明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年10月24日 08:16:22
In the wake of an unofficial Hong Kong referendum demanding political reform, activists in nearby Macau are planning their own civil referendum to gauge citizen demand for democracy.在香港举行要求政治改革的非正式投票之后不久,的政治活动人士正计划举行全民公投以衡量市民的民主诉求。The former Portuguese colony, a short ferry ride from Hong Kong, is governed by China and like Hong Kong is a special administrative region with its own political and economic systems. Since Macau returned to Chinese rule in 1999, like Hong Kong, it has been led by a Chief Executive selected by an election committee dominated by corporations and pro-Beijing interests. Currently, only 400 Macanese citizens are given a say in electing the top leader of the 30-square kilometer peninsula and archipelago. Fernando Chui, the current Chief Executive, is currently running unopposed in an election next month.曾为葡萄牙殖民地,与香港仅一水之隔。现在由中国统治,与香港一样是拥有独立政治、经济体制的特别行政区。于1999年回归中国,之后也像香港一样由行政长官领导,行政长官由一个企业界及亲北京人士主导的选举委员会选举产生。目前这个面积30多平方公里、由半岛和群岛组成的特别行政区内只有400名公民可参与行政长官选举投票。现任行政长官崔世安(Fernando Chui)在下个月的选举中暂无对手。Macau#39;s unofficial referendum, planned for August 24-30, echoes the public vote organized last month in Hong Kong by pro-democracy activists Occupy Central. According to Macau Conscience, the activist group sponsoring the vote in Macau, their plan did not take off until a local rally for democracy experienced higher-than-expected turnout in May.上个月持民主的维权组织“占领中环”(Occupy Central)在香港组织了公投后,的非官方公投计划于8月24日至30日举行。据举办投票的维权组织“良心”(Macau Conscience)称,5月份当地的一次民主集会参与人数超过预期,之后他们才萌生了公投的想法。#39;It was a surprise to me to see 20,000 Macau residents at our rally,#39; Macau Conscience member Jason Chao told China Real Time. #39;Not many citizens really understand how the Chief Executive has been elected, and we want to give them an experience to exercise their civil rights and fight for a democratic election system.#39;“良心”成员Jason Chao对“中国实时报”(China Real Time)栏目表示,看到两万居民参加他们的集会让他感到很意外。他说:“很多市民并不真正了解行政长官是如何选举出来的,我们希望使他们有一次行使公民权利、为民主选举制度而战的经历。”It#39;s not the first time that Macanese democracy activists have sponsored a public vote. In April 2012, a similar effort drew limited participants, with only 2,600 Macau residents taking part. This year, organizers hope to replicate Occupy Central#39;s unexpected success.这并非民主活动人士首次举行公众投票。2012年4月,一次类似的活动吸引了有限的参与者,只有2,600名居民参加。今年,组织者希望能够复制“占领中环”的意外成功。Macau Conscience#39;s referendum will have two questions: whether residents support universal suffrage for Macau in 2019, and whether they have confidence in the current Chief Executive, Mr. Chui. If a challenger for the city#39;s top office emerges in time for the vote by the city#39;s election committee, which begins on August 24, it will ask respondents which candidate they prefer.“良心”的投票将包括两个问题:居民是否持2019年普选,以及对现任特区行政长官崔世安是否有信心。如果在8月24日选举委员会开始投票前出现特首竞争人选,它将询问受访者更青睐哪位候选人。The prospects for a democratic Macau, however, are tempered by legal and economic realities. One critical difference between the democratic demonstrations in Hong Kong and Macau lies in their constitutions: while the goal of one day establishing universal suffrage is enshrined in the Hong Kong#39;s Basic Law, Macau#39;s Basic Law does not include the words #39;universal suffrage#39; at all.不过,法律和经济现实抑制了的民主化前景。香港和民主示威活动的一个重要区别在于它们的制度不同:最终实现普选的目标就写在香港基本法中,而的基本法中根本没有提到普选一词。Macau, the #39;Monte Carlo of the Orient,#39; is also heavily dependent on tourism from mainland China. Gambling tourism makes up about 50% of the city#39;s economy and Macau remains the only place in China where Chinese citizens are legally allowed to gamble.有“东方蒙特卡洛”之称,仍然严重依赖中国大陆游客发展旅游业。旅游占该地区经济活动的50%左右,仍然是中国唯一一个合法的地区。 /201407/310802The ranks of immigrants and their children will grow to hit a record share of the US population in the second half of this century, new projections show, with Asian immigration taking over as the major source of population growth.皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)一项新的预测显示,本世纪下半叶,外来移民及其子女在美国人口中的占比将升至创纪录水平,亚裔移民将接棒成为美国人口增长的主要来源。The forecasts show the extent to which immigration will reshape the US population in the coming decades, even as politicians including Republican presidential frontrunner Donald Trump use hostility towards foreigners to appeal to significant parts of the electorate.该预测显示出未来几十年移民将在多大程度上重塑美国人口格局,尽管包括共和党总统候选人唐纳德礠朗普(Donald Trump)在内的一些政客正通过敌视外国人来拉拢大量选民持自己。The report from the Pew Research Center finds that foreign-born individuals and their children will comprise no less than 36 per cent of the US population by 2065, higher than the peaks reached at the beginning of the 20th century and up from 26 per cent now. The ranks of foreign-born individuals alone will also rise to a record.这份研究报告发现,到2065年时,海外出生的人及其子女将至少占美国人口的36%,不但比现在的26%要高,而且高于20世纪初达到的峰值。即使只考虑海外出生的人本身,其数量也将升至创纪录水平。The research finds that the largest driver of US population growth over the next five decades will be immigration from Asian countries, with the expansion overtaking arrivals of Hispanics.该研究发现,未来50年美国人口增长的最大驱动因素将是来自亚洲国家的移民,这一移民群体的扩张将超过拉美裔移民。By 2065, Asians are projected to become the largest immigrant group, at 38 per cent of the immigrant population, surpassing Hispanics, at 31 per cent. Overall, the immigrant population will soar to 78m by 2065, compared with 45m today, with a growth rate double that of the US-born population.到2065年时,预计亚裔将成为最大的移民群体,占全部移民人口的38%,而拉美裔占31%。总体来说,到2065年时美国的外来移民人口将飙升至7800万(现在为4500万),增长速度是美国境内出生人口增速的两倍。The outlook comes as controversy over immigration plays a big role in the presidential election debate. Mr Trump’s attacks on Mexicans have raised fears among Republican strategists that the party will alienate Hispanic voters when they are becoming a powerful voice at the ballot box.移民问题引发的争论如今正是美国总统大选辩论的重头戏。特朗普对墨西哥裔移民的抨击引起了共和党内战略家的担忧,他们担心在拉美裔选民成为投票箱前一重要力量之际,共和党会疏远这些选民。His words pander to a belief that illegal immigrants are still flooding into the US. Yet the ranks of unauthorised immigrants in the US stayed static between 2009 and 2014, Pew numbers showed, as illegal arrivals from Mexico slowed.特朗普的言论迎合了某些人的一种看法,即非法移民仍在如潮水般涌入美国。然而皮尤的数据显示,2009年到2014年间,美国非法移民数量没有什么变化,而墨西哥裔非法移民的流入有所减缓。“We are basing our trends on the patterns we have seen over the last 10 years,” said Jeffrey Passel, senior demographer at the research centre.皮尤资深人口统计学家杰弗里帕塞尔(Jeffrey Passel)说:“我们是基于过去10年观察到的模式得出这一发展趋势的。”Pew polling shows Americans deeply divided over benefits of further immigration, with 55 per cent of Democrats saying immigrants make US society better while 53 per cent of Republicans say immigrants make society worse.皮尤的民调显示,对于进一步的移民流入是否有好处,美国人的看法存在严重分歧,55%的民主党人认为外来移民让美国社会变得更好,53%的共和党人认为让社会变得更糟。The US population is expected to reach 441m by 2065, compared with 324m today, with 88 per cent of the increase linked to future immigrants and their descendants, says the report.皮尤的报告显示,预计到2065年时美国人口将达4.41亿(现在为3.24亿),88%的人口增长与未来的移民及其后裔有关。 /201510/401913

Dali to charge entry fee大理开始征收维护费Visitors to the ancient city of Dali, Yunnan, will be charged an entrance fee starting Sept 1 this year to cover maintenance costs, the ancient city protection administration bureau announced Saturday. The ancient city will charge RMB30 for every tourist visiting the site with travel agents and will collect 1% of business income generated by shops and stalls in the city.云南大理市古城保护30日公布,将从今年9月1日起向游客征收大理古城维护费,跟团游客每人次30元,古城内商户、摊位则按营业收入1%收取。Individual travelers are free of charge as long as they don#39;t enter several particular scenic spots in the city.自由行的游客,只要不进入特定景区,无需缴纳古城维护费。The 2.25-sq-km ancient city has a history of over 1,200 years and received over 5m tourists in 2014.大理古城占地面积2.25平方公里,已有1200多年的历史,去年接待游客500多万。 /201506/378120

  Clampdowns on bank secrecy in Europe and a proliferation of billionaires in Asia helped Hong Kong and Singapore attract more overseas money over the past two years than rivals such as Switzerland, according to a report by Deloitte.咨询机构德勤(Deloitte)的一份报告称,欧洲对保密制度的打击以及亚洲亿万富翁数量的增多,促使香港和新加坡在过去两年吸引的海外资金规模超过瑞士等竞争对手。The consultancy’s annual ranking of wealth centres highlights how the Asian cities are seen by the world’s rich as the best places to park money amid global tighter regulation of private wealth managers in Switzerland and elsewhere.德勤的年度财富中心排行榜显示,亚洲城市正被全球富人视为最佳资金存放场所,此际,全球对瑞士和其他地区的私人财富管理机构加强了监管。Many of those wealthy people are from China, which helped propel the amount of money flowing into Hong Kong to rise 47 per cent to 0bn during 2012-2014. Singapore saw a 32 per cent increase in the value of funds entering the state to 0bn, according to the report.很多富人来自中国,促使2012年至2014年流入香港的资金规模扩大47%,至6400亿美元。根据这份报告,流入新加坡的资金规模增长了32%,至4700亿美元。Over the same period, Switzerland managed only a 2 per cent rise in the money it attracted from overseas, to tn. But it remains the largest wealth management centre — measured by assets coming from abroad — followed by the UK, the US, and Panama and the Caribbean.同期,瑞士吸引的海外资金规模仅增长2%,至2万亿美元。但根据来自海外的资产规模衡量,瑞士仍是全球最大财富管理中心,排在后面的分别是英国、美国、巴拿马和加勒比海地区。Deloitte did not rank centres by assets under management, which would include domestic wealth. But its ranking of locations by funds flowing from outside indicates where the wealthy perceive as being the best destination for their money.德勤没有按照管理资产规模对金融中心进行排名(这将包括国内财富),而是按照从外部流入的资金规模编制排行榜,这显示了富人对资金的最佳去向的地区偏好。The consultancy said its findings suggested that European centres such as Switzerland “suffered from the combined effect” of the eurozone crisis and regulations such as Fatca — the US Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act which is intended to detect and deter tax evasion by US citizens via overseas accounts.德勤表示,研究发现,瑞士等欧洲财富中心“受到”欧元区危机和美国《海外账户纳税法案》(Fatca)等监管规定的“双重影响”。《海外账户纳税法案》旨在发现并遏制美国公民通过海外账户避税。Singapore is growing fast as a money management centre because of a rising number of wealthy entrepreneurs in Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia. Its three local banks are providing stiff competition for longer-established groups such as JPMorgan, Citi and Swiss banks Credit Suisse and UBS.因东南亚(特别是印尼)富有企业家数量不断增多,新加坡正迅速成长为财富管理中心。新加坡国内3家正对根大通(JPMorgan)、花旗(Citi)以及瑞士瑞信(Credit Suisse)和瑞银(UBS)等更久负盛名的构成有力竞争。Singapore has for some years been projected to overtake Switzerland as the world’s largest wealth management centre. But Deloitte’s findings suggest that Hong Kong may have a better chance of taking the top slot.数年来,外界一直预测新加坡将取代瑞士,成为全球最大财富管理中心。但德勤的报告显示,香港更有可能拔得头筹。Mohit Mehrotra, global wealth management group leader at Deloitte, said Hong Kong overtook Singapore in 2012 in terms of attracting offshore wealth. “The trajectory of growth in Singapore from 2008 to 2014 has been fairly positive, but it’s just that growth in Hong Kong has accelerated a lot faster,” said Mr Mehrotra.德勤全球财富管理团队负责人莫希特#8226;梅赫罗特拉(Mohit Mehrotra)表示,在吸引海外财富方面,香港在2012年超过新加坡。他表示:“2008年至2014年,新加坡的增长轨迹相当乐观,但香港的增速要快的多。” /201502/359376

  The extent of China#39;s soil pollution, long guarded as a state secret, was laid out in an official report that confirmed deep-seated fears about contaminated farmland and the viability of the country#39;s food supply. 中国官方报告公布了一向被视为国家机密的中国土壤污染数据,人们对中国耕地污染以及食品供应的担忧得到印。Nearly one-fifth of the country#39;s arable land is polluted, officials said in the report, shedding unexpected light on the scale of the problem--a legacy of China#39;s three decades of breakneck economic growth and industrial expansion. 中国富翁的农产品情结报告称,中国有近五分之一的耕地受到污染。报告出人意料的揭示了土壤污染问题的严重程度,这个问题是中国长达30年的经济高速增长和工业扩张带来的一个后果。#39;The national soil situation overall does not offer cause for optimism,#39; said the report. #39;In some areas, soil pollution is relatively severe. The condition of arable land is troubling, with the problem of pollution from industry and mining particularly worrisome.#39; 报告称,全国土壤环境状况总体不容乐观。报告称,部分地区土壤污染较重,耕地土壤环境质量堪忧,工矿业废弃地土壤环境问题突出。While China#39;s problems with air pollution are well-documented, environmentalists have warned about the effects of less-visible contamination of the country#39;s land. 此项为期七年的调查实际调查面积为630万平方公里。报告发现,中国约有16%的土壤和19%的耕地受到不同程度的污染。报告称,污染主要来自重金属等无机来源。中国国土面积为960万平方公里。#39;Air pollution is definitely more visible and present, but soil is the last environmental media where pollutants end up,#39; said Wu Yixiu, head of Greenpeace#39;s East Asia toxins campaign. Heavy metal particles in the air and water seep into the land, then #39;get into the food and affect everybody,#39; she added. 报告显示,中国土壤中的主要无机污染物为镉、镍、砷这三种重金属。镉和砷是采矿业的副产品,众所周知它们可导致慢性病。The report, based on a seven-year survey covering 2.4 million square miles, found that about 16% of the country#39;s soil and 19% of its arable land was polluted to one degree or another. The vast majority of the pollution came from inorganic sources such as heavy metals, it said. China#39;s total land area is 3.7 million square miles. 报告显示,中国有近3%的耕地要么属于中度污染,要么属于重度污染。报告没有对各种程度的污染加以界定。报告称,长江三角洲、珠江三角洲和东北老工业基地的土壤污染问题较为突出。The most common inorganic pollutants found in China#39;s soil were the heavy metals cadmium, nickel and arsenic, according to Thursday#39;s report. Cadmium and arsenic, both known to cause chronic health problems, are byproducts of mining. 由于耕地面积缺乏,耕地污染问题对于中国来说尤为令人担忧。根据最近一次全国土地调查,截至2012年年末,中国耕地总面积为3.34亿英亩(合20.27亿亩),较政府设定的“红线”(指养活中国人口所需的耕地面积)多出3,700万英亩左右。Nearly 3% of arable land in China was found to be either moderately or seriously polluted, the report said, without defining what those levels of contamination mean. Pollution was particularly severe in eastern China#39;s Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta in the south and old industrial zones in the northeast, it said. 中国国土资源部去年12月公布,已经有824万英亩耕地已经不适于进行农业种植。环保人士们称,余下的耕地中大多数属于低质或中质水平,几十年来大规模使用化肥和杀虫剂使得这些土地丧失了生产能力。Pollution of farmland is of particular concern in China because of how little of it has. According to the most recent national land survey, China had 334 million acres of arable land at the end of 2012, roughly 37 million acres above the government#39;s #39;red line#39; for the amount of farmland necessary to feed the country#39;s population. 这么多的污染土壤意味着中国未来可能需要开始进口更多食物。美国农业部经济研究所(Economic Research Service)的经济学家盖尔(Fred Gale)说,长期而言,中国需要放松自然资源基础承受的压力,并进口更多食物。他说,农业受到工业污染的影响,但同时农业自身也造成了许多污染,他这里指的是中国肉类需求增加所造成的浪费和生态环境破坏。Aly, some 8.24 million acres of arable land has become unfit for farming, China#39;s Ministry of Land and Resources disclosed in December. Environmentalists say the majority of the remaining land is of poor or moderate quality, having been stripped of its productivity by decades of heavy fertilizer and pesticide use. 2013年4月,几批来自中国主要大米出产省份湖南的大米中被发现含有大量镉。这一发现引发了外界对耕地的担忧,并一度使得湖南大米价格下跌达14%。湖南同时也是中国前五大铜、铅等有色金属的生产地区。So much polluted soil means China will likely have to begin importing more food. #39;China will need to ease pressure on its natural resource base and import more of its food over the long-term,#39; said Fred Gale, an economist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture#39;s Economic Research Service. #39;Agriculture is impacted by industrial pollution but also creates a lot of pollution itself,#39; he said, citing waste and ecological damage caused by China#39;s growing taste for meat. 普遍接受的标准是,每公斤大米可含镉量为0.4毫克,若长期食用超过这一标准的大米会导致骨骼疼痛,并对肝肾造成损伤。2013年检测的几批湖南大米样本显示镉量均超标。In April 2013, the discovery of unusually high quantities of cadmium in batches of rice grown in Hunan--the country#39;s top rice-producing region, as well as a top-five producer of nonferrous metals like copper and lead--set off worries about farmland and sent prices for Hunan rice tumbling by as much as 14%. 而就在湖南大米被检测出含镉量超标之前不久,环境保护部拒绝了一位北京律师要求公布土壤污染调查结果的请求。该部门当时说,相关数据涉及国家机密,因此不能够公布。Consuming cadmium in excess of the widely accepted standard of 0.4 milligrams per kilogram of rice over a long period can cause crippling pain the bones and liver and kidney damage. Several samples of the Hunan rice tested in 2013 showed levels of cadmium above that standard. Zuma Press青海省,农民正在给耕地松土。不过中国政府已经开始加强重视环境恶化带来的风险。The cadmium disclosure came shortly after the Ministry of Environmental Protection rejected a request filed by a Beijing-based lawyer to release the results of the soil pollution survey. The ministry said at the time the data couldn#39;t be released because it was a state secret. 去年12月,中国宣布将抛弃以往以GDP为核心的政府官员考核体系,代之以一套涵盖更广泛的标准,其中就包括环境保护。在网络上发起呼吁提高空气质量信息透明度的运动三年后,中国大多数大城市都每小时发布空气污染水平数据。去年7月,环境保护部发布了相关规定,要求中国所有省份建立网络平台,发布主要企业的实时污染数据。Authorities have started to give more weight to the risks of environmental degradation. 力推公开土壤污染信息的律师董正伟说,这是让公民在环境保护问题上享有知情权的第一步。他还补充说,这一信息对公众来说已经来晚了,不过总比没有强。In December, the Communist Party announced it would scrap its previous gross domestic product-driven performance evaluation system and replace it with one that would judge officials according to a wider variety of criteria, including environmental protection. Three years after an online campaign calling for more accurate information about air quality, most major cities in China now publish hourly data on air pollution levels. In July, the environmental ministry issued regulations requiring all Chinese provinces to establish an online platform for reporting pollution produced by major companies. 广东省生态环境与土壤研究所土壤治理专家陈能场说,这打破了土壤污染普查结果是国家机密的观念,并提供了更多信息。但他也称,政府发布这份数据只是做个姿态,并未提供确切的解决方案。#39;This is a primary step for citizens#39; right to know about the environmental protection issue,#39; said Dong Zhengwei, the lawyer who pushed for release of the results. He added, #39;this information is late for the public, but it#39;s still better than nothing.#39; 土壤修复是使遭受污染的土壤恢复正常功能的技术措施,这一过程对技术要求很高,而且需要几十年的时间。在不同的条件下,重金属的反应也不同,这就令确定污染源变得困难,要把重金属从土壤中除去,可能需要把土地休耕数年。Chen Nengchang, a soil remediation expert with the Guangdong Institute of Environmental and Soil Sciences, said the report #39;clears away the image of soil pollution as a state secret and provides more information.#39; But he added that the release is #39;a gesture#39; that did little to provide solutions. 中国在最新的五年规划中提出,将投入人民币300亿元用于土壤修复和污染预防,不过有专家表示,相关成本要比这个数目多得多。 /201404/289088。


  Samsung Electronics may be considering a management shakeup as it faces pressure from cheaper Chinese device makers and Apple’s iPhone in the highly competitive smartphone arena.在竞争激烈的智能手机市场,三星电子(Samsung Electronics)面对中国廉价手机制造商和苹果(Apple)iPhone带来的压力下,可能正在考虑对管理层进行重大改组。The Wall Street Journal laid out a scenario of change that could occur, citing people familiar with the matter, which could result in some changes to the electronics giant’s unusual executive management structure. Samsung has had three co-CEOs since 2013, fairly uncommon in the corporate world. One of those co-CEOs, J.K. Shin, could be moved out of his role overseeing the mobile division. Another co-CEO, B.K. Yoon, could potentially oversee the mobile division on top of his current duties running Samsung’s home-appliance and TV business.《华尔街日报》(Wall Street Journal)报道援引知情人士的说法,给出了一个可能发生的变革方案,这家电子产品巨头或许将对与众不同的高层管理结构做出调整。自2013年起,三星就拥有三位联席首席执行官,这在企业界相当特殊。其中联席首席执行官申宗均或将不再负责移动业务。而另一位联席首席执行官尹富根可能会在负责原有的家用电器和电视业务之外,再接管移动业务。Samsung has in the past claimed that the leadership structure allows for independent management of its vast businesses, which includes smartphones, televisions and other consumer electronics, as well as messaging and services meant for business clients.三星之前曾表示,公司独特的领导结构有助于对其庞大业务进行独立管理,包括智能手机、电视和其他电子消费产品,以及针对商业客户的通讯和务。A Samsung representative wasn’t immediately available to comment on this report.三星的代表并未立即对这篇报道发表。Samsung, 13th on Fortune‘s Global 500 list, posted a 17% jump in sales in 2013 to nearly 9 billion — a record for the firm. But the company has faced some challenges in the smartphone market. Samsung’s shipment volume in the third quarter of this year slipped from a year ago, the only company among the top five vendors to report a decline, according to the International Data Corporation. Samsung, which has long relied on its high-end devices, reported better volume for its lower-end models, resulting in lower average selling prices, IDC said.三星在《财富》世界500强企业中排名第13,其产品销售额在2013年猛增17%,达到2,090亿美元,创造了该公司的纪录。但三星在智能手机市场也遭遇了一些挑战。根据IDC的数据,三星今年第三季度的智能手机出货量同比有所下降,也是五大供应商中唯一出现下滑的公司。IDC表示,长期以来依靠高端机型的三星,目前在低端机上的销量更好,这也拉低了公司产品的平均售价。The company’s stock has had a weak performance since early June, and shares on the Korea Exchange have dropped 11% so far in 2014.自6月初开始,三星便在股市中表现低迷。2014年以来,公司在韩国券期货交易所(Korea Exchange)的股价已经下跌了11%。(财富中文网) /201411/344885The identities of four passengers aboard the missing Malaysia Airlines flight are under investigation, the country’s transport minister said on Sunday, as the company confirmed that it was “fearing the worst”.Investigators are examining the entire passenger manifest after European diplomats said late on Saturday that two of the 227 passengers were travelling on stolen passports. Hishamuddin Hussein, who is also defence minister, said Malaysia would work with the FBI and other international agencies and that two more names were being checked.“All the four names are with me,” he said, according to Reuters.He spoke as the multinational hunt for any sign of the Malaysia Airlines flight missing with 239 people on board widened on Sunday, with officials saying search and rescue teams had so far found no trace of it.Hishammuddin also said there was a chance the aircraft had turned back in mid-air.“We are looking at the possibility of an aircraft air turn back, in which case different locations will have to be identified,” he said.Citizens from 14 nations were on board, though the vast majority were Chinese. The 12-strong flight crew were all from Malaysia.据英国《卫报》报道,马来西亚交通部长于3月9日称,马亚西亚航空失联航班上的4名乘客的真实身份正进行调查中,而马来西亚航空公司方面表示,担心正在发生“最糟糕情况”。欧洲外交官员们3月8日晚称,227名乘客中有两名旅客冒用他人护照混上飞机,调查人员正在检查全部乘客名单。马来西亚国防部长希山慕丁·侯赛因(Hishamuddin Hussein)表示,马来西亚将与美国联邦调查局(FBI)及其他国际机构一同协助调查,而另外两名乘客展开调查。据路透社报道,希山慕丁说道:“我已掌握四名乘客的名字。”在希山慕丁发表上述言论之时,多国正扩大搜救范围联合搜寻载有239名乘客及机组人员的失联马航的痕迹,而有官员反映称,搜救队迄今没有发现任何迹象。希山慕丁还透露,该失联航班可能曾折中途返吉隆坡。他说:“我们正研究飞机失联前掉头返航的可能性,这种情况下,搜寻范围必须扩大。”机上的乘客来自14个不同的国家,不过绝大多数是中国人,其中超过12名机组人员均来自马来西亚。On Saturday night, diplomats confirmed that two Europeans listed on the passenger manifest – an Italian, Luigi Maraldi and an Austrian, Christian Kozel – had not been on the flight and were safe and well. Maraldi had his passport stolen in Thailand last year and Kozel’s was stolen in the region two years ago.The flight was a codeshare with China Southern and the two people named as Maraldi and Kozel on the list booked together via the Chinese airline, Chinese media reported.The company said it had CCTV footage of the two people who checked in as Maraldi and Kozel.The Boeing 777 disappeared from radar screens just 40 minutes into its flight from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing in the early hours of Saturday morning. It was last detected over the seas between Malaysia and Vietnam.On Sunday morning the Malaysian director-general of civil aviation, Azaruddin Abdul Rahman, told reporters the search had expanded to a larger area of the South China Sea area and west coast of Malaysia, theStraits Times reported.3月8日晚上,外交人员实,所列乘客名单中的两名欧洲乘客,来自意大利的Luigi Maraldi和来自奥地利的Christian Kozel并没有登上该航班,目前处于安全状态。他们俩的护照都是在过去两年间于泰国被偷了。据中国媒体报道,失联航班与中国南航公司共享代码,名为Maraldi和Kozel的冒名顶替者是通过中国南航完成订票的。南航则表示拥有Maraldi和Kozel在检票登机时的闭路电视录像。马航波音777客机于3月8日凌晨执行吉隆坡至北京任务,起飞后仅短短40分钟就从雷达屏幕中消失了。其最后一次被检测到是在马来西亚和越南之间的海域。据《海峡时报》报道,马来西亚民航局局长阿卜杜勒·拉赫曼(Aaruddin Abdul Rahman)于3月9日告诉记者,搜救范围已扩大至南中国海区域和马来半岛的西海岸。Warships from Singapore and China were heading to the area and the ed States also offered vessels and aircraft.In a statement issued on Sunday morning, Malaysia Airlines said: “More than 24 hours after the loss of contact with Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370, the search and rescue teams are still unable to detect the whereabouts of the missing aircraft.“In fearing for the worst, a disaster recovery management specialist from Atlanta, USA will be assisting Malaysia Airlines in this crucial time.”An earlier statement began with the words: “Malaysia Airlines humbly asks all Malaysians and people around the world to pray for flight MH370.”新加坡和中国的军舰赶赴相关海域搜救,美国也相继派军舰前往援。马来西亚航空于3月9日上午发布声明:“马来西亚航空公司MH370航班失联已超24小时。搜救队目前仍无法侦察到失踪机的下落。”“做好最坏打算的心理准备,来自美国亚特兰大的灾难恢复管理专家人员将将在这个关键时刻协助马来西亚航空公司。”马来西亚航空公司在声明的一开头称:“马来西亚航空公司诚致地请求所有马来西亚人民和世界各地的人民为MH370航班上的所有乘客祈祷。”Vietnam’s deputy transport minister, Pham Quy Tieu, said no wreckage had been seen in the vicinity of two oil slicks detected late on Saturday, but that the search continued.The pilot of another flight told a Malaysian newspaper he had made brief contact with the plane via his emergency frequency, at the request of Vietnamese aviation authorities who had been unable to reach it as expected. Vietnam has said it believes the flight never entered its airspace.The unnamed man said his Japan-bound plane was deep into Vietnamese airspace when officials asked him to relay to MH370 to establish its position, and that he succeeded at about 1.30am local time.“The voice on the other side could have been either Captain Zaharie [Ahmad Shah, 53,] or Fariq [Abdul Hamid, 27], but I was sure it was the co-pilot.“There were a lot of interference ... static ... but I heard mumbling from the other end.越南交通部副部长Pham Quy Tieu于周六晚上称,侦察到的两条油迹带附近没有任何飞机的残骸,搜救仍在继续。另一个航班的飞行员对马来西亚报社称,他曾在越南航空当局的要求下,通过应急频率与MH370客机取得过短暂联系,而越南航空之前一直无法如预期与该航班联系上。越南当曾认为MH370没有进入过越南领空范围。据一位未透露姓名的飞行员指出,其在执行飞往日本的任务而进入越南领空时,越南当局要求他联系MH370以确定它的位置,而他在当地时间1点30分左右成功与MH370取得过联系。“那边的声音可能是机长Zaharie Ahmad Shah(现年53岁)或Fariq Abdul Hamid(现年27岁)两个人其中一个的,但我可以肯定的是对方是副驾驶。”“有很多干扰……静电干扰……但我听到另一端在断断续续的声音。”他告诉《海峡时报》:“这是我们最后一次与MH370取得联系,之后就失去联系了。”“That was the last time we heard from them, as we lost the connection,” he told the New Straits Times.He sakd he did not think any more of it at the time, as losing connections was common.Malaysia Airlines executives have said the flight was at 35,000 feet when it vanished and had given no indication of problems when last in contact.William Waldock, who teaches accident investigation at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical university in Arizona, told Associated Press the lack of a distress call ‘‘suggests something very sudden and very violent happened”.Both Malaysia Airlines and Boeing-777s have strong safety records.CNN reported that an FBI team was flying to Malaysia to assist in the investigation because three Americans were on board. It cited an unnamed official. 他表示,当时对此没有很在意,觉得联系中断是正常的。马航高级官员之前曾表示,MH370航班在飞行高度达35000英尺时消失前的最后一次联系中没有发出任何求救信号。美国亚利桑那州的安柏瑞德航空航天大学(Embry-Riddle Aeronautical university)意外调查专家威廉·瓦多克(William Wwaldock)告诉美联社,连一个求救信号都没有,“表明可能发生非常突然、猛烈的状况。”另外,马来西亚航空公司和波音777都具备无可挑剔的安全记录。CNN报道,据一位未透露姓名的官员称,失联飞机上有三名美国人,美国联邦调查局已派出一FBI小组赶赴马来西亚协助调查。 /201403/279590

  Japan begins whaling season with meat feast for school children日本一年一度捕鲸季节开始 小学生被邀请品尝鲸鱼肉(C N N) -- Whalers from a Japanese coastal town have celebrated the start of this year#39;s hunting season by slicing up a whale in front of a crowd of school children.日本海岸城市的捕鲸人在一群小学生面前宰杀了一头鲸鱼,以此来庆祝今年捕鲸季节的开始。In the town of Wada, 62 miles (100 kilo meters) south of Tokyo in Chiba prefecture, dozens of 10- year- old students watched Thursday as workers carved up a 30-foot Baird#39;s beaked whale during an educational field trip, before being served a meal of fried whale meat.在东京南部62英里千叶市管辖区的wada,一群约10岁左右的学生在他们春游时,观看了一个大约30英尺高的贝氏喙鲸在端上餐桌前被屠杀的过程。Whaling remains a way of life for fishermen in Wada, and they are eager to pass on the trade to the next generation. Children are taught about the history of whaling, the biology of the animals, and how to cook the meat.在Wada,捕鲸仍是他们生活的一部分,而他们也急于将这一传统传递给下一代。他们教授孩子们捕鲸的历史,鲸鱼的生物知识以及如何烹饪鲸鱼肉。Whalers say they#39;ve been catching and eating whales in the area for centuries. This year#39;s hunting season, which began on June 20, is the first since an international court ordered Japan to end its controversial research whaling expedition in the Antarctic, after failing to find evidence the program had legitimate scientific value捕鲸人说在这个地方,他们捕鲸吃鲸的历史已有百年了。自从联合国海牙国际法庭作出判决要求日本终止在南极海以科学调查的名义的捕鲸活动,今年6月20号开始的捕鲸季是第一个。So far this year, Gai bo Whaling Company has hunted six whales in the city#39;s coastal waters and plans to catch another 24 before the season ends in August.直到现在为止,Gai bao捕鲸公司已在城市周边海域猎杀了6条鲸鱼并计划在八月捕鲸季结束前再猎杀24条。Despite the Antarctic ban and growing pressure from the international community, Japan has continued it s northwest Pacific scientific whaling mission. It is also eager to revise it s Antarctic program to allow the hunt to continue while satisfying the demands of the U. N.#39;s International Court of Justice.尽管有不允许在南极海捕鲸的禁令,还有来自国际社会的不断施压,日本仍然继续了他们在西北部太平洋的捕鲸科研任务。他们也非常迫切的想要修改他们在南极海的捕鲸科研计划,以获得联合国国际法庭的允许能够继续捕鲸。In Japan#39;s parliament last month, Prime Minister Shin zo Abe said he would like the country to resume commercial whaling ;in order to obtain scientific information indispensable to the management of the whale resources.;上个月在日本议会中,首相安倍晋三说他希望日本能继续商业捕鲸,“以此来获得对鲸类必不可少的科研信息。”But environmentalists say Japan#39;s whaling research program is a thinly veiled attempt to circumvent a ban on the commercial whale meat trade.但是环境保护者则说日本的捕鲸研究项目是为了规避商业鲸肉贸易的禁令。Patrick Ramage from the International Fund for Animal Wel fare believes it#39;s time Japan moved from killing whales to conserving them.国际动物福利基金会的Patrick Ramage认为日本应该停止捕鲸、保护鲸鱼了。;Respect for cultural differences is fundamental, but friends of Japan and fans of Japanese culture around the world are watching this with sadness,; Ramage told C N N#39;s Will Ripley.Ramage这样告诉C N N的Will Ripley:“尽管尊重文化差异至关重要,但是许多日本朋友以及对日本文化感兴趣的人们都注视着他们的行动,并且为之感到难过。”;Japanese school children should be meeting whales through whale watching, not eating whale meat,; he said.他说:“日本学生应该通过鲸鱼表演时观看鲸鱼,而不是在餐桌上。”Japan#39;s supporters of eating whale meat say that it is a tradition that dates back hundreds of years, and accuses western critics of cultural imperialism. But consumption rates across the country have fallen in recent years, leading to large stock piles of whale meat.日本鲸肉持者则说,这是已有上百年历史的日本传统,并指责西方批评家们的文化帝国主义。但是全国的鲸肉购买率今年已经下降了,导致大量鲸肉滞存。Last month, Japan#39;s Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry released a photo of the agriculture minister Yoshimasa Haya shi eating a bowl of whale meat to encourage other Japanese citizen to do the same, and visitors to the ministry were given free samples of the delicacy.上个月,日本的农林水产部发表了一张部长长林方正吃鲸肉的照片,以此来鼓励日本国民。而去部里参观的游客也会得到免费的相关样品。In a survey of Japanese people released in April, only 4% of respondents said they ate whale meat occasionally, compared to 37% who said they didn#39;t eat i t at all.四月一份对日本人民的调查显示,只有4%参与调查的人们说他们经常吃鲸肉,另有37%的人们说他们从没吃过。 /201408/322120Child abduction alert system防儿童走失系统China#39;s first child abduction alert system, which will close all the exits of a building for 10 minutes to search for missing children, came into force in Nanjing, Jiangsu, on Monday.全国首个防儿童走失系统6月1日在江苏南京正式启用,该系统启动后会关闭建筑物所有出口10分钟,以寻找走失儿童。In addition to exit close, speakers will also broadcast information on the missing children while workers search for the children.除关闭出口外,工作人员在搜寻儿童时,广播还将播放走失儿童的信息。If after 10 minutes the child has not been found, the exits will be reopened and police will begin to investigate the case.如果10分钟内未找到走失儿童,所有出口将再次打开,警方则介入调查。Children often go missing in places of high population density, such as shopping malls, railway stations and amusement parks.儿童容易在购物商场、火车站和游乐园等人口密度高的场所走失。It is reported that around 200,000 children are lost every year in China and many of them get lost in public places.据悉,中国每年大约有20万儿童走失,大部分是在公共场所走失的。 /201506/378560


  Big banks will have to offer billions of dollars more in relief to the communities hardest hit by the financial crisis, as US authorities demand new terms for settling claims of mortgage sales abuses.由于美国当局就解决抵押贷款不当销售的赔偿问题提出新条款,多家大将再向遭受金融危机冲击最严重的社区付数十亿美元救济金。The Department of Justice and Department of Housing and Urban Development are adding provisions aimed at directing aid to distressed areas and community redevelopment efforts as they resolve outstanding investigations into mortgage sale abuses.美国司法部(DoJ)和美国住宅与城市发展部(Department of Housing and Urban Development)努力为悬而未决的抵押贷款不当销售调查划上句号,增加了一些新条款,旨在把援助引导至较困难的地区,务于社区再发展。The change of focus comes as US officials move closer to a record bn-plus deal with Bank of America over mis-selling mortgage securities that would push as much as bn to homeowners, people familiar with the matter have said.与此同时,知情人士表示,美国官员接近与美国(BofA)就不当销售抵押贷款券问题,达成一项金额达到创纪录的逾160亿美元的协议,其中70亿美元将付给房主。Including the BofA deal, banks will have paid bn in fines and consumer relief since the crisis to settle mortgage cases, according to FT research. At least seven other banks remain under investigation for mis-selling mortgage securities.英国《金融时报》研究显示,包括美国的该和解协议,各自金融危机以来为解决抵押贷款诉讼案而付的罚金和消费者救济金总共将达590亿美元。目前,起码还有7家仍在因不当销售抵押贷款券问题而接受调查。“We want to focus on lower to moderate income borrowers to make sure we’re getting at the smaller loans. So many years after the crisis there are still so many homeowners that are struggling,” said a DoJ official.“我们关注中低收入借款人,以确保我们能触及那些较低额度的贷款。金融危机过了这么多年,仍有这么多房主处境艰难,”一位司法部官员表示。Authorities are trying to direct relief to poorer neighbourhoods after criticism that buyers of higher-priced homes received too much of the mortgage relief set aside under 2012’s bn agreement between authorities and five financial institutions accused of improper foreclosures.当局正努力把救济金引导至较为贫穷的社区,此前他们遭到批评:根据2020年与被控不当收回房产的5家达成的200亿美元协议而划拨的抵押贷款救济金,有太大的比例流入了购买较高档房屋的业主手中。 /201408/320043。


  BACK in the late 1980s, when I was a co-editor of Spy magazine, we published a cover story about the 1970s. Spy being Spy, it was a grand feast of love-hate celebration: “A Return to the Decade of Mood Rings, Ultrasuede, Sideburns and Disco Sex-Machine Tony Orlando.” One of its implicit premises was the silliness of the pandemic of American nostalgia, especially for a culturally dubious decade that had ended less than a decade earlier. Over the last half century, we Americans have come to create and consume automatically and continuously a kind of recent-past wistfulness.20世纪80年代末,我还是《密探》(Spy)杂志的主编之一,我们发表了一期关于70年代的封面故事。《密探》就是《密探》,这是一个爱恨交织的庆典与精的盛宴:“回到情绪戒指、麂皮绒、连鬓胡子和迪斯科性感机器托尼·奥兰多(Tony Orlando)的十年里。”其中一个暗含的前提是美式怀旧蔓延的愚蠢,特别是对于一个文化上非常模糊的十年的怀旧,而它的终结甚至还不到十年。在上个世纪的下半叶,我们美国人无意识地创造与消费着对“不久前的过去”的怅惘之中,并且持续不断地处于这种状态。But what about the 1990s? Nostalgia for the era in which you were young is almost inevitable, so people born between 1970 and 1990 feel a natural fetishistic fondness for that decade. But even for the rest of us, the ’90s provoke a unique species of recherche du temps perdu, not mere bittersweet reveling in the passage of time. No, looking back at the final 10 years of the 20th century is grounds for genuine mourning: It was simply the happiest decade of our American lifetimes.但90年代又怎样呢?对自己年轻时代的怀旧是不可避免的,所以生于1970年到1990年的人肯定会对这十年产生一种盲目的天然亲切之感。但是即便对于我们其他人来说,90年代也能唤起一种独特的“追忆似水年华”之感,这不仅仅是对时光流逝的苦甜参半的回忆。不,回溯20世纪的最后十年是一种真正的哀悼:那是我们美国人生活中最快乐的十年。This isn’t (mainly) fogeyishness on my part. No. It is empirically, objectively, broadly true. I am not now nor have I ever been a Clintonite, but when Jeb Bush reportedly said a few weeks ago, apropos of 2016 and the probable Democratic presidential nominee, that “if someone wants to run a campaign about ’90s nostalgia, it’s not going to be very successful,” I think he was being wishful.这并不(主要)是出于我个人的守旧。不,这是有事实根据的,是客观的、普适的真相。我从来不是克林顿的拥趸,现在也不是,但当杰布·布什(Jeb Bush)几个星期之前说起2016年,以及可能的民主党总统候选人时,他说“如果有人能够发起关于90年代怀旧的政治宣传,肯定不会成功”,我觉得他过于一厢情愿了。Let’s begin with the quantifiable bits. America at large was prospering in the ’90s. The ed States economy grew by an average of 4 percent per year between 1992 and 1999. (Since 2001, it’s never grown by as much as 4 percent, and since 2005 not even by 3 percent for a whole year.) An average of 1.7 million jobs a year were added to the American work force, versus around 850,000 a year during this century so far. The unemployment rate dropped from nearly 8 percent in 1992 to 4 percent — that is, effectively zero — at the end of the decade. Plus, if you were a man and worked in an office, starting in the ’90s you could get away with never wearing a necktie.我们还是从量化的数据开始吧。在90年代,美国从总体而言非常繁荣。从1992年到1999年,美国经济平均每年增长4%(从2001年起就再也没有超过4%;从2005年起,全年增长率就再也没有超过3%)。每年平均增加170万个就业机会,本世纪以来,平均每年约增长85万个就业机会。到90年代末,失业率从1992年的8%降低到4%(这事实上等于零)。此外,如果你是做文职工作的男性,从90年代开始,你就可以不用西装革履地去上班了。From 1990 to 1999, the median American household income grew by 10 percent; since 2000 it’s shrunk by nearly 9 percent. The poverty rate peaked at over 15 percent in 1993, then fell to nearly 11 percent in 2000, more or less its postwar low. During the ’90s, stocks quadrupled in value — the Dow Jones industrial average increased by 309 percent. You could still buy a beautiful Brooklyn townhouse for 0,000 or less. And so on.从1990年到1999年,美国家庭收入的中位数增长了10%;自从2000年以来,降低了约9%。贫困率在1993年达到最高,超过15%,到2000年下降到接近11%,近乎“二战”后的最低点。在90年代,股价翻了四倍,道琼斯工业平均指数增长了309%。你仍然可以用50万美元乃至更少的钱就买下一栋漂亮的布鲁克林联排别墅。等等。By the end of the decade, in fact, there was so much good news — a federal budget surplus, dramatic reductions in violent crime (the murder rate in the ed States declined by 41 percent) and in deaths from H.I.V./AIDS — that each astounding new achievement didn’t quite register as miraculous. After all, the decade had begun with a fantastically joyful and previously unimaginable development: The Soviet empire collapsed, global nuclear Armageddon ceased to be a thing that worried anyone very much, and the nations of Eastern Europe were mostly unchained.到90年代末,事实上,有那么多的好消息——联邦预算出现剩余、暴力犯罪大幅度减少(美国的谋杀率降低了41%),HIV/艾滋死亡率也大幅度减少——这些惊人的新成就在当时并为被视为奇迹。毕竟,这十年刚一开始,就发生了一个令人快乐而又难以置信的成就——苏联帝国解体,人们不再为全球核末日而担忧,东欧国家也大都获得了解放。A tide of progress and good sense seemed to be sweeping the whole world. According to the annual count by Freedom House, the tally of the world’s free countries climbed from 65 at the beginning of the decade to 85 at the end. Since then, the total number of certified-free countries has increased by only four.进步与善意的大潮似乎席卷了整个世界。根据“自由之家”(Freedom House)组织的年度统计,90年代初,全世界共有65个自由国家,到了90年代末,变成了85个。自那以后,被承认的自由国家只增加了四个。Between 1990 and 1994 South Africa dismantled apartheid surprisingly peacefully. With the Oslo Accords, Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization had come together at last to negotiate a framework for coexistence and eventual peace. The civil wars in the former Yugoslavia ended and an enduring peace was restored. China became normal, reforming its economy, tripling its gross domestic product and easing its way into the world order.从1990年到1994年,南非以惊人的和平方式废除了种族隔离制度。根据奥斯陆协议,以色列与巴勒斯坦解放组织终于走到一起,谈判共存与持久和平的框架。前南斯拉夫国家的内战结束了,持久的和平得以恢复。中国成了正常国家,开始进行经济改革,国内生产总值翻了三倍,开始融入世界秩序。During the ’90s, the only American-led war in the Middle East was the one that drove Saddam Hussein’s invading army out of Kuwait with a ground campaign that lasted a mere 100 hours.在90年代,美国在中东的唯一一场战争是派遣地面部队,把萨达姆·侯赛因(Saddam Hussein)的侵略军赶出科威特,战争仅仅持续了100个小时。Peace, prosperity, order — and American culture was vibrant and healthy as well. There were both shockingly excellent versions of what had come before and distinctly new, original forms. Wasn’t the release of Nirvana’s “Nevermind,” in 1991, pretty much the last time a new rock ’n’ roll band truly, deeply mattered, the way rock ’n’ roll did in the ’60s and ’70s? Wasn’t hip-hop, which achieved its mass-market breakthrough and dominance in the ’90s, the last genuinely new and consequential invention of American pop culture?和平、繁荣与秩序——美国文化也同样健康活跃。文化中既有承袭自过去的东西,也有崭新的原创形式,二者都很精。1991年,“涅槃”(Nirvana)发行了《别在意》(Nevermind), 一新的摇滚乐队能像六七十年代的摇滚乐那样,产生真正深远的影响,这难道不是最后一次吗?嘻哈乐在大众市场获得突破,主宰了90年代,这难道不是美国流行文化中最后一次产生真正新颖而重大的创新吗?What is the most remarkably successful literary creation of the last several decades? The Harry Potter novels, the first three of which appeared in the ’90s. Supertalented literary youngsters appeared — David Foster Wallace (“Infinite Jest”), Donna Tartt (“The Secret History”), Jonathan Lethem (“Motherless Brooklyn”) and Dave Eggers (McSweeney’s). And supertalented literary geezers — Philip Roth (“American Pastoral”), John Updike (“Rabbit at Rest”), Alice Munro (“The Love of a Good Woman”), Don DeLillo (“Underworld”) — produced some of their best and most successful work as well.说说过去十几年来最成功的文学创作?哈利·波特(Harry Potter)系列小说的前三部都是在90年代出版的。那十年间,天才文学新星开始出现:写出了《无尽的玩笑》(Infinite Jest)的大卫·福斯特·华莱士(David Foster Wallace)、写出《秘史》(The Secret History)的唐娜·塔特(Donna Tartt)、写出《布鲁克林孤儿》(Motherless Brooklyn)的乔纳森·勒瑟姆(Jonathan Lethem)和写出《麦克斯维尼》(McSweeney’s)的戴夫·艾格斯(Dave Eggers)。此外还有那些天才的老人家们——菲利普·罗斯(Philip Roth)写出了《美国牧歌》(American Pastoral)、约翰·厄普代克(John Updike)写出了《兔子歇了》(Rabbit at Rest)、爱丽丝·门罗(Alice Munro)写出了《好女人的爱》(The Love of a Good Woman),唐·德里罗(Don Delillo)写出了《地下》(Underworld)——他们都献上了最精、最成功的作品。The quality of television radically improved. “Seinfeld” and “The Simpsons” had their premieres in 1989, and in the ’90s they blew up, along with “Friends” and “NYPD Blue” — all of them broadcast network series, none of them reality shows. HBO, before the ’90s a channel for movies, boxing and soft-core porn, decided to swing for the fences. First with “The Larry Sanders Show” and then with “The Sopranos,” it proved that episodic television could accommodate major ambition and actual brilliance, ushering in an enduring new (cable) TV era.电视节目的质量急剧上升。《宋飞传》(Seinfeld)和《辛普森一家》(The Simpsons)都于1989年首次亮相,在90年代兴盛一时,之后是《老友记》(Friends)和《纽约重案组》(NYPD Blue)——它们都是公共台电视剧,都不是真人秀。HBO台在90年代之前是个专放电影、拳击和软色情的频道,90年代,它决定转型。先是制作了《拉里·桑德斯秀》(The Larry Sanders Show),之后又有了《黑道家族》(The Sopranos),这部剧集明电视剧也可以承载远大的抱负,成为真正精的节目,从而引领了一个长盛不衰的(有线)电视新时代。In feature films, it was the decade of “Pulp Fiction” and the indie movement, thanks to which idiosyncratic, more-commercial-than-art-house masterpieces like those by Wes Anderson, Alexander Payne and Richard Linklater became plausible. It was also the decade in which traditional Disney animation came back from the dead and in which Pixar, with the first two “Toy Story” movies, reinvented the form magnificently.在电影界,这是属于《低俗小说》(Pulp Fiction)与独立运动(indie movement)的十年,韦斯·安德森(Wes Anderson)、亚历山大·佩恩(Alexander Payne)与理查德·林特莱克(Richard Linklater)拍摄的那些怪异而又有商业气质,不那么孤芳自赏的杰作开始为大众所见。这十年里,传统迪斯尼动画起死回生,皮克斯也带来了《玩具总动员》(Toy Story)系列的前两部,革新了动画片这种形式。THE digital age, of course, got fully underway in the ’90s. At the beginning of the decade almost none of us had heard of the web, and we didn’t have browsers, search engines, digital cellphone networks, fully 3-D games or affordable and powerful laptops. By the end of the decade we had them all. Steve Jobs returned to Apple and conjured its rebirth.当然,90年代,数码时代也在酝酿之中。在90年代初,我们大家几乎都没有听说过互联网,我们也没有浏览器、搜索引擎、数字手机系统、3-D游戏或便宜好用的笔记本电脑。到90年代末,这一切全都成了现实。史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)回归苹果公司,令它获得新生。And it was just the right amount of technology. By the end of the decade we all had cellphones, but not smartphones; we were not overconnected or tyrannized by our devices. Social media had not yet made social life both manically nonstop and attenuated. The digital revolution hadn’t brutally “disrupted” whole economic sectors and made their work forces permanently insecure. Recorded music sales nearly doubled during the decade. Newspapers and magazines were thriving. Even Y2K, our terrifying end-of-the-millennium technological comeuppance, was a nonevent.而且这些都是适度的技术。90年代末,我们都有了手机,但还不是智能手机;我们还没有被设备过度连接,或者受到技术的控制。社交媒体还没有令社交生活变得病态般无休无止,一方面又弱化了社交生活。数码革命还没有粗暴地“瓦解”整体经济环节,令它们的工作变得再也不那么安全。90年代,音乐唱片的销量几乎增加了一倍。报纸和杂志也繁荣昌盛。就连可怕的千禧年技术危机——千年虫——到最后都根本不成问题。Indeed, the ’90s were a decade of catastrophes that didn’t happen. The Clinton tax increases did not trigger a recession. Welfare reform did not ravage the poor. Compared with Sandy, every hurricane that touched New York — Bob! Bertha! Danny! Dennis! Floyd! — was a dud.事实上,90年代里根本没有发生任何大灾难。克林顿政府的增税并没有引发衰退。福利改革没有掠夺穷人。与桑迪飓风相比,那时候经过纽约的那些飓风——鲍勃!伯莎!丹尼!丹尼斯!弗洛伊德!——全都是小菜一碟。Were there real problems in the ’90s? Of course. But they weren’t obvious, so ... we were blissfully ignorant! Almost none of us were suitably alarmed by carbon emissions and the warming planet. According to a 1995 article in this newspaper about climate change, “most scientists say the amount of warming so far, about one degree Fahrenheit in the last century, is still too small to be distinguished from the climate system’s natural fluctuations.” So why worry?90年代有什么真正的问题吗?当然有,但它们并不是那么明显,所以……我们真是处于有福的无知之中!我们都没有充分意识到碳排放与全球变暖问题。《纽约时报》1995年的一篇文章中谈到气候变化,“全球气温与上个世纪相比提高了一华氏度,大多数科学家认为,考虑到气候系统的自然波动,这个变化并不大。”所以我们干嘛还要担心?When the House and Senate passed by overwhelming bipartisan majorities and President Clinton signed the Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, doing away with the firewalls between investment banks and commercial banks, the change seemed inevitable, sensible, modern — not a precursor of the 2008 Wall Street crash. When a jihadist truck bomb detonated in the parking garage below the north tower of the World Trade Center in 1993, we were alarmed only briefly, figuring it for a crazy one-off rather than a first strike in a long struggle.1999年,参众两院以两党多数通过了金融务业现代化法案,并由克林顿总统签署生效,撤销了投资与商业之间的防火墙,在当时,这个改变看来不可避免,是明智而现代化的——而不是2008年华尔街金融危机的前奏。1993年一个伊斯兰圣战者用卡车炸弹引爆了世贸中心北塔的停车场,我们只是短暂担心了一阵,觉得这是疯狂的一次性行为,而不是长期战斗的开端。Americans have never much liked paying attention to foreign countries and their problems (see Rwanda, 1994), so the decade between the end of the Cold War and the beginning of the war on terror was very much our cup of tea.美国人从来不喜欢关注外国和外国人的问题(看看1994年的卢旺达吧),所以从冷战结束后到与恐怖主义作战之间的这十年正是最合我们的口味的那杯茶。No: I mean our cup of coffee. You can’t talk about the ’90s without talking about the sudden availability of excellent coffee — espresso in Idaho! — all over America. This was thanks to Starbucks, of course, which went from nearly 100 outlets in the ed States at the start of the decade to 2,000 at the end. But as it goes with so many good things in America — easier credit and financial innovation and electronic connection and all the rest — that just wasn’t enough.不对,我是说,它是最合我们口味的那杯咖啡。谈到90年代,不说那些突然出现的好咖啡怎么行——爱达荷特浓咖啡——一下子遍及全美。当然,这要感谢星巴克,90年代初,它在全美只有100家分店,到90年代末就变成了2000家。但当时美国还有那么多的好东西——放松信贷与金融创新,还有电子通讯等等等——这么多家星巴克还远远不够。Today there are more than 13,000 Starbucks in the ed States. And each of them, to my eye, looks exactly as it did when the rollout began — 13,000 ubiquitous and faintly melancholic time-capsule museums of the last best American decade.如今美国有13000多家星巴克点。在我看来,每一家都和它最初的样子差不多——13000个无处不在、略带忧郁的时光胶囊物馆,封存着上一个美国的黄金十年的样子。 /201502/360139


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