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九江奥美定取出多少钱南昌附属一院治疗痘痘多少钱Business.商业The psychology of discounting.“打折”心理学Something doesnt add up.就是算不对How marketers can take advantage of consumers innumeracy.且看营销人员如何利用“数学盲”消费者WHEN retailers want to entice customers to buy a particular product, they typically offer it at a discount. According to a new study to be published in the Journal of Marketing, they are missing a trick.零售商想吸引顾客购买某种特别商品时,典型做法就是打折促销了。但是,一项发表在《市场营销杂志》的新研究则说明了他们并未统揽全局,掌握所有窍门。 A team of researchers, led by Akshay Rao of the University of Minnesotas Carlson School of Management, looked at consumers attitudes to discounting. Shoppers, they found, much prefer getting something extra free to getting something cheaper. The main reason is that most people are useless at fractions.以明尼苏达大学卡尔森管理学院的阿卡什?劳为首的调查小组研究了消费者对打折的态度。他们发现,购物者们更喜欢赠品胜过打折品。主要原因在于多数人对分数运算束手无策。Consumers often struggle to realise, for example, that a 50% increase in quantity is the same as a 33% discount in price. They overwhelmingly assume the former is better value. In an experiment, the researchers sold 73% more hand lotion when it was offered in a bonus pack than when it carried an equivalent discount (even after all other effects, such as a desire to stockpile, were controlled for).比如,消费者们常常很难意识到,加量50%就等同于折扣33%。绝大多人都以为前者更划算。在一次实验中,调查者们出售手霜,一种是带赠品的,另一种是打折品,两者价值相当(即使排除如囤货需要之类的其他因素),但是结果前者多售出73%。This numerical blind spot remains even when the deal clearly favours the discounted product. In another experiment, this time on his undergraduates, Mr Rao offered two deals on loose coffee beans: 33% extra free or 33% off the price. The discount is by far the better proposition, but the supposedly clever students viewed them as equivalent.即便当买打折品明显更划算时,人们还是无法走出数字盲区。另一次实验在本科生中展开,Rao先生出售散装咖啡豆时提供两种选择:赠送33%或者折扣33%。打折远远更加划算,但那些本以为十分聪明的学生们却认为两种促销都是一样的。Studies have shown other ways in which retailers can exploit consumers innumeracy. One is to befuddle them with double discounting. People are more likely to see a bargain in a product that has been reduced by 20%, and then by an additional 25%, than one which has been subject to an equivalent, one-off, 40% reduction.根据学生们的反映,零售商们发现了其他方式来利用消费者对数字上的不敏感。比如利用二次折扣来迷惑他们。人们觉得一件商品如果先打8折再打75折,那肯定比一次性打6折要划算。Marketing types can draw lessons beyond just pricing, says Mr Rao. When advertising a new cars efficiency, for example, it is more convincing to talk about the number of extra miles per gallon it does, rather than the equivalent percentage fall in fuel consumption.Rao先生说,这不仅对营销手段的价格方面有所启发,其他方面也是如此。比如,在宣传新车效率时,引用每加仑汽油多跑的英里数要比引用减少的耗油量的比值要更有说力。There may be lessons for regulators too. Even well-educated shoppers are easily foxed. Sending everyone back to school for maths refresher-courses seems out of the question. But more prominently displayed unit prices in shops and advertisements would be a great help.这对监管者也有所启示。即便是受过良好教育的购物者也很容易被骗。我们不可能让每个人都重新回到数学课堂。但如果商店和广告上能更清楚地标明单价的话必定可以帮上大忙。 201207/192560吉安吉水县新干县永丰县泰和县遂川县腿部脱毛价格 US multinationals Starbucks, Google and Amazon had been accused of not paying enough corporate tax in the UK. In a new report, a parliamentary committee says: International companies are able to exploit national and international tax structures to minimize corporate tax. The outcome they don’t pay their fair share. This comes after executives of these companies were hauled before the committee last month to face questions about their tax structures and accused them of using their loopholes to avoid paying their fair share.美国跨国公司星巴克、谷歌和亚马逊公司已在英国被指控未缴纳足够数额的企业税。在一份最新所做的报告中,国会委员会这样叙述道,跨国公司可以利用一国及国际不同的税收结构以极力减少企业税。结果就是他们不付”公平份额”。上个月,这几大公司的最高行政长官被带到该委员会面前就他们的纳税结构答疑,并被指控利用税收漏洞,逃避缴纳”公平份额”。As we’ve paid all of the tax due requires to pay in the UK. We’ve paid bn. And maybe. Tax last year.我们已经缴纳了所有英国要求缴纳的税收。去年,我们缴纳了60亿美元。大概是这么多。We’re not accused you of being illegal, we’ve been accusing you of being immoral. I think.我想,我们并非指控你们违法,我们指控你们商业行为不道德。In their report, the lawmakers also criticized UK tax authorities. The UK Revenue amp; Customs says it aly works to ensure that international companies are paying the tax due in accordance with the law. But the parliamentary committee says it wants tax authorities to be more aggressive. The British government says it will inject more money into the tax authority to hire more investigators to go after companies and people who tried to avoid paying taxes.国会议员的报告也批评了英国的税务当局。英国税务海关总署表示已开始着手完善政策,以确保跨国公司依照法律缴纳税收。但是国会委员会认为税务当局可以再进取些。英国政府表示将向税务当局拨更多款,以雇用更多的调查员来跟踪那些企图逃税的公司或个人。Because we’ve got to be very clear at a time like this when we’re dealing with the deficit that people have to pay the taxes that are due. It’s not right that wealthy people or multinational companies avoid the taxes that are due.每每当我们处理应缴纳而未完全缴纳的税收赤字时,比如这次,我们都非常心知肚明,富人或国际公司逃避应缴纳税额是错误作法。We reached out to the companies for response while Google had no additional comment offering. Starbucks, Google and Amazon all insist they’re paying the proper amount of taxes on the UK profits and around Europe and have broken no laws. But Starbucks says it’s now in talks with the UK authorities over its tax structure. The coffee chain says it will review details later this week.我们想看看大家对这些公司有什么反应,谷歌上却没有额外的。星巴克、谷歌或亚马逊公司均坚持他们在英国和整个欧洲合法纳税,并未违反任何法律。不过,星巴克透露目前正与英国当局讨论其纳税结构。这家咖啡连锁店表示本周将对细节再次讨论。What’s changed to well in part pressure from consumers. Starbucks says in a statement it has listened to customer feedback and feedback from employees.这种变化的部分压力来自于顾客。星巴克发表申明,已听取了顾客和雇员的反馈意见。Andrew Spicer When you walk to a Starbucks, you see a board saying this is our community activities like show you pictures of people are picking coffee beans in a rainforest but they knew struck by big contradiction. These people are willing to pay the taxes in the UK.安德鲁#8226;斯皮舍先生,当您走进星巴克时,可以看到装饰板上写道,这就是我们的社区活动;并展示着人们在热带雨林采摘咖啡豆等的图片。顾客们会强烈感受到巨大的反差,因此,这些在英国的消费者愿意付税收那部分费用。In the hearings last month, the companies were accused of using complicated structures to fiddle income to low tax countries.在上个月进行的听会中,这些被控告利用了复杂的税收结构,将销售收入伪造在低税收国家的账目。I don’t that frankly, from all of us, Andrew, why look somebody so lucky. I mean the books are here, the warehouses are here, the billionaires here. The businesses are here, the customers are here.坦白说,安德鲁,我对此并不乐观。我的意思是,账目在这儿,库房在这和,亿万富翁在这儿,生意和顾客都在这儿。But unless all entail government’s corporate with each other to close loopholes. Companies will be free to find the most tax inefficient structures all within the bounds of the law.但是,除非各国政府互相合作,堵上法律漏洞。公司将很容易在法律限制之内找到最利用自已、最不利于政府的财收结构。 201212/216135江西省鼻头缩小多少钱

江西省肿瘤医院玻尿酸多少钱南昌大学第二附属医院切眼袋多少钱 Books and Arts; Football and murder in Mexico;Direct shot;文艺;墨西哥的足球与暗杀;直接干掉;This Love is Not for Cowards: Salvation and Soccer in Ciudad Juarez. By Robert Andrew Powell.《这种爱不为懦夫:华雷斯市的救助与足球》, Robert Andrew Powell著。Ciudad Juarez, an important stop on the cocaine trail to America, has long topped the list of Mexicos most violent cities. By contrast its irredeemably hopeless football team, the Indios, is more used to life at the bottom of the rankings. Following 27 consecutive games without a win, it recently became the worst team in the history of Mexicos primera división.华雷斯城是可卡因暗中销往美国的重要一站,早已排上墨西哥最暴力城市的榜首。相比之下,其无可救药的球队印第乌斯毫无希望可言,更习惯过排名垫底的日子。最近在连比27场无一胜绩之后,印地乌斯队成了墨西哥甲级联赛史上最差的球队。Robert Andrew Powell, an American journalist, arrived in Juarez at the end of as the drug war was heating up and the Indios were fighting to stay in the primera league. After taking care each night to bolt the four locks on the door of his pastel-coloured flat (“like military housing for an army of Teletubbies”), he decided to highlight Indios wins on his calendar and to mark murders on a wall-map in red felt-tip. After a month he gave up, no wins to report and the map aly soaked crimson.因为毒品战升温以及印第乌斯队力争保级,年年底美国记者罗伯特·安德鲁·鲍威尔抵达华雷斯。他住的公寓色柔和,“象天线宝宝军团的军用住房”,他决定每晚在小心锁好房门上的四道锁后,都在日历上圈出印第乌斯队赢球的日子,并用红色签字笔把谋杀案发生的地点标注在墙挂地图上。一个月后他放弃了,因为没有赢球的报导,地图却被深红色浸透了。Unlike most chroniclers of Mexicos misfortunes, Mr Powell deals calmly with Juarezs breathtaking murder-rate. Following a spate of killings, an American friend sent him a message: was he still alive? Sitting in a McDonalds, where a little-league team was having hamburgers and a Snow White-themed party was going on, the question seemed absurd. Juarezs mix of ordinariness and horror has seldom been so honestly described.鲍威尔与大多数叙述墨西哥不幸的编年史家不同,他冷静地交待华雷斯惊人的谋杀率。在一连串的杀戮发生之后,一位美国朋友给他发了短信,问他是否还活着?当时他正坐在麦当劳里,少年联队正在那里吃汉堡,白雪公主主题晚会也正在那里进行,这个问题似乎有些荒谬。华雷斯杂糅了平凡与恐怖,却很少被这般如实地描述过。But the violence seeps in. The Indios youth-team coach was killed, perhaps because his uncle wouldnt pay protection money on his mobile-phone shop. (No one will ever know: the police are so hopeless, and local reporters so intimidated, that virtually no murder is investigated.) Next, the star strikers brother was shot dead, which the coach decided not to tell him until after the days game.但是暴力在渗入。印第乌斯青年队的主教练被杀害了,或许是因为他的叔叔不打算付手机店的保护费。永远不会有人知道,警察非常绝望,当地的记者非常害怕,所以几乎没有谋杀案被查处。跟着是明星前锋的弟弟被杀,而教练决定当天比赛结束后再告诉他。The Indios slapstick performances bring welcome comic relief to the book. The antics of el Kartel, its dubiously named supporters club, are especially enjoyable. At an away-match against posh Monterrey, a granny Kartel-member was arrested. “She had lifted up her Indios jersey to flash Monterreys fans, who graded her breasts with chants of ‘chicharrón!—a stadium snack of wrinkled and fried pork.”印第乌斯队的闹剧表现给本书带来了喜剧性的调剂,颇受欢迎。埃尔卡特尔是该队的持者俱乐部,名字有些令人费解,他们古怪的动作让人特别喜爱。在客场对阵一流的蒙特雷队时,一名身为卡特尔会员的老奶奶被逮捕了。“她举起她的印第乌斯队球衣向蒙特雷队的球迷进行亵渎性暴露,而蒙特雷队的球迷高喊着“炸猪皮”为她的胸部评分,炸猪皮是一种起皱的油炸猪肉体育场小吃。”There are sharp comparisons, too, between events on and off the pitch. As the Indios battle rival teams, the citys resident drug mafia is locked in a turf war with the Sinaloa mob, run by Joaquín “el Chapo” Guzman. As the Indios manager complains that the referees are biased, locals suspect that police have taken sides in the turf war. “Guzman wants Juarez. The home team refuses to give it up…Thats the sport being played,” writes Mr Powell.球场上下发生的事件也明显地两相对照。当印第乌斯队迎战对手球队时,常驻该城的贩毒集团也跟华金·厄尔查坡·古斯曼率领的锡那罗亚州暴徒展开了地盘争夺战。正如印第乌斯队的经理抱怨裁判偏心一样,当地人怀疑警方在这场地盘争夺战中袒护一方。 鲍威尔写道,“古斯曼想要华雷斯。主队拒绝放弃它......这就是正在上演的游戏。”The complexity of Juarezs problems means that the anecdotal style of the book sometimes feels thin. In one excellent chapter Mr Powell makes a convincing case that the infamous murders of women in Juarez have been exaggerated by an excitable media. But elsewhere he repeats popular theories (about the alleged corruption of politicians, or the supposed failure of Mexicos free-trade deal with America) without really probing them. Near the end he mentions that the Indios themselves might be a giant money-laundering operation. This important claim deserves more than the few pages attention it receives, 21 chapters into the book.华雷斯问题的复杂性意味着本书的轶事风格有时让人感觉薄弱。有一章鲍威尔写得很出色,他列举了一个有说力的案例,华雷斯臭名昭著的妇女谋杀案被容易兴奋的媒体夸大了。但在其它章节,关于政治家涉嫌贪污,墨西哥与美国的自由贸易很可能失败等,他重复着流行的理论,而没有真正地调查它们。临近结束时,他提到印第乌斯队本身可能是巨额洗钱的操作。这一重要断言值得多加几页来关注,它应该作为第21章收进本书之中。There is a happy ending, of sorts. Mr Powell left Juarez in 2010, a dful year, convinced of the goodness of most locals but predicting that the violence would get worse. In fact, 2011 saw the number of mafia-hits in Juarez drop by about a third. So far, this year has been quieter still. Juarez may, possibly, be turning a corner. The Indios, sadly, remain useless.本书的结局皆大欢喜,但有些名不符实。鲍威尔2010年离开华雷斯,那真是可怕的一年,他相信大多数的当地人都是善良的,但却预测暴力会变得更糟。事实上,2011年华雷斯黑手党犯罪的数字下降了约三分之一。到目前为止,今年仍然平静多了。华雷斯很可能会转折。但可悲的是印第乌斯队仍然没有起色。 /201212/212579抚州市第一医院做隆胸手术多少钱

南昌市同济整形医院治疗痘痘多少钱Mind Reading读心术Sometimes we get letters here asking whether psychics are for real. Well, despite the t.v. shows, there isn’t any scientific evidence that psychic powers, such as mind-ing, actually exist. That doesn’t prove they don’t exist–just that, so far, there’s no reason to think they do.我们有时会收到观众来信询问通灵人是否真实存在。实际上,除了电视节目,没有任何科学依据明特异功能的存在,例如读心术。但这也不能明它们不存在。只是目前为止,我们没有理由相信它们存在。Still, the famous scientist and popular writer Isaac Asimov made an interesting observation about mind-ing once. Many people across the centuries have claimed they could other people’s minds. If this is true, Asimov points out, then mind-ing would be a fact of nature. It would at least in some people be one of things that the human brain can do, just like dreaming or maintaining your body temperature. That would mean that mind-ing would have to be the result of evolution.不过,著名科学家及作家艾萨克?阿西莫夫做过一次有趣的观察,是关于读心术的。在过去的几个世纪里,很多人声称自己会读心术。如果真的是那样,艾萨克?阿西莫夫指出,那么读心术便是一种本性。人的大脑是可以做到的,就像做梦或者维持体温。这意味着读心术是进化的结果。If, somehow, brains could other brains directly, there would indeed be a very strong evolutionary advantage to it. In Asimov’s example, even a simple version of mind-ing, such as a chicken being able to sense an approaching fox’s brain as it thinks “food, food, food,” would be a huge advantage! Animals of any species that could do rudimentary mind-ing should survive much better than ones that couldn’t, and should pass on their mind-ing gene quite effectively.如果大脑能够直接解读其他大脑,必然会有一个强大的进化优势。在阿西莫夫的实例中,即使是读心术的简单版本,例如鸡能感觉到正在靠近的狐狸的大脑在想“食物,食物,食物”,这就是一个很大的优势。那些可以做最基本的读心术的动物比不会读心术的动物生存得更好,并且会高效地传授它们的读心术基因。Do you see the problem? The fact that there is a debate at all over whether mind-ing exists suggests that it doesn’t. If it were a real phenomenon, versions of it should be widesp, the way normal vision is. We would expect it to be everywhere . . . not just in a few “special” people with nothing up their sleeves.明白了吗?关于读心术是否存在的争论表明它根本不存在。如果读心术真实存在的话,它的版本应该更广泛,方式更正常。我们希望它无处不在,而不只是发生在几个毫无根据的;特殊;的人身上。 /201303/229877 宜春市樟树市奉新县万载县上高县彩光祛斑的价格江西省医院去胎记多少钱

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