江西省南昌同济医院隆鼻多少钱专注认证

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 江西省南昌同济医院隆鼻多少钱百姓简介
A new self-repairing material has been developed by researchers in the UK and they say it’ll be y to integrate into everything from smartphone screens to nail varnish within the next five years。英国研究员已开发一种能自我修复的新型材料,他们声称在未来5年内,这款材料将整合入所有的东西中——从智能手机屏幕到指甲油。Originally developed for aeroplane wings, the technology has the potential to revolutionise a range of industries with the capacity to move into tiny cracks and harden inside like the way blood forms a dry, protective scab to heal flesh wounds。这项科技原本是为飞机机翼打造的,但如今它拥有彻底改变一系列工业的潜能:新型材料能移至细微裂纹加固内部,就如同血液会自动形成干燥、保护性的痂来痊愈皮肉伤一样。Made from a mixture of different carbon-based chemicals, this new healing agent produces a sheet of millions of microscopic spheres. When a crack breaks these hollow microspheres apart, a liquid is released that moves into the newly formed gap. A chemical reaction then causes the polymerisation - or hardening - of this liquid, causing it to glue to the edges of the cracks and form a hard, near-invisible filler。这种新型治愈体由不同碳基化工品混合而成,会生成一张由数百万微观球体构成的板面。当裂缝打碎了空心球体的表面,它会释放一种液体填补到新的裂缝中去。随后的化学反应生成聚合作用,将液体硬化,使之将裂缝边缘沾到一起,形成几乎看不见的坚硬填充物。The technology has been developed by a team from England’s University of Bristol, led by chemist Duncan Wass, and was presented at a Royal Society meeting in London last month。这项技术是由英国布里斯托尔大学化学家邓肯·沃斯带领下的一小队研发而成,上月于英国皇家学会会议上展示。;We took inspiration from the human body,; Wass told Chris Green at The Independent。“我们从人类身体中获得了灵感,”沃斯告诉《独立报》的克里斯·格林。;We’ve not evolved to withstand any damage - if we were like that we’d have a skin as thick as a rhinoceros - but if we do get damaged, we bleed, and it scabs and heals. We just put that same sort of function into a synthetic material: let’s have something that can heal itself.;“我们不是生来就能抵御一切伤害的——如果我们真能做到,那我们的皮肤就跟犀牛一样厚了——但如果我们真的受伤了,我们会流血,会结痂会愈合。我们只是将同样的原理应用到了合成材质中:让材料也能自我修复。” /201507/384645SAN FRANCISCO — It took six years for Apple to persuade China’s largest wireless carrier, China Mobile, to sell the iPhone. Apple’s chief executive, Timothy D. Cook, made repeated trips to China to meet with top government officials and executives to woo them personally.旧金山——苹果公司(Apple)用了六年时间才说了中国最大的无线运营商中国移动销售iPhone。苹果公司首席执行官蒂莫西·D·库克(Timothy D. Cook)曾多次去中国与政府官员和企业高管会面,亲自争取他们的持。The persistence paid off. In 2013, China Mobile relented, a moment Mr. Cook later described as “a watershed day” for Apple.这种坚持得到了回报。2013年,中国移动松口了。库克后来称,对苹果来说那是“有划时代意义的一天”。Today, China is Apple’s second-largest market after the ed States — Chinese consumers spent billion on Apple products in the last fiscal year — and the iPhone, the company’s top seller, has become both a status symbol and a form of personal security, given how difficult the device is to break into in a country where people increasingly worry about hacking and cybercrime.如今,中国是苹果仅次于美国的第二大市场。过去的一个财年里,中国消费者在购买苹果产品上花了590亿美元。公司最热销的产品iPhone已经成了一种地位的象征。考虑到在中国,人们越来越担心黑客入侵和网络犯罪,而iPhone又很难侵入,它也成了一种实现个人安全的方式。Apple’s success in China helps explain why it is now in a standoff with the ed States government over whether to help officials gain access to the encrypted iPhone of one of the attackers in the San Bernardino, Calif., mass shooting last December.苹果在中国的成功,有助于解释为什么在是否帮助政府进入一部加密iPhone一事上,该公司与美国政府陷入了僵持。那部手机的主人,是去年12月制造了加利福尼亚州圣贝纳迪诺那起大规模击案的袭击者之一。The company is playing the long game with its business. Privacy and security have become part of its brand, especially internationally, where it reaps almost two-thirds of its almost 4 billion a year in sales. And if it cooperates with one government, the thinking goes, it will have to cooperate with all of them.苹果正在为自己的业务从长计议。隐私和安全已经成了其品牌的一部分,特别是在国际市场上。苹果一年将近2340亿美元的销售额中,近三分之二来自国际市场。他们的想法是,如果和美国政府合作,苹果将不得不和所有政府合作。“Tim Cook is leveraging his personal brand and Apple’s to stand on the side of consumer privacy in this environment,” said Mark Bartholomew, a law professor at the University at Buffalo who studies encryption and cyberlaw. “He is taking the long view.” “蒂莫西·库克正在利用他个人以及苹果公司的品牌,在这种环境下把立场放在消费者隐私一边,”在布法罗大学(University at Buffalo)研究网络加密与立法的法学教授马克·巴塞洛缪(Mark Bartholomew)说。“他是在从长远考虑。”Mr. Cook, who has called privacy a civic duty, said as much in a letter to Apple customers on Tuesday. He described how the ed States government was asking for a special tool to break into the San Bernardino attacker’s iPhone and said, “The government suggests this tool could only be used once, on one phone. But that’s simply not true. Once created, the technique could be used over and over again, on any number of devices.”库克曾把隐私称为一种公民义务,在上周二写给苹果用户的信中,他也用了这种说法。他在信中描述了美国政府在如何要求获得一种专门工具,以破解圣贝纳迪诺袭击者使用过的iPhone,库克写道:“政府表示,这个工具只会被使用一次,只用在一部手机上。但是,这根本不是真的。工具一旦制造出来,该技术可以被一次又一次地使用,用在各种各样的设备上。”An Apple spokeswoman declined to comment beyond the remarks in Mr. Cook’s letter.苹果公司发言人拒绝发表超出库克信中言论的。The business advantage Apple may get from privacy has given critics an opening to attack the company. In a court filing on Friday, the Justice Department said Apple’s opposition to helping law enforcement appeared “to be based on its concern for its business model and public brand marketing strategy.”苹果从保护隐私中可能获得的业务优势为批评者攻击公司打开一个缺口。美国司法部在上周五提交给法庭的一份文件中表示,苹果反对帮助执法部门看来“是基于对公司商业模式及其大众品牌营销战略的考虑。”Apple senior executives responded that their defiance was not a business choice. They said there had not been any business fallout and that Mr. Cook had received supportive emails from customers across the country.苹果高管回应说,他们的违抗不是一种商业选择。他们说,还没有看到任何对业务的影响,库克已经收到了全国各地客户发来的表示持的电子信。In fact, Apple has not made a point of advertising data security and privacy. The company has quietly built privacy features into its mobile operating system, known as iOS, over time. By late 2013, when Apple released its iOS 7 system, the company was encrypting by default all third-party data stored on customers’ phones. And iOS8, which became available in 2014, made it basically impossible for the company’s engineers to extract any data from mobile phones and tablets.事实上,苹果并没有把数据安全和隐私作为广告宣传的重点。公司不声不响地把保护隐私的功能添加到iOS的移动操作系统中已有一段时间了。2013年底,苹果发布其iOS 7系统时,公司默认设置对用户手机上存放在所有第三方数据加密。2014年发布的iOS 8已基本上把公司的工程师从移动手机和平板机上提取任何数据变得不可能。Mr. Cook has also been vocal about how Apple is pro-privacy, a message that he discussed more widely after revelations from the former intelligence contractor Edward J. Snowden about government surveillance. Mr. Cook argued that the company sold hardware — phones, tablets and laptops — and did not depend on the mass collection of consumer data as some Silicon Valley behemoths, such as Google and Facebook, do for their advertising-oriented businesses.库克也一直对苹果如何拥护隐私直言不讳,在前情报承包商雇员爱德华·J·斯诺登(Edward J. Snowden)披露了政府监听监视工作之后,库克在更大范围里讨论隐私问题。库克认为,公司主要出售手机、平板机、笔记本电脑等硬件,不像谷歌和Facebook等其他硅谷巨头的业务以广告为主那样,苹果不依赖于海量消费者数据。At a conference in October, Mr. Cook called privacy a “key value” at Apple and said, “We think that it will become increasingly important to more and more people over time as they realize that intimate parts of their lives are sort of in the open and being used for all sorts of things.”在去年10月的一次会议上,库克称隐私是苹果公司的一个“关键价值”,他说,“我们觉得,随着时间的推移,人们意识到,他们生活中隐秘的部分似乎处于公开状态,而且被各种各样的东西利用,因此,隐私对越来越多的人将有日益重要的意义。”For Apple, cooperating with the ed States government now could quickly lead to murkier situations internationally.对苹果来说,现在与美国政府合作可能很快会让公司在国际上面临更加模糊的情况。In China, for example, Apple — like any other foreign company selling smartphones — hands over devices for import checks by Chinese regulators. Apple also maintains server computers in China, but Apple has previously said that Beijing cannot view the data and that the keys to the servers are not stored in China. In practice and according to Chinese law, Beijing typically has access to any data stored in China.比如在中国,苹果与任何其他在那里出售智能手机的外国公司一样,要把进口设备交给中国监管机构检查。苹果在中国也放有作为务器的计算机,但苹果此前曾表示,北京不能查看计算机上的数据,因为务器的密钥并不存放在中国。实际上,按照中国法律,北京通常对任何存放在中国的数据拥有访问权。If Apple accedes to American law enforcement demands for opening the iPhone in the San Bernardino case and Beijing asks for a similar tool, it is unlikely Apple would be able to control China’s use of it. Yet if Apple were to refuse Beijing, it would potentially face a battery of penalties.如果苹果同意美国执法部门破解涉及圣贝纳迪诺案iPhone的要求,而北京要求得到一个类似工具,苹果不太可能能控制中国对该工具的使用。如果苹果拒绝北京的要求,它可能会面临一系列的处罚。Analysts said Chinese officials were pushing for greater control over the encryption and security of computers and phones sold in the country, though Beijing last year backed off on some proposals that would have required foreign companies to provide encryption keys for devices sold in the country after facing pressure from foreign trade groups.分析人士表示,中国官员正在争取得到对国内销售电脑和手机的加密和安全的更大控制权,尽管去年在国外贸易团体的压力下,北京在一些要求外国公司提供其在中国销售设备的加密密钥的提案上做出了让步。“People tend to forget the global impact of this,” said Raman Jit Singh Chima, policy director at Access Now, a nonprofit that works for Internet freedoms. “The reality is the damage done when a democratic government does something like this is massive. It’s even more negative in places where there are fewer freedoms.”“人们往往没有想到这个问题的全球影响,”致力于互联网自由的非盈利组织Access Now的政策主任拉曼·吉特·辛格·奇玛(Raman Jit Singh Chima)说。“现实情况是,一个民主政府干这种事情所带来的危害是非常严重的。在自由更少的地方,其影响甚至是更加负面的。”Governments in Russia, Britain and Israel also have robust surveillance operations. Some governments have tried to use technology to gather intelligence on citizens at home and abroad.俄罗斯、英国和以色列政府也有强大的监听监视工作。一些国家的政府已试图用技术手段来搜集国内公民的情报。Apple’s resistance to the ed States government’s demand has been polarizing. Apple supporters have held protests in cities like San Francisco in recent days to show their support of the company and have used hashtags on social media like #freeapple and #beatthecase.苹果公司抵制美国政府要求的做法在人们中引起极为不同反响。苹果的持者们在最近几天已在旧金山等城市举行抗议以示他们对公司的持,他们还在社交媒体上建立了#freeapple和#beatthecase等话题标签。“We’re fighting to maintain even the assumption that companies should protect us,” said Evan Greer, the campaign director at Fight for the Future, a civil liberties group that is organizing protests nationwide on Tuesday to support Apple. “Apple is doing what every company should be doing.”“我们仅仅是在为维持一个假设而战,那就是公司应该保护我们,”公民自由组织Fight for the Future的活动主管埃文·格里尔(Evan Greer)说,这个团体正在组织周二的持苹果的全国抗议活动。“苹果正在做每家公司都应该做的事情。”Others, including the Republican presidential candidate Donald J. Trump, have criticized Apple, and Mr. Trump has suggested boycotting its products.其他人则批评苹果的做法,包括共和党总统候选人唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump),特朗普已暗示要抵制苹果产品。Around the world, people are aware of the impasse but many say it does not affect their decision to buy iPhones and the company’s other products. In Rome on Friday, Simone Farelli, a 34-year-old history teacher who was browsing for a new iPhone at an Apple Store, said she “didn’t see why” the company’s standoff with the Federal Bureau of Investigation “would change my mind about buying a new phone.”在世界其他地方,人们对这场僵局有所了解,但许多人认为此事不影响他们购买iPhone及其他苹果产品的决定。上周五在罗马,34岁的历史教师西蒙娜·法瑞里(Simone Farelli)正在一家苹果商店里随便看着新iPhone,她说,她“看不出来有什么理由”会让苹果与联邦调查局的僵持“改变我购买一部新手机的主意。”In China, the iPhone continues to hold a special place as a symbol of middle-class status.在中国,iPhone继续保持着其作为中产阶级身份象征的特殊地位。Wen Shuyue, a 35-year-old consultant, who on Friday was waiting outside the Apple Store in Beijing’s upscale Sanlitun district, is one of Apple’s millions of Chinese users. He said he liked the iPhone because it was simply better than models made by Chinese companies such as Xiaomi and Huawei.上周五在北京三里屯高档小区的苹果商店外面等待开门的35岁咨询顾问温树跃(音)是苹果数以百万计的中国用户之一。他说他喜欢iPhone,只是因为它比小米和华为等中国公司制造的国产品牌好得多。“I’ve never used Xiaomi or Huawei, because I think their designs are rough and not all that personal,” he said.“我从来没用过小米或华为,因为我觉得它们设计粗糙,而且不那么个性化,”他说。Apple’s shareholders have so far been quiet. In the past, investors who complained that some of Apple’s socially driven initiatives were superfluous to the company’s core business were quickly subdued. At a 2014 shareholders’ meeting, Mr. Cook told investors that if they wanted him to make decisions based only on the bottom line, “then you should get out of the stock.”苹果公司的股东们迄今对此事尚未发声。以前,一些曾抱怨苹果以推动社会为目的措施对公司核心业务来说多余的投资者很快变得默不作声了。在2014年的股东大会上,库克对投资者说,如果他们想让他只出于公司最终盈利的考虑作决定的话,“那么你们应该把股票卖掉。”But data privacy may eventually motivate investors — and ultimately more customers — to vote with their wallets because “it’s an issue that speaks directly to the business,” said Michael Cusumano, a professor at the M.I.T. Sloan School of Management. “Right now people buy phones regardless of encryption issues, but we have to wait and see how bloody this fight gets.”但是,数据隐私可能最终会促使投资者,并终将促使更多的客户用他们的钱包做出表决,因为“这是一个直接涉及公司业务的问题”,麻省理工学院斯隆管理学院(M.I.T. Sloan School of Management)教授迈克尔·库苏马诺(Michael Cusumano)说。“目前来看,人们购买手机时并不考虑加密的问题,但我们需要等着瞧,看这场斗争会变得如何激烈。” /201602/428200

For the first time since Apollo 17 returned from the moon in 1972, NASA is scheduled to loft an astronaut capsule on Thursday to soar beyond low Earth orbit.美国航空航天局(NASA)预定本周四把一个可以载人的太空舱发射到低地轨道之外的地方,这还是1972年阿波罗17号从月球返回之后的第一次。No one will be aboard this flight test of the new capsule, Orion, but NASA hopes it is the first step toward human exploration of the solar system, including an eventual landing on Mars. Orion’s first manned mission is planned for the early 2020s.新的太空舱名为“猎户座”(Orion),这次试飞不会载人,但NASA希望它会开启包括登陆火星在内的人类新一轮太阳系探索的第一步。猎户座首次载人飞行任务安排在2020年代初。“Thursday is the beginning of that journey,” Mark Geyer, Orion’s program manager, said at a news conference on Tuesday.“本周四是旅程的开始,”“猎户座”项目负责人马克·格耶(Mark Geyer)在本周二的新闻发布会上表示。Orion, which looks like a larger version of the cone-shaped Apollo capsule, is sitting atop a Delta IV Heavy rocket at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. Liftoff is scheduled for 7:05 a.m. Thursday, minutes after sunrise. In case of bad weather, the launching can be pushed back by up to two hours and 39 minutes.“猎户座”的外形与阿波罗(Apollo)锥形太空舱相近,但是体积更大,它已经搭载在了佛罗里达州卡纳维拉尔角空军基地的德尔塔IV重型火箭上。升空时间定于本周四上午07时05分,日出之后不久。如遇恶劣天气,发射最多可延迟2小时39分钟。The rocket’s second stage should push the 11-foot-long Orion into an elliptical orbit that reaches 3,600 miles above the Earth’s surface on its second orbit. (By contrast, the International Space Station is about 250 miles from Earth.)火箭的第二级将把11英尺(合3.35米)长的”猎户座”推送到一个椭圆轨道上,其第二轨道距离地球表面约3600英里(参考:国际空间站距离地球大约250英里)。Orion will then re-enter the Earth’s atmosphere at 20,000 miles per hour, close to the speeds of a capsule returning from the moon, and temperatures on its heat shield will approach 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit.然后“猎户座”将以每小时2万英里的速度重新进入地球大气层,这与太空舱从月球返回的速度很接近。而“猎户座”隔热板上的温度将接近4000华氏度(约合2200摄氏度)。At the end of the four-and-a-half-hour flight, it will splash down in the Pacific Ocean, about 600 miles off the coast of Baja California, and will be pulled from the water by an amphibious Navy ship, the Anchorage. The capsule will then be trucked back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida for closer examination.四个半小时的飞行结束后,“猎户座”将会坠入距离加利福尼亚州海岸约600英里处的太平洋水域,由美国海军两栖舰“安克雷奇拉”号(Anchorage)打捞出水,然后用卡车运回佛罗里达州的肯尼迪航天中心,接受仔细检查。The flight, estimated to cost 5 million, will provide a full-scale test of the performance of Orion’s parachutes, heat shield and other systems, with 1,200 sensors recording data.这次飞行估计耗资约3.75亿美元,它使用了1200个传感器来记录数据,将全面测试“猎户座”的降落伞、隔热罩和其他系统的性能。“We expect it to go fine, but you really have to fly it to test it out,” Mr. Geyer said.“我们认为这次飞行会很顺利,但你必须做升空测试才行,”格耶说。While the capsule will not be carrying any people, it will be taking mementos and artifacts. They include a small sample of lunar soil, part of a Tyrannosaurus rex fossil and several artistic works, like poems by Maya Angelou and a recording of the Mars movement from Gustav Holst’s “The Planets.”虽然这次试飞不会载人,但太空舱里会装有一些纪念品和工艺品。其中包括一小份月球土壤样品,一块霸王龙化石的一部分和一些艺术作品,比如玛娅·安杰洛(Maya Angelou)的诗歌,以及古斯塔夫·霍尔斯特(Gustav Holst)《行星》组曲中的火星部分录音。Also aboard will be some items from “Sesame Street”: Cookie Monster’s cookie, Ernie’s rubber ducky and Grover’s cape, part of a collaboration between NASA and the children’s television program to promote science and math education.另外还有《芝麻街》(Sesame Street)的一些道具:饼干怪兽(Cookie Monster)的饼干,厄尼(Ernie)的橡皮鸭和格罗弗(Grover)的斗篷,这是NASA与这个儿童电视节目合作,促进科学和数学教育的项目的一部分。After the flight test, NASA’s progress for future astronaut missions will be slow, hemmed in by tight federal budgets and competing visions of the agency’s future. Orion’s next flight, also without people aboard, is not expected until 2018, and the first ride for astronauts would not occur until at least 2021.由于受到联邦预算的严格控制,以及人们在NASA的未来愿景上存在分歧,在这次试飞结束后,NASA在宇航员未来任务方面的步伐将会迈得很缓慢。“猎户座”的下一次非载人飞行任务预计将在2018年进行,它的首次裁人飞行最早也是2021年了。“We feel really fortunate to be in the budget plan, a bipartisan agreement on the budget plan, and our job is to execute to that plan,” Mr. Geyer said. “Yeah, I wish we could go faster, but I think this is a good plan.”“被包含在两党赞成的预算计划之中,让我们感到非常幸运,而我们的任务就是执行那个计划,”格耶说。“是的,我希望我们的步伐能更快一些,但我认为这个计划很不错。”The next destination is also unclear. NASA is pursuing the idea of capturing a small asteroid and taking it to the neighborhood of the moon, and astronauts would then fly in Orion to the asteroid to take a look. NASA officials contend that this “asteroid redirect” mission would be within its budget and would develop technologies necessary for the eventual trip to Mars.下一个任务仍不明朗。NASA希望捕捉一个小行星,并把它带到月球附近,然后宇航员将乘坐“猎户座”飞到小行星上去看一看。NASA官员表示,这个“小行星重定向”任务在预算范围之内,而且可以推动最终登陆火星所必需的技术发展。Some skeptics have questioned whether Orion, originally part of a program started under President George W. Bush to send astronauts back to the moon, is even necessary, or a waste of billions of dollars.“猎户座”原本是让宇航员重返月球计划的组成部分,该计划在乔治·W·布什(George W. Bush)担任美国总统期间启动。一些怀疑者质疑“猎户座”是否有存在的必要,觉得这可能是在浪费数以十亿计的美元。The Obama administration canceled Orion and the entire moon program as too expensive and too far behind schedule. But many members of Congress disagreed, and NASA revived a stripped-down version of Orion to be used as a lifeboat for the International Space Station, then resumed a design very close to what had been canceled.奥巴马政府取消了”猎户座“项目和整个登月计划,理由是它的费用太昂贵,而且远远落后于计划日程。但国会很多议员并不同意取消它,于是NASA重新启动了一个精简版的”猎户座“项目,将其作为国际空间站的救生艇,它的设计非常接近于被取消的那个。NASA also started work on a heavy-lift rocket known as the Space Launch System that will carry Orion on future launchings. Together, the rocket and the capsule are estimated to cost billion to billion.NASA也已经开始建造一款重型火箭,名为太空发射系统(Space Launch System),它将在以后的发射任务中搭载“猎户座”。火箭和太空舱总共将耗资190亿到220亿美元。Some House Republicans have pushed to revive plans to return to the moon, but have not proposed funds to build a lander.众议院的一些共和党人已经在努力恢复重返月球计划,但尚未提出建造着陆器的资金方案。 /201412/346735

The sophisticated encryption software that now comes as standard with many electronic gadgets is, in many ways, just another instrument of modern life. Like air travel, international banking and mobile telephones, it contributes to all kinds of productive human endeavour — and also presents new security risks. But there is a difference. Its rapid and organic growth left little scope for regulatory control and balance.从许多方面来说,那些如今已成为许多电子设备标准配置的精密加密软件,不过是现代生活中的又一个工具而已。和航空旅行、国际结算以及移动电话一样,这种软件也在为人类的各种生产活动作出贡献——同时也带来了新的安全隐患。不过不同的是,加密软件迅速而有机的增长,几乎没有为监管控制和平衡留下多少余地。The police are sometimes characterised as despotic agents of digital repression. That is wrong. I have never believed that encryption should be banned; it is a fundamental part of how the internet works. But its utility and effectiveness, like that of the internet as a whole, also creates significant criminal opportunity by masking identity and hiding communication.有的时候,警方会被描述为进行数字镇压的专制机构。这种说法是错误的。我从来不认为应该禁止加密技术的使用,它是确保互联网运转的基础之一。但是,通过屏蔽身份和隐藏通信内容,对加密技术的运用及其有效性也催生了巨大的犯罪机会——这一点和互联网整体的情况类似。Other innovations that have multiplied the freedoms of modern life were the product of democratic deliberation, and incorporated security by design. When telephones were introduced, a set of balanced legal instruments gave police the power to intercept them. Financial institutions have become more complex, but they are compelled to operate strong anti-money laundering controls.相比之下,其他成倍扩大现代生活自由的创新都是民主深思的成果,从设计之初就植入了安全方面的考虑。当电话进入人类生活的时候,一系列相应的法律文件赋予了警方拦截电话的权力。同样,金融机构也已变得更加复杂,但是它们被强制要求实施了严密的反洗钱控制。When Europe’s Schengen agreement abolished internal border controls in the 1990s, measures designed to increase cross-border police co-operation were adopted at the same time, so the system would not be undermined by enterprising drug traffickers and terrorists. The development of the internet has been different.上世纪90年代,当欧洲《申根协定》(Schengen Agreement)废除欧洲内部的边境管控之时,多种旨在加强警方跨境合作的举措也同时引入。这样,整个系统就不会因胆大妄为的毒品贩子和恐怖分子而遭到削弱。相比之下,互联网的发展则与上述情况不同。This is not really about privacy. People accept the imposition of reasonable controls on the way they drive, take flights, and conduct banking transactions.这个问题实际上与隐私无关。比如,在如何开车、乘坐飞机及开展交易的问题上,人们对实行合理管控是接受的。Why should the internet, alone in the territories in which we live our lives, be one in which rules do not apply. It should not, of course. We have to craft rules that will operate in a balanced way.那么,同样是在我们生活的领域内,为何单单互联网应成为法外之地?显然不应该。我们必须精心设计法律法规,让它们平衡地起作用。That has proved to be a challenge. The European Court of Justice last year struck down a law that would have required telecommunications companies to store data on the use of their networks. Yet it accepted that police should have access to communications data. It decided that the safeguards, as drafted, were not enough to ensure police did not overstep the mark. This is just a matter of technical design. It will be fixed.事实已经明,要做到这一点是一大挑战。去年,欧洲法院(European Court of Justice)驳回了一条法规,该法规要求电信公司将自己网络使用情况的数据存储起来。不过,该法院承认警方应有权访问通信数据。该法院裁定,这个法规草案中的保护性条款不足以确保警方不过线。这个问题其实只是个技术层面的问题,它应该会得到解决。There are promising signs that technology companies are willing to work in partnership with the police. Some leading companies are helping us to set up a system for removing terrorist content online. But at the same time, the industry’s most recent innovations on encryption have made the task of the security services harder. They may not be deliberately making police work more difficult, but they are not showing much appetite for accommodation either.许多令人充满信心的据显示,高科技企业愿意与警方合作。部分主要企业正在帮助我们建立在线删除恐怖主义内容的系统。然而,与此同时,信息产业内加密技术上的最新创新已经令安保任务变得更加困难。这些技术创新的用意也许不是要故意加大警方的工作难度,但它们也没有显示出太多配合警方的意愿。Some argue that technology companies should be required to give the authorities a backdoor key, to allow encryption to be broken. Clearly, engineering deliberate security vulnerabilities in our digital systems has some serious downsides.有的人声称,应该要求高科技企业向当局提交后门秘钥,以便让当局能够破解相关加密技术。显然,在数字化系统中故意留下安全漏洞,会带来某些严重的不利影响。And it is a principle implacably opposed by most in the tech sector. The divide on the issue is symptomatic of a serious decline in the level of trust between government and industry partners, fuelled in particular by the revelations of Edward Snowden about National Security Agency surveillance. This does not serve public interest well.不过,高科技产业中的多数人对这一原则抱持的是毫不妥协的反对态度。围绕这个问题的分歧,体现出政府与业界合作伙伴间的信任程度严重下降。而爱德华#8226;斯诺登(Edward Snowden)有关美国国家安全局(NSA)监控活动的爆料,更是令双方信任的下滑进一步加剧。这种局面对公众的利益并没有太大好处。The digital age has changed our way of life but police teams are still in the same business of preventing crime, tracking offenders and securing evidence with which to convict them. It is just that, these days, much of the information needed to do that is in the hands of the private companies that run online services. To do our job, we need to earn their trust. Together, we can keep the internet both a free and safe part of our lives.数字化时代改变了我们的生活方式,然而警方团队的职责依然是阻止犯罪、跟踪罪犯并获取用来指控罪犯的据。问题在于,如今在履行上述职责时所需的许多信息,掌握在运营网络务的私有企业手中。为履行职责,我们必须赢得他们的信任。通过双方通力合作,我们将能确保互联网成为人们生活中自由而又安全的一部分。 /201505/373442

Hernando de Soto, the Peruvian economist whose work centred on the informal economy and property rights, has much to contribute to the dialogue raging in the so-called developed world about privacy and data.在所谓的发达世界,一场关于隐私和数据的对话正如火如荼地展开。主要研究非正式经济和财产权的秘鲁经济学家埃尔南多#8226;德索托(Hernando de Soto),可为这场对话贡献不少真知灼见。Mr de Soto showed how enabling individuals to own property legally would drive economic prosperity. Many credit him with the surge of wealth creation happening in some parts of Latin America.德索托阐释了,为何让个人拥有合法财产权能够推动经济繁荣。许多人认为,拉丁美洲一些地方财富创造大大加快就要归功于他。Meanwhile, US technology platform companies and the European Union are engaged in an arms race around privacy. The issue is not whether my data are private. We lost that battle a long time ago. As Scott McNealy, the co-founder of Sun Microsystems said: “You have zero privacy#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;get over it.” The issue is over who owns my data and to whom the value accrues.与此同时,美国科技平台企业和欧盟(EU)正围绕隐私较劲。问题不在于我的数据是否隐私。这场战斗我们早已打输。如太阳计算机系统公司(Sun Microsystems)联合创始人斯科特 #8226;麦克尼利(Scott McNealy)所说:“你没有丝毫隐私……别纠结这个了。”问题在于谁拥有我的数据、这些数据的价值又属于谁。Google’s use of my data drives their business model and their multibillion-dollar market capitalisation. We get no economic benefit for that beyond free search and online stalking. My bank account does not benefit from its success.谷歌(Google)使用了我的数据,这推动其建立了商业模式,实现了巨额市值。除免费搜索和在线追踪之外,我们不从中获得任何经济利益。谷歌的成功不会让我的账户余额增加一分钱。I long thought an entrepreneur would develop a business model to incentivise individuals for the use of their consumer data. I found one such entrepreneur,John Paleomylites, who was running BeatThatQuote, a UK price comparison site that my firm Ariadne Capital advised.我早已设想过会有一位企业家,开发一种商业模式,激励个人允许别人使用自己的消费者数据。我曾发现过这样一位企业家,约翰#8226;帕莱奥米利提斯(John Paleomylites),他曾管理过一家英国比价网站BeatThatQuote,我的公司Ariadne Capital曾为这家网站提供过咨询。BeatThatQuote was providing cash back deals and discounts. Despite having less than #163;500,000 of earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation, it was sold to Google in 2011 for #163;37.7m, having articulated its strategic value (or threat) to its acquirer. Who says Goliath does not get scared?当时,BeatThatQuote提供返利和折扣。尽管这家网站的息税折旧和摊销前利润(EBITDA)还不到50万英镑,但在2011年,谷歌以3770万英镑的价格收购了它,因为它明明白白地展示了自己对谷歌的战略价值(或者说威胁)。谁说巨人歌利亚(Goliath)不会害怕?The battle is no longer about incentivisation. If we believe that my data — whether related to my finances, telecoms, health, transportation or property — are my data, than their use surely must accrue value to me.这场战斗已不再关乎激励机制。如果我们相信,我的数据——无论是关于我的财务、电信记录、健康情况、交通记录还是持有房产情况的数据——是属于我的,那么使用这些数据当然必须让我获益。Re-enter Mr de Soto. He changed the world for Peruvian farmers by establishing property rights for them. What if data were established as legal assets for everyone?再回到德索托。通过确立秘鲁农场主的财产权,他改变了这些人的命运(见上图)。如果数据被确认为每个人的合法财产,那会怎样?Those of us who have had property rights have the ability to build other assets on top of our property assets. If you are still securing your basic needs at the bottom of thepyramid described by the American psychologist Abraham Maslow — a model that features an individual’s survival at the bottom and their self-actualisation at the apex of the pyramid — then you advance more slowly and with less certainty, if at all.我们中已经拥有财产权的人,能够在我们的财产基础之上创建其他资产。美国心理学家亚伯拉罕#8226;马斯洛(Abraham Maslow)提出了需求层次理论,该理论认为人的需求呈金字塔形状,处于金字塔最底层的是生存需求,金字塔顶端是自我实现需求。如果你仍在努力满足处于需求层次底层的基本需求,那么你的进步速度会更慢、并面临更大不确定性,甚至根本无法进步。So if data are the new universal assets, instead of arguing about privacy, should we just argue about money?因此,假如数据是为人们普遍享有的新资产,那么我们是否应该仅争论钱的问题,而别再争隐私不隐私?If the starting point is “they are my data”, then there should be a corresponding accrual for their use in the financial accounts for any business whose model uses them. Data, and the cost of purchasing them, would become a “cost of sale” in transactions.如果以“那是我的数据”为前提,那么任何企业,只要它们的商业模式用到这些数据,那么就应该为使用这些数据向我们付相应的费用。数据,以及购买数据的成本,将成为一项“销售成本”。If a large bank or telecoms group opened up its customer data to start-ups for applications using that data and then sold those applications on, a percentage of the revenue would have to accrue to those customers, or be netted against any other monies they paid in. The value of what is owed to any one individual would be 1/N where N is the size of the customer base used.如果一家大型或电信公司向一些初创企业开发的应用开放自己的用户数据,供这些应用使用,并销售这些应用,那么就必须将所获收入的一部分交给那些用户,或者从用户缴纳的费用中扣除这部分金额。应付给每个用户个人的费用将为总收入的1/N,N为用户总数。At each point in history where power has shifted towards the individual from a hierarchy, power is forcefully taken. There is a net social gain for the common man and woman if their data are valued. Prosperity will rip across society if we set up the right data architecture for business.回顾历史,每次权力从特权集团转移到个人手中时,权力都被牢牢地抓住了。对普通民众来说,如果赋予他们的数据以价值,会为社会带来净收益。如果我们建立合适的数据商用结构,财富将迅速席卷社会各个阶层。The non-technology traditional business — whether retailer, bank, transportation company — has an ace to play. By engaging with entrepreneurs and embracing consumer data as a legal asset of the individual, the incumbents in all traditional industries could deliver singularly spectacular growth.无论是零售商、还是交通公司,各种非科技传统企业都有了一张可打的王牌。通过与初创企业合作,持让消费者数据成为个人的法定财产,所有传统行业的现有企业都能实现非凡的增长。This is a system-level challenge. A start-up is at best today a car — a revenue-generating algorithm — in need of a highway. What big companies have is distribution, audience and reach. They can be a very smart highway.这是一种系统级挑战。如今一家拥有能创造收入的算法的初创企业最多算一辆汽车,它们需要公路。大型企业有的是分销体系、听众和影响力。后者可能成为非常智能的公路。The judo move would be for large, traditional enterprises to recognise consumer data rights and proactively value them in their business models.关键的一步将是,大型传统企业承认消费者的数据权,主动在自己的商业模式中赋予这种权利价值。One can never win by playing by the rules of someone else’s game: you must change the rules of the game. Every successful entrepreneur knows this. It is time for the judo move.按照别人的游戏规则来玩,你永远不可能赢:你必须改变游戏规则。每个成功的企业家都明白这一点。是时候走出关键一步了。 /201505/374473The European car industry was shaken yesterday after Volkswagen’s share price fell almost 20 per cent over its admission that it cheated on US emissions tests, triggering calls for a broader inquiry into the sector.大众汽车(Volkswagen)承认其在美国的尾气排放测试中造假后,昨日股价暴跌近20%,还引发了对整个行业展开全面调查的呼吁。消息震惊欧洲汽车业。More than ㄠ3bn was wiped off VW’s market capitalisation, triggering a wider fall in carmakers’ shares, after Martin Winterkorn, the group’s chief executive, apologised and ordered an external investigation into the affair.大众汽车的市值蒸发逾130亿欧元,并拖累其他汽车制造商股价。该集团首席执行官文德恩(Martin Winterkorn)已就测试造假道歉,并下令对这件事展开外部调查。The German government called for an urgent probe into whether VW and other carmakers had also manipulated emissions’ tests in Germany. Sigmar Gabriel, Germany’s vice-chancellor, said it was a “bad episode” for the car industry.德国政府要求紧急调查大众等汽车制造商是否也曾在德国接受排放测试时造假。德国副总理西格马尔加布里尔(Sigmar Gabriel)表示,这是汽车行业的一个“不光篇章”。The world’s second-biggest carmaker was ordered on Friday to recall nearly half a million cars in the US after it admitted to the US regulator, the Environmental Protection Agency, that it had fitted “defeat devices” to bypass environmental standards.世界第二大汽车制造商上周五被勒令在美国召回近50万辆汽车,此前它向美国监管机构——国家环境保护局(EPA)承认,它曾安装“欺骗装置”以便冒充达到环保标准。The EPS and California Air Resources Board have now begun procuring other manufacturers’ vehicles to test for similar devices, while Berlin plans to examine whether emissions data have been manipulated.美国国家环保局和加州空气资源委员会(California Air Resources Board)已开始采购其他厂商的汽车,以测试其是否安装了类似装置,而德国官方拟审查排放数据是否曾纵。The news prompted a fall in carmakers’ shares with Daimle, BMW, Renault and PSA Peugeot Citro渀 each being sold off amid investor concerns over the potential scale of the cost to the broader industry. VW faces billions of dollars in fines and warranty costs, possible criminal charges for executives and class-action lawsuits from US drivers.这一消息导致汽车制造商股价纷纷下跌,戴姆勒(Daimler)、宝马(BMW)、雷诺(Renault)和标致雪铁龙(PSA Peugeot Citro渀)均遭到抛售,投资者担忧整个行业潜在面临巨额成本。大众面临着数十亿美元的罚款和保修成本,还可能被美国车主提起集体诉讼,该公司的高管可能面临刑事指控。 /201509/400253Solar Eclipse日食A long time ago, people noticed that the sun and the moon sometimes suddenly lost their brightness.People could not figure out the reason and feared that, once gone, the brightness would not return and would mean the end of the world.Because of this, the ancient Chinese began to observe solar and lunar eclipses, recording the time and size of the eclipse, and searching for the causes of eclipses.很久以前,人们注意到太阳和月亮有时会突然间丧失光芒。人们找不出原因,害怕太阳和月亮光芒一去不返,世界末日来临。于是,中国古人开始观察日月食,记录日月食发生的时间、食分,探索产生日月食的原因。Solar eclipses, especially total solar e-clipses, are eye-catching celestial events.As early as 3,000 years ago, the ancient Chinese people had made records on such astronomic phenomena. The earliest solar eclipse record that can be verified appears in The Classic of History (The Punitive Expedi-tion of Yin in Shang Shu) , about an eclipsetook place around 2043 during the Xia Dynasty.日食,尤其是日全食是最引人注目的天象之一。我国古人早在3000多年以前就对日食现象做了记载。最早的记载是《尚书·胤征》,据考,这次日食大概发生于夏代仲康元年。Excavated bone and tortoise shell inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty recorded five solar eclipses that took place beiween the 14th and 12th centuries .在出土的商代甲骨卜辞中,被认定的日食纪事有5次。这是发生在公元前14世纪至12世纪之间的日食纪事。In The Book of Son,gs , a solar eclipse was also recorded.It was verified that the solar eclipse took place on September 6, 776.《诗经》中也有日食纪事。据考,这次日食发生在公元前776年9月6日。By the Han Dynasiy, records on solar eclipse were no longer limited to the time of an eclipse, but also covered the sun#39;s position, the starting and ending times of eclipses, and the coverage size.到了汉代,不仅有日食发生时间记录,还有对日食时的太阳位置、起止时刻、食分等的记录。Statistics show that during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-446) a-lone, there were 37 solar eclipse records, among which 33 have been proven to be reliable. By the time of Emperor Gtianlong#39;s reign in the Qing Dynasty (1644~1911) , the total number of records had reached 1000. This number represents theworld#39;s most complete solar eclipse record, which is of great value to the astro-nomic research.据统计,仅春秋时代(770一446)记载的日食就有37次,其中33次已经被明是完全可靠的。从春秋时代起到清代( 1644~1911)乾隆年间为止,我国记录了大约有1000次左右,算得上是世界上最完整的日食记录,对天文研究具有很大的价值。 /201511/409360

The Environmental Protection Agency said on Monday that it had discovered cheating software on more Volkswagen and Audi cars than previously disclosed and, for the first time, also found the illegal software in some of the carmaker’s high-end Porsche models.美国国家环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency,简称EPA)周一表示,他们在更多大众(Volkswagen)及奥迪(Audi)车上发现了作弊软件,超过之前披露的规模,而且首次在大众高端品牌保时捷的一些车型中发现了非法软件。The findings put significant new pressure on Volkswagen, which did not reveal the defeat devices to the agency, and its new chief executive, Matthias Müller, who was previously the head of Volkswagen’s Porsche division.这一发现给大众集团及新任首席执行官马蒂亚斯·穆勒(Matthias Müller)带来重压,该公司没有向EPA报告这种减效装置,穆勒之前是大众集团保时捷部门的负责人。Mr. Müller’s predecessor, Martin Winterkorn, resigned in September after regulators in the ed States disclosed that the German automaker had installed sophisticated software on some Volkswagen diesel models that reduced pollutant emissions when the cars were being tested. In day-to-day usage, the mandatory controls were turned off, providing the cars with better engine performance but emitting as much as 40 times the legal limits of nitrogen oxide, a pollutant linked to lung ailments.在美国监管机构发现这家德国汽车制造商在一些大众柴油车上安装用于排放检测作弊的复杂软件之后,前任CEO马丁·文德恩(Martin Winterkorn)于9月辞职。在日常使用时,这种强制控制软件会被关闭,为车辆提供更好的发动机性能,但排放的氮氧化物是规定标准的40倍,这种污染物会导致肺部疾病。The new revelations escalate the potential damage to Volkswagen’s finances and reputation. Audi and Porsche are the source of most of the company’s earnings, because profit margins tend to be much higher on luxury cars. In contrast to Volkswagen brand cars, which have struggled in the ed States, Audi and Porsche are success stories in America. The ed States is Porsche’s biggest single market.新发现加剧了此事可能对大众财务状况及声誉造成的损害。奥迪和保时捷是该公司的主要收入来源,因为高档车的利润空间要大得多。与难以立足美国的其他大众品牌汽车相比,奥迪和保时捷在美国取得了成功。美国是保时捷的最大市场。The E.P.A.’s report opens a new chapter in its investigation of Volkswagen’s practice. The new cheating devices were uncovered by investigators during new tests that were conducted on all diesel car models in the ed States by E.P.A., the California Air Resources Board and the regulatory group Environment Canada.EPA的报告打开了针对大众集团的调查的新篇章。EPA、加州大气资源委员会(California Air Resources Board)及监管机构加拿大环境部(Environment Canada)的调查人员在美国对所有柴油车型开展了新的检测,期间发现了这些新的减效装置。“VW has once again failed its obligation to comply with the law that protects clean air for all Americans,” Cynthia Giles, the assistant administrator for E.P.A.’s Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance, said in a statement.“大众集团再一次没有承担担任,没有遵守为所有美国人保护洁净空气的法律,”EPA环境执法办公室行政助理辛西娅·贾尔斯(Cynthia Giles)发表声明称。Volkswagen did not immediately comment on the E.P.A.’s announcement. The carmaker has not yet disclosed how it will fix the cars.大众集团没有立即就EPA的声明发表。该汽车制造商尚未透露如何修理相关车辆。Since September, regulators have been conducting additional tests on all diesel cars models. They have not found similar defeat devices on diesel models produced by automakers other than Volkswagen. Testing is continuing and the agency plans to make its results public once the tests are completed.自9月以来,监管机构对所有柴油车进行了额外的检测。他们尚未发现除大众之外的汽车制造商生产的柴油车存在类似的减效装置。检测还在继续,该机构计划在检测结束后公布结果。The agency says the new tests found that Volkswagen had installed a defeat device in some Volkswagen, Audi and Porsche diesel cars with a 3.0-liter engines, encompassing model years 2014 through 2016. It said these devices, meant to cheat on emissions testing, would increase the release of nitrogen oxide up to nine times the agency’s standard.该机构表示,新检测发现该公司在一些大众、奥迪及保时捷3公升引擎柴油车上安装了减效装置,包括从2014年到2016年的车型。该机构称,这些用于排放检测作弊的装置将会增加氮氧化物的排放量,最多达到该机构设定的标准的九倍。The disclosure covers about 10,000 passenger cars aly sold in the ed States since the model year 2014. In addition, the violation notice from the agency covers an unspecified number of 2016 vehicles. The cars found to have the software installed are the diesel versions of the 2014 VW Touareg, the 2015 Porsche Cayenne and the 2016 Audi A6 Quattro, A7 Quattro, A8, A8L and Q5.此次披露的丑闻涉及1万辆在美国销售的2014年款轿车。除此之外,该机构发出的违规通告还涉及2016年款轿车,但没有详细说明数量。被发现装有作弊软件的车包括2014年款的大众途锐(Touareg)柴油车、2015年款保时捷卡宴(Cayenne)和2016年款奥迪A6 Quattro、A7 Quattro、A8、A8L和Q5。 /201511/407791

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