff two years ago, that resulted in shuttered government offices for more than two weeks, in an ideological dispute over a federal health program.这两项国会表决避免了部分政府部门关门。两年前,类似的僵局导致部分政府办公室关闭两个多星期,起因是关于联邦医疗计划的意见争议。来 /201510/402459SPOKANE, Wash. When she moved into her uncles basement in the largely white town of Coeur dAlene, Idaho, in 2004, Rachel A. Dolezal was still blond and pale-skinned and identified herself as a white woman one who had left a black husband and had a biracial child.华盛顿州斯波坎市—004年,蕾切尔·A·多尔扎尔(Rachel A. Dolezal)搬进爱达荷州科达伦镇的叔叔家,住在他的地下室里。科达伦镇的居民大部分都是白人,当时的蕾切尔还是白肤金发。她也自称是个白人,和黑人丈夫离了婚,带着一个混血孩子来到这里。But within a few years, her aly deep commitment to black causes and culture intensified. Co-workers and relatives began hearing talk that her background was mixed-race and even that she had called herself black.但在短短几年中,她之前就对黑人的理想与文化产生的强烈认同又有所深化。同事和亲戚开始听到她说,自己来自混血背景,甚至就是黑人。Many of them questioned the way she described herself, while others accepted it at face value. No one seems to have made an issue of it, but most people saw in her a force of personality that made her a strong and passionate advocate at the Human Rights Education Institute in Coeur dAlene, where she began working soon afterward.不少人曾对她形容自己的方式提出质疑,其他人则简单接受了这一点。但似乎没人把它当成一件大事,他们大多都在她身上感受到一种人格力量,这种力量使她成了科达伦人权教育协Human Rights Education Institute)里一名坚定而富有的倡导者。她在改变身份后没多久就开始在这里工作。“Its really impressive what she accomplished, bringing a lot of energy to these places,her uncle, Daniel A. Dolezal, recalled in a telephone interview on Tuesday, speaking of the human rights group as well as the NAACP chapter in Spokane, which she later rose to lead. He recalled her journey from being a down-on-her-luck single mother who took part-time teaching jobs, tried to sell her artwork, and worked in the camera store he owns in Coeur dAlene, in a part of the Idaho panhandle that was once the headquarters of Aryan Nations, the white supremacist group.“她的成就令人赞叹,给这些地方带来很多活力,”她的叔叔丹尼尔·A·多尔扎尔(Daniel A. Dolezal)在周二进行的电话采访中回忆到,他说到了上述人权机构和全国有色人种协进NAACP)在斯波坎市的分,多尔扎尔最终成了后者的负责人。他回忆了她一路走来的旅程,最初是一个不走运的单身母亲,兼职做着教师工作,后来试着出售自己创作的艺术品,并在他开在科达伦镇上的照相机商店里打工。当地属于爱达荷州走廊的一部分,一度曾是白人至上主义组织雅利安民族(Aryan Nations)的总部所在地。So when Dolezal (pronounced DOLE-uh-zhal) went on national televisionon Tuesdayfor the first time since she became the subject of a raging debate about racial identity and fabrication, it was no surprise that while she cannot claim a hint of black ancestry, she refused to concede that she had misled anyone. “I identify as black,she said with a smile.自多尔扎尔成为一场有关种族认同和身份造假的热烈争论的对象以来,她在周二首次出现在全国性的电视节目上。一点也不令人诧异的是,尽管无法明自己有丝毫的黑人血统,她还是拒绝让步和承认自己之前误导了任何人。“我觉得自己是黑人,”她微笑着说。She would not backpedal, and “I guarantee you she never will,said her uncle, who took her in more than a decade ago as her marriage crumbled. “Thats part of her persona, never backing down always forward, totally sure of herself.”她不会改变这种说法,而且“我向你保她永远也不会,”十多年前在她婚姻破裂时收留了她的叔叔说。“这就是她,永远不会后退,永远向前,百分百自信。”On Tuesday, Matt Lauer ofNs “Todayshowasked her, “When did you start deceiving people?But Dolezal, who stepped downon Mondayas president of the Spokane NAACP chapter, pushed back.本周二,N电视台的马特·劳尔(Matt Lauer)在他主持的《今日Today)节目中问她,“你是从什么时候开始骗人的?”周一刚刚卸任NAACP斯波坎市分负责人一职的她就此做出了强烈回应。“I do take exception to that because its a little more complex than me identifying as black, or answering a question of, `Are you black or white? she said. Over the course of the day, she also described herself as “transracialand said: “Well, I definitely am not white.Nothing about being white describes who I am.”“我反对你这种说法,因为这可比称自己是黑人或回答‘你是黑人还是白人’的问题复杂一些,”多尔扎尔说。在这一天当中,她还称自己“跨种族”,她说:“好吧,我绝对不是白人。有关白人的描绘完全不适用于我。”Her story has set off a national debate about the very meaning of racial identity, with some people applauding her message and goals and others deploring her methods and actions. It was one thing for Dolezal to identify with, appreciate and even partake in black culture, some critics said, but it was another thing for her to try to become black, going so far as to change her physical appearance.她的故事在全美国引发了有关种族身份的争论,一些人赞同她所传达的信息和目标,其他人则谴责她的方式和行为。一些批评人士称,对于多尔扎尔来说,认同、欣赏甚至分享黑人文化是一件事,但试图成为黑人是另一件事,她甚至改变了自己的外貌。“It taps into all of these issues around blackface and wearing blackness and that whole cultural legacy, which makes it that much more vile,said Baz Dreisinger, an English professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York, author of the book “Near Black: White-to-Black Passing in American Culture.”约翰·杰刑事司法学院(John Jay College of Criminal Justice)英语教授、《近似黑人:美国文化中白人冒充黑人的现象Near Black: White-to-Black Passing in American Culture)作者巴兹·德莱辛Baz Dreisinger)表示,“这涉及有关扮演黑人、呈现黑人特征及整个文化遗产的所有问题,这让这种行为显得更加低下。”Some people who have known Dolezal only as a black woman said they felt hurt and misled, saying she could have been an equally effective leader at the NAACP without the disguise.一些只知道多尔扎尔黑人身份的人说,他们感觉受到伤害和误导,并且表示即便没有伪装,她也可以成为同样有力的NAACP领导者。“The issue for me has been the deception, the lie, portraying herself as someone she isnt,said Dorothy Webster, a longtime member of the Spokane NAACP and former deputy manager for the city of Spokane. “I cannot rationalize it.”“对于我来说,问题在于欺骗、撒谎,把自己描绘成另外一个人,”NAACP斯波坎市分会的资深成员、该市的前副城市经理多萝西·韦伯斯Dorothy Webster)说。“我无法理解。”Although her advocacy work has admirers, serious questions have been raised about Dolezals credibility and not just about her race. Her public statements about her family and upbringing have been challenged by relatives, including her parents, creating the odd spectacle of dueling interviews, with her making claims on one network, and them denying them on another. Over the years she has reported numerous complaints with the police of racially motivated harassment and intimidation, though the police have said that none have so far proved credible enough for charges to be brought.虽然她的倡导工作得到钦佩,但除了种族问题,多尔扎尔的信誉也不断饱受质疑。她发表的有关其家庭及成长过程的公开声明遭到了包括父母在内的亲属的回击,以至于出现了双方通过采访隔空斗嘴的奇怪景象:她在一家电视网发表声明,她的家人则在另一家电视网予以否认。多年来,她曾多次向警方举报出于种族动机的骚扰及恐吓行为,但警方表示,到目前为止,没有足够的可信据使其可以提出指控。She is estranged from her parents, Ruthanne and Lawrence Dolezal, and in Spokane, she has represented a friend, an older African-American man, as her father. When Rachel Dolezal was a teenager, her parents adopted four black children, one of whom now lives with Dolezal and her natural son, whom she had with her former husband, Kevin D. Moore, who is black.她与父母露丝安娜·多尔扎尔(Ruthanne Dolezal)、劳伦斯·多尔扎尔(Lawrence Dolezal)已断绝来往。在斯坡坎,她一直声称一名年长的非裔友人是自己的父亲。蕾切尔·多尔扎尔的父母在她十几岁的时候,收养了四名黑人儿童,其中一人现在与多尔扎尔及她的亲生儿子住在一起。这个亲生孩子的父亲是她的黑人前夫凯文·D·莫尔(Kevin D. Moore)。She is also estranged from her biological brother, Joshua, who is facing charges in Colorado that, when he was 19 years old, he sexually molested one of his adopted brothers, who was 6 or 7 at the time, in the parents home, which was then in Clear Creek County, Colorado. Ruthanne Dolezal told People magazine that the molestation charges are not true and were initiated by Rachel.她同亲生哥哥乔舒Joshua)也形同陌路。目前乔舒亚在科罗拉多州面临数项指控,称其在19岁的时候对父母收养的当时只有六七岁的一个弟弟进行了性骚扰。那时他们还住在科罗拉多州克利尔克里克县的父母家中。露丝安娜·多尔扎尔向《人物》杂People)透露,这些猥亵指控并不属实,而且是由蕾切尔提出的。Dolezals path to this curious point has been unorthodox, beginning with her childhood in a remote corner of northwestern Montana, in and around the little town of Troy. Earlier this year, she told a news organization at Eastern Washington University, where she taught, that she had been born in a teepee, that her mother and stepfather had beaten her and her siblings, that “they would punish us by skin complexion,and that they lived for a time in South Africa.多尔扎尔来到今天这个尴尬境地是经历了一段不同寻常的过往。她小时候住在蒙大拿州西北部偏远地区的小镇特洛伊附近。今年早些时候,她在自己当时任教的东华盛顿大Eastern Washington University)向一家新闻机构表示,自己出生在一顶印第安人的帐篷里,并曾和家人在南非生活过一段时间。蕾切尔称,生母和继父曾痛打他们几个兄弟,“他们会因为我们的肤色而惩罚我们。”Family members say none of this is true. All agree that she has no stepfather, that this was one of several attempts she has made to deny the existence of her real father, Lawrence. Her parents moved to South Africa after Rachel was grown and out of the house.不过,多名家庭成员表示蕾切尔所说的这些话没有一句是真的。他们一致表示她并没有继父,而这不过是她为了否认生父劳伦斯的存在而采取的几项动作之一。再者,蕾切尔长大离家后,她的父母才去了南非。As for the abuse allegations, “thats just false,her father said in an interview on Friday. “Thats the most hurtful.”至于虐待指控,她的父亲在周五接受采访时表示,“完全是假的。那才是最伤人的。”Dolezal said Tuesday on “Todaythat at age 5, “I was drawing self-portraits with the brown crayon instead of the peach crayon, and the black curly hair, you know.Her parents, appearing later on Fox News, denied that.多尔扎尔周二在《今日》节目中说道,“你知道吗,5岁的时候,我画自画像用的就是棕色的笔而不是桃色的笔,头发画的是黑色卷发。”之后,其父母在Fox新闻台对此予以否认。Daniel Dolezal said Tuesday that her recollection of her 5-year-old self did not ring true. “She probably wouldnt have known any black peoplethen, he said. (Efforts by The Times to reach Rachel Dolezal, Ruthanne and Lawrence Dolezal, and Joshua Dolezal on Tuesday were not successful.)丹尼尔·多尔扎尔在周二表示,蕾切尔对自岁时的自画像的回忆并不真实。“她那个时候可能还不认识任何一个黑人,”他说。(时报在周二曾尝试联系蕾切尔·多尔扎尔、露丝安娜和劳伦斯·多尔扎尔夫妇,以及乔舒亚·多尔扎尔,不过均未成功。)Rachel was home-schooled for at least part of the time she was in high school, her uncle said. And when she was between the ages of 15 and 17, her parents adopted four black infants.蕾切尔的叔叔透露,上高中的时候,她至少有一部分时间在家自学。在57岁期间,父母收养了四个黑人婴儿。“She immediately was drawn to them,her father said. “Ever since then shes had a tremendous affinity with African-Americans.”“她立刻就被这些孩子吸引了,”蕾切尔的父亲说。“从此以后,她就同非裔美国人无比地亲近。”In the “Todayinterview one Tuesday and one that followed on a sister network, MSN, Dolezal, remarkably composed despite harsh criticism aimed at her, stuck to her insistence that racial heredity does not equal identity, and she would not answer questions about whether she had changed her self-identification to merely gain advantage.尽管面对着严厉的批评声,多尔扎尔周二在接受《今日》节目及N姊台MSN的采访时展现出了惊人的镇定,仍然坚持认为族裔遗传并不等同于种族认同。对于有关她是否只是为了获得好处而改变自我认同的问题,她均不予回答。Lauer asked if she could have been as successful an activist if she had portrayed herself as white.劳尔还问道,如果她一直把自己描述成白人的话,能否成为同样成功的活动人士?“I dont know,Dolezal said. “I guess I havent had the opportunity to experience that in those shoes, so Im not sure.”“我不知道,”多尔扎尔回答。“我想我没有机会以那样的身份去体验,所以我不确定。”来 /201506/382008

  Vladimir Putin was y to put Russia’s nuclear weapons on alert last year during Russia’s annexation of Crimea.去年,在俄罗斯吞并克里米亚期间,弗拉基米#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)曾准备动用俄罗斯的核武器。“We were y to do this,Mr Putin said in comments shown as part of a Russian state TV documentary on the one-year anniversary of Crimea’s annexation.普京在俄罗斯一国家电视台录制的纪录片中表示:“我们曾准备这么做。”当时是俄罗斯吞并克里米亚一周年纪念日。Mr Putin said that Moscow had been prepared to use any military means necessary to defend Crimea against “the nationalistsin Kiev and their “puppet masters the US government.普京表示,俄罗斯曾准备动用所有必要的军事举措,来保护克里米亚,抗击基辅的“民族主义者”以及他们的“傀儡主子”:美国政府。He said Russia’s interests in Crimea and the surrounding region would always outstrip those of its western partners.他表示,俄罗斯在克里米亚以及周边地区的利益,永远超越其西方合作伙伴的利益。Mr Putin, who has not appeared in public since March 5, was the star of Crimea: Return to the Motherland, a two-and-a-half-hour documentary that paid heavy homage to Mr Putin and his role in Russia’s annexation of Crimea last year.普京日以来就一直未在公开场合露面。在这部时间为两个半小时的纪录片《克里米亚:回归祖国Crimea: Return to the Motherland)中,普京是主角,这部纪录片对普京以及其去年在吞并克里米亚行动中的作用表现出极大的敬意。A project eight months in the making, the documentary premiered on state TV channel Rossiya-1 on Sunday evening, 364 days to the day following Russia’s formal annexation of Crimea.这部纪录片的制作个月,上周日晚在俄罗斯国家电视频道Rossiya-1首播,距俄罗斯正式吞并克里米亚的日子64天。While Mr Putin initially denied that Russia had sent any military personnel into Crimea ahead of the peninsula’s referendum to join Russia, over the past year he has gradually refined his version of events.普京最初否认俄罗斯曾在克里米亚公投之前派遣军事人员进入克里米亚,但过去一年他逐渐修改了措辞。In a TV call-in session last April, Mr Putin casually announced for the first time that “the little green menhelping Crimean pro-Russian self-defence forces during the referendum, had indeed been Russian military personnel.在去月一次电视节目电话通话环节中,普京首次漫不经心地提到,曾在克里米亚公投期间帮助克里米亚亲俄罗斯自卫部队的“小绿人”,实际上就是俄罗斯军人。In Sunday evening’s documentary, Mr Putin went even further, admitting for the first time that the unidentified gunmen who took the Crimean parliament building in Simferopol early in the morning of February 27 were also Russian servicemen.在上周日晚的纪录片中,普京更进了一步,他首次承认,去年27日凌晨攻占辛菲罗波尔克里米亚议会大楼的身份不明的武装人员也是俄罗斯军人。The documentary depicted the pro-Europe protesters on Kiev’s Maidan Square as an angry nationalist mob who had specific designs against the pro-Russian Crimean people and gives Russian viewers a dramatic retelling of events there, with a specific narrative bent.这部纪录片将基辅独立广场的亲欧抗议者称为愤怒的民族主义暴徒,并称他们针对亲俄的克里米亚民众制定了特别计划,纪录片以叙述的方式,用特定的语调向俄罗斯观众重构了当年的事件。In the documentary, Mr Putin said he personally came to the decision that Russia would have to intervene in Crimea after staying up all night with a small group of advisers on February 22-23 the night before the Sochi Olympics closing ceremony and a full three weeks before Russia formally annexed.在这部纪录片中,普京表示,他是在去年22日至23日与一个由几名顾问组成的小组彻夜讨论后,亲自做出俄罗斯必须干预克里米亚的决定的,当日是索契冬季奥运会闭幕前一天。整整三周后,俄罗斯就正式吞并了克里米亚。While admitting that Moscow had been preparing to take Crimea well before the referendum, Mr Putin insisted that Moscow only acted the way it did because it knew it had the backing of the Crimean people. The president said that the Kremlin had conducted a secret poll in Crimea ahead of its intervention there and found that 75 per cent of the population wanted the peninsula to become part of Russia.普京承认,俄罗斯早在克里米亚公投之前就曾准备吞并克里米亚,但他坚称,俄罗斯是在确认获得克里米亚民众持后才这么做的。普京表示,在吞并克里米亚之前,俄罗斯曾在克里米亚秘密展开民调,调查发现,75%的克里米亚人民希望加入俄罗斯。来 /201503/364801China has tightened its capital controls, in a sharp reversal of its market liberalising rhetoric, as it struggles to contain the fallout from last month’s devaluation of the renminbi.中国已采取措施收紧资本管制,此举标志着官方的市场自由化言论发生急剧逆转。目前中国正艰难围堵上月人民币贬值的余波。The August 11 devaluation unleashed turmoil on global stock markets and policy confusion at home, forcing the central bank to spend as much as 0bn to support the renminbi. The prospect of an interest rate rise in the US has further encouraged capital flight.81日的贬值引发全球股市动荡,并在国内造成政策困惑,迫使中国央行出多000亿美元持人民币。美国加息的前景进一步鼓励了资本外流。The State Administration of Foreign Exchange, the unit of the central bank in charge of managing China’s currency, has in recent days ordered financial institutions to step up checks and strengthen controls on all foreign exchange transactions, according to people familiar with the matter and an official memo seen by the Financial Times.根据几名知情人士的说法和英国《金融时报》看到的一份官方通知,隶属中国央行、负责管理中国外汇的国家外汇(SAFE)近日责令各金融机构加强对所有外汇交易的检查和管制。Safe has ordered banks and financial institutions to pay particular attention to the practice of over-invoicing exports, used to disguise large capital outflows. Safe confirmed the existence of the memo, but declined to comment further.国家外管局责令和金融机构要特别留意高报出口的做法,这种做法被用来掩盖大笔资本外流。该局实上述通知的存在,但拒绝进一步置评。China has long imposed limits on the amount of foreign exchange that can be bought or sold by individuals and companies but those controls have broken down somewhat in recent years as the renminbi has become more widely used around the world.中国长期对个人和企业可以购买或出售的外汇金额实行限制,但随着人民币在世界各地得到更为广泛的使用,这些管制近年在一定程度上失效。Wang Tao, chief China economist at UBS, said the government had been expected to tighten some FX controls. But relying on them exclusively to protect the renminbi “will not be viable over the long term and hence is unlikely to be pursued by China’s central bank for long she added.瑞银(UBS)首席中国经济学家汪涛表示,外界早就预期政府会收紧某些外汇管制。但她补充说,仅仅依赖这些管制来捍卫人民币“不是长久之计,因而中国央行不会长期实行这些管制”。The policy reversal comes after China’s central bank drew heavily on its vast foreign exchange reserves to prevent the renminbi falling dramatically against the dollar in the wake of the technical devaluation last month. Although still the largest in the world, its reserves fell by the biggest amount on record in August, dropping bn to around .56tn.这项政策逆转出台之前,中国央行大举动用其庞大的外汇储备,以防止上月技术性贬值后人民币兑美元汇率大幅下滑。虽然中国的外汇储备仍是全球最大的,但8月份出现有记录以来最大数额的缩水,减40亿美元,.56万亿美元。For the first time since it began internationalising its currency a few years ago, the central bank has also been intervening heavily in the offshore renminbi market to narrow the gap between the onshore (CNY) and offshore (CNH) exchange rates.自几年前开始推动人民币国际化以来,中国央行还首次大举干预离岸人民币市场,以缩小在岸人民CNY)与离岸人民币(CNH)汇率之间的差距。Analysts and people familiar with the matter say Beijing has spent up to 0bn defending the currency but the net impact on the reserves is disguised by fluctuating valuations of reserve assets and other inflows into the reserves.分析师和知情人士透露,北京方面已投入多达2000亿美元捍卫人民币,但外汇储备所受的净影响被各种因素掩盖,包括储备资产的估值变动和流入储备的其他资金。“They have gone from a credible peg that cost them almost nothing to a weak peg that nobody believes and that is costing them more than bn a day to defend they’re paying huge sums for something they had for free just a few weeks ago,said one person with close ties to China’s central bank.“他们从一个几乎不用花钱的可信的盯住汇率,沦为一个没人相信的疲弱盯住汇率,每天要动用超过100亿美元捍卫——他们正为几周前还免费拥有的东西付出高额代价,”与中国央行关系密切的一位人士表示。来 /201509/398211

  

  

  

  

  

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