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2017年12月14日 02:47:26来源:58经验

英国:大龄单身女性剧增One in three women in UK is unmarried at 35, official figures show. In 2000, only a quarter were not married. And in 1990, just one in ten was in this position.Marriage began to experience a decline in the 1980s, but in the last decade its popularity has fallen more sharply.The downward trend corresponds with an increase in women following careers, the rising cost of buying a home and the growing acceptance of couples simply living together.Analysts believe the introduction of tax credits to the benefit system since 1999 has dissuaded many from marrying, as they favour single mothers.Figures show a couple with children must earn £50,000 a year between them before they are better off than if they lived apart.The figures, from the Office of National Statistics, showed that fewer than two-thirds of women who reached 35 in 2005 had married - 665 from every 1,000.Among those born five years earlier, nearly three-quarters had been married by 35.About nine out of ten women who were 35 in 1990 had been married at least once.However, the trend away from marriage seems at odds with the wishes of both men and women.Previously polls have found that about seven out of ten still aspire to marriage.Robert Whelan of the Civitas civic value think-tank said: "This is an incredible collapse, not just because of the extent but because of the speed."If it goes on we will soon see a majority of women unmarried in their mid-thirties."What we are seeing is a huge and growing gap between what people want in their lives and what they are getting." 据官方数据显示,英国35岁的女性中,有三分之一的人单身。2000年这一数据仅为四分之一,1990年只有十分之一。英国的结婚人数从上世纪80年代开始减少,在过去十年中减少的更快。这一趋势主要是由追求事业的女性增多、房价上涨以及同居日益被接受造成的。分析人士认为,从1999年开始实行的税款抵免福利制度使很多人不愿结婚,这一政策对单身妈妈最为有利。有关数据显示,一对有孩子的夫妇一年必须挣到5万英镑,才能使生活比一个人时过得好。英国国家统计署的统计数据显示,2005年满35岁的女性中,已婚比例不到三分之二(1000人中有665人)。而在40岁的女性中,近四分之三的人在35岁前已结婚。1990年,90%的35岁女性至少已经结了一次婚。然而,这一趋势与男性和女性的愿望似乎并不相符。此前的调查发现,约70%的人仍然渴望结婚。民众价值智囊团Civitas的罗伯特·威兰说:“无论是从范围还是从速度上,这种下降让人难以置信。”“如果这一趋势继续下去,不久之后我们就会看到大多数女性到了30多岁还没结婚。”“目前的状况是,人们对于生活的期望与他们所得到的结果之间存在着巨大的、而且仍在加大的差距。” /200803/32259。

  • Baidu, China’s largest search group, has launched an attempt to become the Android of the automotive world by sharing its self-driving technology.中国最大的搜索集团百度(Baidu)发起一项努力,试图通过共享其无人驾驶技术,成为汽车界的安卓(Android)。At the Shanghai Auto Show yesterday, Baidu revealed its Apollo project, which it said was an “open, complete and reliable software platform for its partners in the automotive and autonomous driving industry to develop their own autonomous driving systems”.在昨天的上海车展上,百度透露了“阿波罗计划”。百度称,该计划“将向汽车行业及自动驾驶领域的合作伙伴提供一个开放、完整、安全的软件平台,帮助他们结合车辆和硬件系统,快速搭建一套属于自己的完整的自动驾驶系统。”The move appeared inspired by Google’s efforts to dominate smartphones by launching Android as an open source set of tools that other companies could customise.该举动的灵感似乎来自谷歌(Google)主导智能手机的努力,后者把安卓设计为一套开源工具,让其他公司可以定制。Baidu said it would open its technology in stages. In July it would share intellectual property for “restricted environment” driving, with technology for simple urban road conditions to follow this year. By 2020 software for “fully autonomous driving capabilities on highways and open city roads” would be available.百度称,将分阶段开放其技术。7月,它将分享“受限环境”驾驶的知识产权,随后在今年晚些时候分享简单城市道路环境下的技术。到2020年,百度将提供具备“公路和开放性城市道路全自动驾驶能力”的软件。Open-sourcing of automotive technology is not unprecedented: in 2014 electric carmaker Tesla offered tech secrets to rivals in an attempt to boost interest in low-emission vehicles.对汽车技术进行开源并非史无前例:2014年电动汽车制造商特斯拉(Tesla)向竞争对手提供了技术秘密,试图提升行业对低排放汽车的兴趣。Baidu had sought to develop autonomous driving technology through partnerships with Chinese carmakers such as BAIC and Chery, with which it has road-tested Lincoln cars in California.百度试图通过与北汽控股(BAIC)和奇瑞(Chery)等中国汽车制造商建立合作关系,来研发自动驾驶技术。百度已在加州用林肯汽车进行了道路测试。In artificial intelligence Baidu is widely considered to have an edge over domestic competitors and is regularly rated on a par with IBM and Google.在人工智能方面,百度被普遍认为拥有超出国内竞争者的优势,经常被认为是与IBM和谷歌水平相仿的领先者。“AI has great potential to drive social development, and one of AI’s biggest opportunities is intelligent vehicles,” said Qi Lu, Baidu’s chief operating officer, yesterday.“人工智能拥有推动社会发展的巨大潜力,而人工智能最大的机遇之一是智能汽车,”百度首席运营官陆奇昨日表示。However, a setback came last month when some of the group’s most senior talent quit.然而,上月百度遭遇了一个挫折,其集团内一些最资深的人才出走。Mark Natkin of Marbridge Consulting in Beijing said the open-source move was ambiguous. “One could look at this as an ambitious effort to jump out into the forefront of autonomous driving technology,” he said.北京迈瑞咨询(Marbridge Consulting)的马克?纳特金(Mark Natkins)称,百度的开源举动让人看不懂。“人们可以把这视为跳到自动驾驶技术前沿的雄心之举,”他称。But it could also be “a step back from a wholly self-contained effort”.但它也可能是“从完全自成一体的努力倒退一步”。How Baidu intends to generate revenue from the open-source model is unclear. Shu Chang, a consultant at Roland Berger in Shanghai, said the data generated by the project would be immensely valuable.尚不清楚百度打算如何从开源模式中获得营收。罗兰贝格(Roland Berger)驻上海顾问舒畅表示,该项目生成的数据将极具价值。“The biggest driver for Baidu in this project is that through an open platform like this it is able to collect user information through the whole autonomous driving and car networking system,” he said.他称,“百度在该项目上最大的动力是,通过像这样的开放平台,它可以通过整个自动驾驶和汽车网络系统收集用户信息。”For car companies open-sourcing will lower the costs of developing their own technology, according to the IDC consultancy. “For the driverless car industry, this will lower the tech threshold for the overall automobile industry and help to form an industry standard,” its analysts wrote.据咨询公司IDC表示,对于汽车企业而言,开源将降低研发自己技术的成本。IDC的分析师们写道,“对无人驾驶汽车行业来说,这将为整个汽车行业降低技术门槛,并且帮助形成行业标准。”Baidu conducted successful road tests of fully autonomous cars in Beijing in December 2015.2015年12月,百度在北京成功完成了全自动驾驶汽车的道路测试。 /201704/505430。
  • How much did LinkedIn make over the past three years? Sounds a simple enough question doesn’t it? But it is also one that is capable of being answered in multiple and very diverse ways.过去三年领英(LinkedIn)赚了多少钱?这问题听起来够简单,不是么?然而,这也是个能以多种极其不同的方式回答的问题。First, let’s look at the figure the US online networking site wants you to focus on. That’s a mouthful called adjusted earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation (ebitda), and the total there between 2013 and 2015 came in at a positive .7bn.首先,让我们看看这家美国在线人脉网站希望你关注的数据。那是一个极其绕口的词:息税折旧及摊销前利润(Ebitda),2013年至2015年期间该数据的总额为17亿美元。Sounds pretty hunky dory? Well, now check out the operating profit line for the business — the one calculated according to the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) that companies must present but often don’t emphasise. Over the same period, LinkedIn racked up a m loss.听起来相当不错?那么,再看看该企业的营运利润这一栏。这一数字是根据美国公认会计原则(GAAP)计算得出的,企业必须提供这一数字,但往往不会强调它。在同一时期内,领英累计录得6700万美元亏损。What explains the yawning .8bn difference between those two figures? It isn’t simply the depreciation and amortisation charges the company took against the value of its assets. Those, while pretty hefty, came to just 1m. No, the biggest single reason for the negative swing was the bn cost of the stock LinkedIn stuffed into its employees’ pay packets over those three years.两个数字间18亿美元的巨大差异该如何解释?其原因不能简单地认为是该公司对其资产价值的折旧和摊销所导致的。这两项虽然也很高,但总共才7.91亿美元。该数据负面波动的最大原因,是那三年里领英塞到其员工工资袋里的股票所导致的10亿美元成本。LinkedIn is just one of a number of US tech companies that airbrush out such payments when presenting results to investors. It is part of a broader trend that has seen companies strain to put the best possible spin on their numbers, excluding inconvenient non-cash or supposedly non recurring items they claim obscure rather than elucidate the underlying performance of the business.领英只是向投资者陈述财报时掩饰这类成本的众多美国高科技企业之一。此举是更大范围趋势的一部分:企业以尽可能积极的方式呈现业绩,剔除不方便的非现金项目或非经常性项目,声称这类项目模糊而不是说明根本的业务表现。Mark Mahaney, an analyst at R Capital Markets, recently outed some of the large-cap tech groups that are the biggest payers of stock to their employees. Number one on the list was Twitter. Over the past two years the messaging platform has on average issued shares to employees with a value equivalent to 124 per cent of operating income.最近,加拿大皇家资本市场(R Capital Markets)分析师马克#8226;马哈尼(Mark Mahaney)揭露了向员工付股票规模最大的一些高市值高科技集团。名单上排在第一位的是Twitter。过去两年,这个即时消息平台向员工发行的股票价值平均相当于营业利润的1.24倍。Not that you would know this when looking at the company’s earnings releases. In its recently announced first-quarter figures, Twitter reported pro forma earnings of 15 cents a share. It is only when you dig out the GAAP number the company also supplies, but does not emphasise, that the uglier reality becomes apparent: it actually lost 12 cents a share.查看该公司发布的财报时,你是找不到这个事实的。在最近发布的第一季度财报数据中,Twitter报出备考盈利每股15美分。只有当你挖掘出该公司同时提供、却不强调的GAAP数据后,更丑陋的现实才会浮出水面:该公司实际上每股亏损12美分。It may seem odd that companies are still engaging in this less-than-innocent deception. After all, it is hard to find a convincing argument for excluding stock compensation from earnings.企业仍在搞这种不够厚道的欺骗手段,似乎有点不可思议。毕竟,对于把股票报酬排除在盈利数据以外的做法,很难找到有说力的理由。While no cash may change hands when a company issues equity to its employees, the firm denies itself the chance to sell those shares or options for value in the market. Failing to recognise that forgone cash effectively understates the cost the company has incurred in employing those individuals. That’s not only imprudent, it makes it harder to compare that business with other firms that take a more sensible approach.尽管当企业向员工发行股份时不会有现金上的交易,但企业这么做就失去了自己在市场上出售这些股份或期权以兑现价值的可能性。未能承认这些被放弃的现金,实际上低估了企业雇用这些人的成本。这么做不仅仅是不够谨慎,还令人更难将该公司与其他采取更明智做法的公司进行比较。Tech companies are not the only offenders, of course, and stock compensation isn’t the only cost that magically vanishes when companies present non-GAAP figures. Indeed, the practice is mushrooming. According to the Analyst’s Accounting Observer, 90 per cent of the constituents in the Standard amp; Poor’s 500 index produced non-GAAP figures last year, up from 72 per cent in 2009.当然,高科技企业并不是唯一这么做的企业,股票报酬也不是企业提供非GAAP数据时唯一魔术般消失的成本。的确,这类做法如雨后春笋般层出不穷。据《分析师会计观察》(Analyst#39;s Accounting Observer)介绍,标普500(Samp;P 500)指数90%的成分股公司去年报出的数据不符合美国公认会计准则,高于2009年的72%。All sorts of costs are being vaporised as companies present their results with increasing creativity. They range from such items as preferred dividends and even severance payments to the legal and restructuring costs that Valeant, an acquisitive pharmaceutical company, notoriously deducted from its expense lines.随着企业以越来越高的“创造性”展示其业绩,各种各样的成本蒸发了。这些成本从优先股息和遣散费,到法律和重组成本——收购意识较强的制药公司Valeant就以从开中移除法律和重组成本而留下坏名声。Inevitably, non-GAAP figures are diverging ever further from accounting reality. In a study of 380 Samp;P 500 companies, the Analyst’s Accounting Observer calculated that their “adjusted” net income rose 6.6 per cent to 4bn last year. It sounds great until you discover that under GAAP precisely the opposite was happening. Net income at those same companies actually declined almost 11 per cent to 2bn — a full 30 per cent less.不可避免的是,非GAAP数据与会计现实渐行渐远。在对380家标普500成分股企业的研究中,《分析师会计观察》计算得出,去年它们“调整后”的净利润增长了6.6%,达到8040亿美元。这个数字听起来相当好,然而按照GAAP原则计算一下,你会发现情况恰恰相反。同一批企业的净利润其实下滑了近11%,至5620亿美元——足足少了30%。Obsessed by top-line growth, shareholders seem happy to acquiesce in these practices. In the meantime, most analysts have loyally focused on adjusted numbers, perhaps feeling under pressure from company bosses to play along.纠结于顶线增长的股东,似乎乐于默许这类行为。与此同时,多数分析师忠实地关注调整后的数字,也许是因为他们受到了来自企业老板的压力,要求他们配合。But these acts of self-deception carry real risks for investors. For instance, excluding the cost of stock grants can lead to inflated executive pay levels. There is also the problem of what happens when the share price falters. Then, to avoid losing its valuable employees, the company may have the unpalatable choice of either diluting investors further — or switching suddenly to cash compensation that it may struggle to afford.然而,这种自我欺骗的行为给投资者带来真切的风险。比如,将授予股份的成本排除在外,可能会导致虚高的高管薪资水平。此外,股价下跌时也会出现问题。到那时候,为避免有价值的员工流失,企业也许会面临一个不愉快的选择:要么进一步稀释投资者,要么突然转而采取它也许难以承担的现金薪酬。While keeping it real may make for a less inspiring income statement, it does at least proof figures against this sort of unpleasant eventuality. For now investors may be content to play along with companies’ accounting fantasies. Sooner or later, however, it is an indulgence they will come to regret.尽管老实的会计方法也许带来不那么鼓舞人心的报表,但它至少能让数字如实反映情况,免遭上述不愉快结局。眼下投资者也许会满足于附和企业的会计幻想。然而,他们迟早会为这种纵容后悔。 /201605/443203。
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