时间:2018年01月18日 13:45:04

Like a phoenix rising from the ashes, astronomers have found a whole new solar system may be forming in the wake of a star's violent death. This is the Hidden Universe of the Spitzer Space Telescope, exploring the mysteries of infrared astronomy with your host Dr. Robert Hurt.When a massive star reaches the end of the line, it ''does not go gentle into that good night''. It becomes a supernova, an explosion so bright that it briefly outshines everything else in the galaxy. Most of the heavy elements that make up planets, and even people, are forged in the nuclear furnaces of such explosions. Here we see heavy elements in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant blowing back into the galaxy and mingling with interstellar gases. The next generation of baby stars forms from this material now enriched with building blocks for growing new solar systems and planets. But what of the star that went supernova? Its core still remains in the form of a pulsar. This stellar corpse is tiny and dense, squeezing about 1.5 times the mass of the Sun into an object a mere 10 miles across. A team led by Dr. Deepto Chakrabarty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that even a dead pulsar might play host to a whole new generation of planet formation. They studied a once-massive star that went supernova about 100,000 years ago. In the process it likely wiped out any existing planets. While most of the star-stuff blew off into space, a little bit fell back under the pull of gravity. Dr. Chakrabarty explains. "If the original massive star was spinning fast enough then that material won't fall directly back onto the neutron star, but may instead form a disk, and so what we think we've found is a disk of this debris material that's left over from the explosion that formed the neutron star.This disk has about 10 times the Earth's mass and looks very much like ones that produce planets around young stars. Moreover, it may help solve a recent planet-making mystery. In 1992, astronomers found the first planets outside our solar system, which were orbiting an older pulsar. But where did they come from? Could they have formed after their star went supernova? The discovery of a planet forming disk around a younger pulsar makes this likely. It seems new planets can arise from the ashes of their own star's death. However pulsar planets are pretty hostile real estate for life. Pulsars provide little light or heat and would bathe these worlds in intense radiation. A nuclear waste dump at the South Pole might actually be a little more pleasant.1. end of the road/linen. phr. The final result or end (as of a way of action or behavior); the condition that comes when you can do no more.2. Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Nighta villanelle composed in 1951, is considered to be among the finest works by Welsh poet Dylan Thomas (1914–1953). Originally published in the journal Botteghe Oscure in 1951, it also appeared as part of the collection "In Country Sleep." It is one of his most-ed works. It was written for his dying father.3. supernova 超新星a very large exploding star 4. Cassiopeia 仙后座A W-shaped constellation in the Northern Hemisphere between Andromeda and Cepheus.5. remnanta small part of something that remains after the rest of it has been used, destroyed, or eaten6. pulsar: 脉冲星star that cannot be seen but can be detected by pulsating radio signals7. wipe outTo remove, kill, or destroy completely8. neutron star: 中子星A celestial body consisting of the superdense remains of a massive star that has collapsed with sufficient force to push all of its electrons into the nuclei that they orbit, thus leaving only neutrons, and having a powerful gravitational attraction from which only neutrinos and high-energy photons can escape, rendering the body detectable only by x-ray. 200810/54446

Eruption Changing Galapagos 加拉帕戈斯群岛火山爆发A volcano that started erupting on one of the Galapagos Islands last week may be changing the landscape of the island. According to the Associated Press, rangers and tour guides spotted lava flowing down the northeastern flank of the Cerro Azul Volcano on the Island of Isabela late on Wednesday. The volcano had erupted last Thursday through Sunday as well. "What we saw during the flight was a rather big fissure, approximately 437 yards long, that was spewing magma approximately 66 yards into the air." Scientists feel the volcano may be changing the geography. "We saw that, for example, the blue lagoon that was in the crater before is no longer there, the green lagoon is somewhat dry, and we also detected a volcanic vent." Cerro Azul, one of five active volcanos on the island, last eruputed in September 1998, causing minor damage to plant life. The volcano is located on the unpopulated southwestern corner of the island. The Galapagos Islands are known for unique plant and animal life, and it's part of the inspiration for Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. Notes:The Galápagos Islands (Official name: Archipiélago de Colón; other Spanish names: Islas de Colón or Islas Galápagos, from galápago, "saddle"—after the shells of saddlebacked Galápagos tortoises) are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed around the equator, 525 nautical miles (972 km/604 mi) west of continental Ecuador in the Pacific OceanCoordinates: 0°40′S, 90°33′W. Cerro Azul ("blue hill" in Spanish) is an active stratovolcano located in central Chile, immediately south of Descabezado Grande volcano. The volcano is capped by a 0.5 kilometres (0.3 mi) wide summit crater that is open to the north. Numerous scoria cones and flank vents are found on the lower slopes.Vocabulary Mix:magma: n molten rock found beneath the earth's crust lagoon: a small lake which is not very deep, near a larger lake or river200811/56044

Nearly two years after trying to adopt a child from the African nation of Malawi, Madonna is behind a new documentary focusing on the plight of orphans there.It's been nearly 2 years since Madonna first made headlines for trying to adopt a small child from the African nation of Malawi. And she's since become a voice for the more than 1 million children or orphans in that country and now she’s behind the film on that subject and Ann had a chance to catch up with her last night.I did that, Mary, in fact, Madonna hit the red carpet at New York City’s Tribeca Film Festival last evening where her new film debuted. It's called I Am Because We Are. It’s a documentary about the struggle of these children who have been orphaned by AIDS in Malawi. And afterwards I sat down with Madonna to talk about the film and why she felt the commitment to help those children. I am because we are.Something about their situation connected to me, and in a way I was going on my own journey and connecting to these children and wanting to in a way heal myself whilst helping them. And hearing about their suffering? Something opened to you?Yeah. I grew up as a motherless child. I had a roof over my head and I had food and I had a school to go to. And I still thought that my world was going to collapse on me, so how could it be for these children who, most of them, having lost both of their parents, having no roof over their head, no food to eat, how horrifying and frightening it must be for them! You know, I wonder how this revelation came to you, you know, this is going to be a thing, you know, for you. (Yes!) This is not how people see you.I think having children and having a family forces you to think about people besides yourself, I mean you don’t really have a choice, I think I just got to a point in my life. / I thought, you know, I have so much, and it’s a great tragedy if I don’t use what I have to make the world a better place. I know that sounds silly, or cheesy, or like a cliché, whatever but it’s the truth. If I was challenging people to open up their minds and their hearts, then I had to be willing to stand at the front of the line.I appreciate and understand how people could be cynical, that’s fine, I accept that.Why do you appreciate that people can be cynical?Because I think we live in a society, that, where people are naturally suspicious of acts of altruism or generosity. Or maybe they might be suspicious because they might think, well, you know, Madonna changes all the time, is this simply another fad, de jour, a trend, or just a new, is this something that is really core to Madonna.My re-inventions are part of my evolution and my growth as a person. They’re aspects of it that are full of lesson. They are aspects of it that are real. His name is David, I decided to try and adopt him. I don’t see how anybody who really understands how complicated it is to adopt a child could say that someone toasts to do that as a fad, it’s just too difficult, it’s too traumatic.It’s been hard then to adopt David.We have not even been granted the full adoption. It’s supposed to be happening in the next month. So for the last 18 months I have been a foster parent. I have been visited every 6 weeks by social workers who come into the house and make sure that you are being a good parent, and David’s health is thriving, and asking you all kinds of invasive questions, and you have to put up with it and endure it and you know, I have been fingerprinted about 20 times, and undergone psychological evaluations and I think everybody who goes through adoption has to do this, I am not alone and, but you know, I do it again.You would?Yeah.Why? Because David is amazing, because he’s brought so much joy to our lives and more than about him. And so, it was worthy. I think most people will suffer for the things they love. And now at this point in your life, it seems you’re opening, to some part of you, it's softening, something that is looking for wisdom, usefulness.Well, thank God. (What do you mean by that?) Well, thank God I am searching for wisdom and usefulness. Em, one hopes that one gets to that point in their lives sooner or later.Do you wish that you could just be anonymous?No, no, (No?) I mean, yeah, I have moments of it, but I don’t wanna wish that I am not me, I don’t wish I were someone else. What is it that you want to feel about your life?That my soul reached its true potential. And that I did everything that I was put on this Earth to do. Which is? Well, who knows. We are about to find out.And it’s part of that, she also spoke to me about possibly working with orphanages and other parts of the world beyond Malawi, places like Cambodia and the Palestinian territories and she also does not discount the idea of adopting again. (Very well~) So this seems to be a new sort of beginning for her, she says.01/60845

Detroit Auto Show highlights CNN's Colleen McEdwards reports on this year's auto show in Detroit, Michigan。 Well this has been one of the worst years ever in the global auto industry, but in the ed States, the manufacturers here are feeling most of the pain. And at this year's Detroit auto show: Ford, General Motors and Chrysler are really focusing on stretching the consumer dollar. They say they've seen the lights. They figured out that consumers worldwide want safe, innovative and reasonably priced cars. General Motors made a big splash with the Chevy Volt, and here it is, right here a plug-in electric car. But here is the ironic thing about this car, one of the plant that is gonna build this car is on hold because of General Motors' money problems. But still the company insists it's gonna hit the market on schedule next year. This year's Auto Show is as much about who isn't here as who is. Most of the luxury European carmakers simply stayed home, and many of the Japanese carmakers like Nissan and Suzuki, stayed away because they said they didn't have enough money to spend here. Honda is here, but it's keeping things pretty lowkey, it's not holding any big splashy events. You know people at this year's Auto Show are talking as much about the problems in the industry as they are about the new products. But there are some new ones being rolled out and a lot of them have to do with green technology, electric cars, hybrid cars. In fact, Ford made a big splash by announcing that it's gonna bring more hybrid and electric models to markets in the next 4 years and it had plan to originally because it really wants to try to seize on the green technology. One of them is gonna be this baby, it is a plug-in hybrid, and it is gonna be on the market near 2012. Ford threw in a little old-fashioned muscle as well, revving up the crowd, introducing its new Mustang, right alongside all those quiet hybrids. This is an industry full of contradictions right now and questions, will the public accept plug-in cars if they are to be the savior of the US auto industry in the future of the industry? And with so many important global automakers not even showing up here, will these big events like the Detroit auto show become a thing of the past in an industry that's running on borrowed money and borrowed time. Colleen McEdwards, CNN, Detroit.01/61405

Infidelity faces women with greater incomeMen who earn less than their female partners are more likely to cheat on them, a study published on Monday found.Cheating may be a man's way of trying to restore his gender identity when he feels it is under threat, Christin Munsch, a sociology doctoral candidate at Cornell University, says in the study, which she authored and presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association."Making less money than a female partner may threaten men's gender identity by calling into question the traditional notion of men as bwinners," Munsch said.Indeed, the study found that infidelity dramatically increased when the man earning less than his female partner is Latino, probably because bwinner status is "one of the defining features of Hispanic masculinity."Then again, the same study found that men whose partners were more dependent on them were also more likely to cheat, making it a lose-lose situation for women.It's different for girls, though. Overall, women are half as likely to cheat as men anyway, whatever the circumstances, the study found."Women's femininity is not defined by their bwinner status, nor is it defined by sexual conquest. Therefore, economic dependency does not serve as a threat to women," Munsch says.The study indicates ways to prevent one's partner cheating without giving up the well-paid day job. Both sides being satisfied in a relationship is a sure-fire way to make infidelity disappear, and getting your partner to go to church or the mosque or temple regularly is another: the more regularly an individual attends a religious service, the less likely he or she is to cheat, the study says.Looking for a partner in a university library, lab or lecture might also be an idea because, the study says, "the more education one reports, the less likely he or she is to engage in infidelity."Vocabulary:doctoral candidate:士生call into question: 使……受到质疑sure-fire:准不会有错的背单词 — 装英语词汇201008/111664

Australia Debates Revamping Controversial Citizenship Tests澳大利亚修改入籍考试注重新国民权利义务Australia is revising controversial citizenship tests, to make sure applicants are more aware of their rights and responsibilities rather than examine their general knowledge about sports and culture.澳大利亚将修改引起争议的公民入籍考试,以确保申请入籍者更多地了解他们的权利和责任,而不是仅仅考查他们对体育和文化的一般知识。The government wants to make the tests more helpful for prospective citizens settling in to life in their adopted country.澳大利亚政府希望公民入籍考试能更有助于新公民把生活融入他们的新国家。In the new version of the test, to be rolled out October 19, there will more questions about gender equality, compulsory voting and the Australian legal system.今年10月19号开始实行的新入籍考试将包括更多有关性别平等、投票义务以及澳大利亚法制系统的问题。In unveiling the test this week, Immigration Minister Chris Evans, who was born in Britain, says the amendments will help immigrants better understand their responsibilities to the community.本星期宣布新入籍考试的澳大利亚移民部长埃文斯在英国出生。他说,有关修改将帮助移民更好的理解他们对社区负有的责任。Evans and many immigrant activists think questions on the current test about famous sports personalities and explorers are irrelevant.埃文斯和很多移民权益活动人士认为,目前入籍考试中有关知名体育界人士和探险者的那些问题无关紧要,没有意义。The country on Thursday celebrated Citizenship Day and to mark the occasion 4,000 people were sworn in as new Australians.星期四是澳大利亚的公民日,当天有4千人宣誓成为澳大利亚公民。Among them was China-born opera singer Sharon Zai, who gave up her Chinese citizenship to become an Australian."I would love to have both but because I have been in Australia for six years and I feel very, very involved with this Australian life and I love to live here forever," she said.Critics say the citizenship tests are a waste of money, do nothing to help newcomers integrate into society and discriminate against those from a non-English speaking background.批评人士说,公民入籍考试是浪费钱,丝毫不能帮助新移民融入社会,并且歧视那些母语不是英语的移民。Migrants must pass the test to gain citizenship. 所有移民必须通过入籍考试才能获得澳大利亚国籍。Under the proposed changes, those taking the test will have to answer 20 multiple-choice questions in English and the passing grade will rise from 60 percent to 75.根据新提出的修改,入籍考试参加者将要回答20道英文的多项选择题,及格分数从60分改为75分。The tests were introduced in 2007 and were intended to enhance social cohesion. Recent studies have found that some prospective citizens had been deterred from applying for citizenship, wrongly fearing they would be deported if they failed the test.现行的入籍考试于2007年开始实行,目的是促进社会和谐。最近的研究显示,一些有意入籍的移民不敢提出申请,错误地担心如果通不过考试就会被遣返。Applicants can take the exam as many times as they like until they pass.澳大利亚对移民参加入籍考试没有次数限制,可以多次参加考试,之至最后入籍。09/84771

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