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2018年02月18日 07:17:47 | 作者:凤凰滚动 | 来源:新华社
U.S. fugitive and former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden urged technology companies to adopt better methods of encryption to protect users from government surveillance, in remarks made through a feed at a technology conference.美国国家安全局(National Security Agency, 简称:国安局)前承包商雇员、目前正被美国政府通缉的爱德华#8226;斯诺登(Edward Snowden)近日在奥斯汀的西南偏南(South by Southwest)大会上通过视频发表讲话,呼吁科技企业采取更有效的加密技术以保护用户隐私免受政府监控的侵犯。Mr. Snowden, who has been charged by U.S. prosecutors under the Espionage Act, said technology companies can act more quickly to protect users#39; privacy than the U.S. government, which will move slowly, if at all, to change intelligence-gathering practices.斯诺登称,美国政府若有意改变情报收集方式,其过程将十分缓慢,科技企业可以先于美国政府采取行动,确保用户隐私安全。此前美国检方已根据《反间谍法》(Espionage Act)对斯诺登提起诉讼。#39;There is a policy response that needs to occur but there is also a technical response that needs to occur,#39; Mr. Snowden told the South by Southwest Interactive conference, taking place in Austin.斯诺登说,美国政府不仅需要政策上的响应,而且还需要技术上的响应。The public comments are among Mr. Snowden#39;s first since last June, when he leaked to some media outlets classified documents on the NSA#39;s programs to monitor phone calls, email and other communications.这是自去年6月监听事件曝光以来斯诺登首次公开发表言论。去年6月,斯诺登向几家媒体披露了国安局监听项目的绝密资料,该项目的监听内容包括电话、电子邮件等通讯活动。Mr. Snowden spoke from Moscow, where he has been granted temporary asylum, with an image of the U.S. Constitution in the background. Both the audience and the interviewers in Austin--two officials of the American Civil Liberties Union--appeared sympathetic to Mr. Snowden.斯诺登的此次视频讲话以美国宪法图片为背景,而他本人身处俄罗斯,并已被俄政府授予临时庇护权。会上观众及主持人――美国公民自由联盟(American Civil Liberties Union)的两位官员都对斯诺登表示出同情。He wasn#39;t asked about the ethics of his disclosures or whether he believed he committed treason.他没有被问到其揭秘行为是否符合道义,也没有被问到他是否认为自己触犯了叛国罪。People sent in questions through Twitter, and the interviewers posed some of them to Mr. Snowden. Most of the questions related to the issue of surveillance, though one asked if he would do it again. #39;Absolutely, yes,#39; he replied.大会上,网友通过推特(Twitter)向他提问,主持人挑出了一些问题请他回答。其中大多数都与政府监管问题有关,但当被问到如果时光倒流,他是否还会这么做时,斯诺登回答道,绝对会的。#39;I took an oath to support and defend the Constitution and I saw that the Constitution was being violated on a massive scale,#39; he said.斯诺登称,他曾宣誓持并捍卫宪法,但他看到的却是宪法遭到大规模侵犯。Stewart Baker, former general counsel for the NSA, said the interview of Mr. Snowden #39;couldn#39;t have been more sympathetic.#39; Mr. Baker, now a partner at Steptoe amp; Johnson LLP, added: #39;A neutral observer would have said, #39;You say you#39;re against mass surveillance. How do you feel about mass surveillance in Crimea?#39; #39;美国国家安全局前总顾问贝克(Stewart Baker)表示,采访斯诺登的人们对他过于同情了;中立的观察人士可能会问他:你说你反对大规模监控活动,那么你对克里米亚的大规模监控活动怎么看?贝克目前是Steptoe amp; Johnson LLP的合伙人。Mr. Snowden#39;s revelations about NSA surveillance prompted Google Inc. and other companies to strengthen their encryption technology, but he said the firms haven#39;t done enough to protect the civil liberties of Internet users in the U.S. and abroad.斯诺登揭露美国国家安全局的监控计划后,谷歌(Google Inc.)和其他一些公司都加强了各自的保密技术。但斯诺登称,在保护美国和其他国家互联网用户的公民自由方面,科技公司做的还不够。Google said last fall it would add or strengthen encryption of data passing among its data centers. It also now frequently changes the security keys used to unlock encrypted data, according to a person familiar with the company.谷歌去年秋季曾表示,将增加或增强通过其数据中心数据的保密性。熟悉该公司情况的人士还透露,谷歌目前还经常更换解开加密数据所需的安全密钥。In December, Microsoft Corp. General Counsel Brad Smith said the software maker would encrypt customer information moving between its data centers by the end of this year.微软(Microsoft Corp.)总顾问史密斯(Brad Smith)去年12月份称,微软将在今年年底前对在公司数据中心之间传送的客户信息进行加密。#39;We#39;re committed to protecting our users#39; privacy and our team is hard at work to encrypt all of Yahoo#39;s products,#39; a spokeswoman for Yahoo Inc. wrote in an email.雅虎公司(Yahoo Inc.)发言人在一封电子邮件中称,雅虎致力于保护用户隐私,公司团队正在努力工作对雅虎的所有产品进行加密。A Facebook Inc. spokesman declined to comment.Facebook Inc.发言人不予置评。Encryption turns plain text in an email into a jumble of letters and numbers that are unable to prying eyes--whether hackers or a spying agency. In order to the email, another user requires a #39;key#39; to decrypt the message.加密技术是将电子邮件的文字转化为一系列无序字符和数字,使得想要窥视内容的人无法阅读,不管是黑客还是情报机构。其他用户要想阅读邮件内容,需要一把“钥匙”对信息进行解密。Mr. Snowden and Chris Soghoian, one of the ACLU interviewers, said Internet companies should adopt a system known as #39;end-to-end encryption, #39; which scrambles communication, such as an email, at each step from the sender#39;s computer to the recipient#39;s.斯诺登和来美国公民自由联盟的采访者Chris Soghoian表示,互联网公司应该采用一种名为“端对端加密”的技术,这种技术允许通讯信息(比如一封电子邮件)在从源点到终点的传输过程中的每一步始终以密文形式存在。Messrs. Snowden and Soghoian said that widesp use of encryption would make it less practical for the government to collect Internet traffic in bulk, since much of it would be unable. That would require government agencies to target surveillance more precisely, Mr. Soghoian said.斯诺登和Soghoian称,加密技术的广泛使用将使得政府更加难以大批量收集网络信息,因为许多信息将变得无法阅读。Soghoian称,这将要求政府机构在监控时更加精确地定位目标。#39;Encryption technology has the potential to raise the cost of surveillance to the point where it no longer becomes economically feasible to spy on everyone,#39; Mr. Soghoian said.Soghoian称,加密技术有可能将监控成本提高到某种程度,使得对每个人进行监控的做法从经济上来说不再可行。The NSA didn#39;t immediately respond to a request for comment.美国国安局没有立即回覆记者的置评请求。Messrs. Snowden and Soghoian criticized the business model of Internet companies that rely on the collection of user data to serve advertisers. They urged companies to rely on subscriptions, like the text-messaging app WhatsApp, which Facebook recently said it would acquire for billion.一些互联网公司采用的商业模式依赖于用收集来的用户数据为广告商务,斯诺登和Soghoian对这种模式进行了批评。他们敦促这些公司转为采用WhatsApp等公司依靠订阅的模式。Facebook不久前宣布将以190亿美元收购WhatsApp。Privacy and government surveillance have been a theme of this year#39;s South by Southwest Interactive, a conference better known as a stage for the latest social networking and mobile apps. Appearing via Skype on Saturday, WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange attacked the NSA and the power it holds in the Obama administration.隐私和政府监控问题一直是今年西南偏南大会的一个主题,该大会此前更多被视为展示最新社交网络和移动应用的一个舞台。维基解密(WikiLeaks)创始人阿桑奇(Julian Assange)上周六通过Skype对美国国安局以及奥巴马政府赋予国安局的权利进行了抨击。Doug Kim, a user experience architect for Turner Broadcasting and attendee of South by Southwest, said the Snowden remarks gave him more insight into what businesses could do to help protect user privacy.大会参与者、Turner Broadcasting用户体验设计师金(Doug Kim)称,对于企业应该如何保护用户隐私,斯诺登的讲话让他有了更深的理解。#39;It really takes these big acts to make course changes, for these big companies to pivot,#39; Mr. Kim said.金称,确实需要这些大动作来扭转形势,大型科技企业需要做出转变。 /201403/279625Many of the people who this article will do so because Greg Marra, 26, a Facebook engineer, calculated that it was the kind of thing they might enjoy.许多读过这篇文章的人都会被改变,因为26岁的脸书工程师格雷格马拉统计这会是人们非常享受的事。Mr. Marra’s team designs the code that drives Facebook’s News Feed — the stream of updates, photographs, s and stories that users see. He is also fast becoming one of the most influential people in the news business.马拉先生的团队负责设计编码脸书动态信息-新消息、照片、视频以及用户们看的故事。他也很快晋升为新闻业最有影响力的人之一。Facebook now has a fifth of the world — about 1.3 billion people — logging on at least monthly. It drives up to 20 percent of traffic to news sites, according to figures from the analytics company SimpleReach. On mobile devices, the fastest-growing source of ers, the percentage is even higher, SimpleReach says, and continues to increase.脸书每个月至少有近世界五分之一的人口-大约13亿人-登录。触手可及公司的数据员提供的数据表明脸书使人们对新闻网站的使用增加了20%。该公司还指出移动设备作为读者增长最快的平台增长比例更大,并且还在持续增长中。The social media company is increasingly becoming to the news business what Amazon is to book publishing — a behemoth that provides access to hundreds of millions of consumers and wields enormous power. About 30 percent of adults in the ed States get their news on Facebook, according to a study from the Pew Research Center. The fortunes of a news site, in short, can rise or fall depending on how it performs in Facebook’s News Feed.这家社交媒体公司在新闻界的地位逐渐可与亚马逊在图书出版业的地位媲美。它消费人数上亿,拥有巨大影响力。皮尤研究中心指出30%的美国成年人通过脸书读取新闻。简单的说就是一个新闻网站的命运与否取决于其在脸书动态信息上的表现。Though other services, like Twitter and Google News, can also exert a large influence, Facebook is at the forefront of a fundamental change in how people consume journalism. Most ers now come to it not through the print editions of newspapers and magazines or their home pages online, but through social media and search engines driven by an algorithm, a mathematical formula that predicts what users might want to .尽管推特和谷歌新闻等其他务商也拥有巨大影响力。脸书却是彻底改变人们消费新闻方式的领军人物。如今大多数读者都不再通过纸质版报纸、杂志或者在线主页浏览新闻,而是利用社交媒体和搜索引擎。后者可以通过演算法即一种数学公式预测读者可能想要读的新闻。It is a world of fragments, filtered by code and delivered on demand. For news organizations, said Cory Haik, senior editor for digital news at The Washington Post, the shift represents “the great unbundling” of journalism. Just as the music industry has moved largely from selling albums to songs bought instantly online, publishers are increasingly reaching ers through individual pieces rather than complete editions of newspapers or magazines. A publication’s home page, said Edward Kim, a co-founder of SimpleReach, will soon be important more as an advertisement of its brand than as a destination for ers.这是一个由片段构成的世界,充斥着编码,按需定制。华盛顿邮报电子新闻高级编辑克里海客说对新闻机构而言,这种转变意味着新闻业的“大分拆”。音乐界已经完成了从卖唱片到在网上随时随地售卖歌曲的大跨步。出版社也越来越多地通过散文章而不是一整期报纸或者杂志将新闻呈现给读者了。触手可及的合伙人爱德华金姆说出版社的主页很快就会成为宣传其品牌的重要平台而不是读者的阅读终端。“People won’t type in WashingtonPost.com anymore,” Ms. Haik said. “It’s search and social.”“人们不会再输入WashingtonPost.com了。”海客先生说,“一切都要依靠搜索和社交了。”The shift raises questions about the ability of computers to curate news, a role traditionally played by editors. It also has broader implications for the way people consume information, and thus how they see the world.该转变引发了有关电脑过滤新闻能力的问题。这一直以来都是编剧的工作。它也对人们消费信息的方式造成更多影响,进而波及人们看待世界的方式。In an interview at Facebook’s sprawling headquarters here, which has a giant, self-driving golf cart that takes workers between buildings, Mr. Marra said he did not think too much about his impact on journalism.脸书多栋总部大楼里有一辆巨大的自动驾驶高尔夫球车可以载着员工在楼宇之间穿行。马拉先生就是在那里接受了采访,他说他没多想自己对新闻的影响。“We try to explicitly view ourselves as not editors,” he said. “We don’t want to have editorial judgment over the content that’s in your feed. You’ve made your friends, you’ve connected to the pages that you want to connect to and you’re the best decider for the things that you care about.”“我们明确努力不把自己看做编辑。”他说。“我们不希望你的消息内容里出现编辑式。你自己去结交朋友,你自己去看想看的网站,并且你是决定你要在乎的事情的最佳人选。”In Facebook’s work on its users’ news feeds, Mr. Marra said, “we’re saying, ‘We think that of all the stuff you’ve connected yourself to, this is the stuff you’d be most interested in ing.#39; ”马拉先生在谈到脸书在用户新闻消息方面所做的工作的时候,他说:“我们想说的是#39;我们认为你连接的任何内容都会是你最想读的东西。#39;”Roughly once a week, he and his team of about 16 adjust the complex computer code that decides what to show a user when he or she first logs on to Facebook. The code is based on “thousands and thousands” of metrics, Mr. Marra said, including what device a user is on, how many comments or likes a story has received and how long ers spend on an article.他和他的团队(16人左右)基本上每周都会调整一次决定用户在登录脸书后第一时间看到的内容的复杂电脑编码。马拉先生说这个编码建立在数以万计的权值基础之上,其中包括用户使用的设备、某个故事获得的数量或者点赞数量以及读者们在阅读某篇文章上花的时长。The goal is to identify what users most enjoy, and its results vary around the world. In India, he said, people tend to share what the company calls the ADs: astrology, Bollywood, cricket and divinity.目标即为找出用户最钟爱的内容。世界各地喜好差距很大。他说印度人往往会分享被脸书公司称作入门知识的内容:占星术、宝莱坞、板球和神学。If Facebook’s algorithm smiles on a publisher, the rewards, in terms of traffic, can be enormous. If Mr. Marra and his team decide that users do not enjoy certain things, such as teaser headlines that lure ers to click through to get all the information, it can mean ruin. When Facebook made changes to its algorithm in December 2013 to emphasize higher-quality content, several so-called viral sites that had thrived there, including Upworthy, Distractify and Elite Daily, saw large declines in their traffic.如果脸书的演算法向某位出版商露笑脸,那么该出版商的浏览量一定非常可观。如果马拉先生及其团队认为用户不喜欢某些东西,比如吸引读者一路点到底才能获取信息的戏弄标题,那它就玩完了。2013年12月脸书对演算法做出改变强调高品质内容。当时许多红极一时的所谓的热门网站浏览量大幅下跌。Facebook executives frame the company’s relationship with publishers as mutually beneficial: when publishers promote their content on Facebook, its users have more engaging material to , and the publishers get increased traffic driven to their sites. Numerous publications, including The New York Times, have met with Facebook officials to discuss how to improve their referral traffic.脸书总管们将公司与出版商的关系描述为互惠。当出版商改善其在脸书上的内容质量的时候,脸书用户就有更有看头的内容可读,而出版商网站的浏览量也会增加。包括《纽约时报》在内的众多出版物都与脸书官员碰面探讨增加推荐流量的方法。The increased traffic can potentially mean that the publisher can increase its advertising rates or convert some of those new ers into subscribers.浏览量增加就有可能意味着出版商可以抬高其广告费或者将那些新读者转变为订阅读者。Social media companies like Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn want their users to spend more time,or do more, on their services — a concept known as engagement, said Sean Munson, an assistant professor at the University of Washington who studies the intersection of technology and behavior.华盛顿大学副教授肖恩芒森研究科技与行为交叉点。他说像脸书、推特和邻客音之类的社交媒体公司希望用户可以花更多时间使用其务或者在其务平台上做更多事情。这种观念被称作参与度。Facebook officials say that the more time users spend at its site, the more likely there will be a robust exchange of diverse viewpoints and ideas shared online. Others fear that users will create their own echo chambers, and filter out coverage they do not agree with. “And that,” Mr. Munson said, “is when you get conspiracy theories.”脸书官员称用户在其网站上停留的时间越久网络上就会有越激烈的不同意见想法交流。有人担心用户会创建自己的回音室,并且过滤掉他们不认可的报道。芒森说:“那就是你产生阴谋论的时候会有的想法。”Ben Smith, editor in chief of BuzzFeed, a news and entertainment site, said his rule for writing and reporting in a fragmented age is simple: “no filler.” News organizations that still publish a print edition, he said, have slots — physical holes on paper or virtual ones on a home page — that result in the publication of stories that are not necessarily the most interesting or timely, but are required to fill the space. It was partly to discourage such slot-filling that BuzzFeed did not focus on its home page when it first started, he said.本史密斯(蜂鸣新闻网的主编)说他在破裂时代对写作与报道定下的规矩很简单:“不要填充物。”他说那些依然在出版纸质出版物的新闻机构会出现有一些空白区-或是报纸上真真正正的空白区或是主页上的虚拟空白区。这就导致它们会出版一些单纯为填补空缺而出版的却并不一定是最有趣或最新的故事。蜂鸣在初期并没有专注于主页有一部分原因就是为了打击填充作品。Mr. Kim of SimpleReach says he advises established media companies that “it’s dangerous to start chasing social. You’ll end up like everyone else, and you’ll lose your differentiation.” The question that older publications that are not “digital natives” like BuzzFeed have to ask themselves, Mr. Kim said, is “Are you creating content for the way that content is consumed in this environment?”触手可及公司的金姆先生给著名的媒体公司提出建议认为“追赶社交是危险的。你最终会落得与其他人一样的下场,你会失去自己的个性。”金姆先生说像蜂鸣这样非电子出身的老出版物要扪心自问的是:“你创造的内容是按照当下环境里人们消费方式创造的吗?”Ms. Haik, the Washington Post digital editor, is leading a team, started this year, that aims to deliver different versions of The Post’s journalism to different people, based on information about how they have come to an article, which device they are on and even, if it is a phone, which way they are holding it.《华盛顿邮报》电子编辑海客从今年起开始领导一只队伍。该队伍的目标是根据人们接触信息的方式、使用的设备,甚至如果用电话的话持电话方式来为不同的人提供不同版本的报纸内容。“We’re asking if there’s a different kind of storytelling, not just an ideal presentation,” she said. For instance, she said, people ing The Post on a mobile phone during the day will probably want a different kind of ing experience than those who are on a Wi-Fi connection at home in the evening.“我们在问是否有不同的讲故事方式而不只是寻求完美的展示这么简单。”她说。比如,她说那些白天用移动手机看《邮报》的人希望得到的阅读体验也许和那些晚上在家用无线的人不一样。The Post is putting time and energy into such efforts, Ms. Haik said, because it is “ultimately about sustaining our business or growing our audience.” More than half of its mobile ers, she said, are so-called millennials who consume news digitally and largely through social media sites like Facebook. Some publications have found a niche in taking the opposite approach. The Browser is edited by Robert Cottrell, a former journalist at The Financial Times and The Economist. Mr. Cottrell skims about 1,000 articles a day, he said, and then publishes five or six that he finds interesting for about 7,000 subscribers who pay a year. A recent selection included the life of an early-20th-century American bricklayer and a study of great Eastern philosophers.海客说《邮报》在花时间和经历做这样的事是因为“终极目标是维持经营以及增加读者数量。”她说《邮报》一半以上的移动读者都是所谓的千禧年一代。他们主要通过脸书之类的社交媒体网站阅读新闻。有些出版物从另一个角度出发也为自己找到立足之地。《The Browser》的编辑是罗伯特科特雷尔,他之前曾在《金融时报》和《经济学人》任职记者。科特雷尔先生说他每天大概要浏览1000篇文章。然后在其中找出五到六篇他认为有趣的文章发表以供每年付费20美元的约7,000名订阅者阅读。他最新选出的两篇文章分别是讲述一位20世纪初的美国砖匠的故事和一份对东方哲学家的研究。“The general idea is to offer a few pieces each day which we think are both enjoyable and of lasting value,” Mr. Cottrell said. “We’re certainly at the other end of the process from the algorithms.”“我们的主要是想每天提供几篇我们认为既有趣又有长期价值的文章。”科特雷尔先生说。“我们绝对是在演算法的另一种端。”Artificial intelligence, he said, may eventually be able to find a piece of writing moving, in some sense, and want to share it. But for the moment, computers rely on information gathered online “and that is going to be a very, very impoverished data set compared to a human being.”他说或许人工智能终有一天会有能力找到感人的文章并且在某种程度上想要将文章分享给别人看。不过目前电脑还是要依赖网上搜集的信息,“并且它的数据与人类相比是非常贫瘠的。”Mr. Marra, the Facebook engineer, agrees that a human editor for each individual would be ideal. “But it’s not realistic to do that at scale for every person on the planet,” he said, “and so I think we’ll always have these hybrid systems like News Feed that are helping you find the things that you care about.” It is simply, he said, “a personalized newspaper.”脸书工程师马拉先生也同意如果每个人都拥有一位人类编辑那会非常完美。“不过要让地球上每个人都享有这种待遇不现实。”他说道,“所以我认为我们会一直利用想动态消息这样的杂交系统帮助你寻找你在意的东西。”他说这其实就是一份“个人定制报纸了”。 /201411/340037

SAN FRANCISCO — For Apple, the iPhone continues to be the device that makes the company tick.旧金山——对于苹果(Apple)来说,iPhone依然是让公司保持动力的柱产品。While top rivals like Samsung are starting to show weakness in phone sales, Apple sold 35.2 million iPhones in the third fiscal quarter, up 13 percent from the period a year ago. The total was slightly below the estimates of analysts, who had expected 36 million iPhones to be sold.在三星(Samsung)等强劲对手在手机销售方面开始显露疲态的同时,苹果第三财季iPhone销量为3520万部,同比增长了13%。不过,这个数字略低于分析师的3600万部预期。But for Apple, slightly disappointing analysts on iPhone sales does not appear to be cause for alarm. The company, which is based in Cupertino, Calif., reported profit of .75 billion in the quarter that ended June 28, up from .9 billion in the quarter a year earlier.但对于苹果来说,iPhone销量让分析师略感失望似乎也没有担心的必要。在截至6月28日的财季,总部位于加州库比提诺的苹果公司录得77.5亿美元利润,高于去年同期的69亿美元。Revenue was .43 billion, up from .32 billion in the quarter a year ago. Wall Street analysts had expected revenue of .93 billion, according to a survey of analysts by Thomson Reuters.苹果这一财季的营收为374.3亿美元,高于去年同期的353.2亿美元。根据汤森路透(Thomson Reuters)的数据,华尔街分析师的预期为379.3亿美元。Healthy sales of Macs also helped fuel the growth, the company said. Apple reported selling 4.4 million Macs, up from 3.8 million in the same quarter last year, beating analysts’ expectations of about 3.9 million.苹果表示,Mac电脑可观的销售状况也助推了增长。苹果在这一财季售出了440万台Mac电脑,高于去年同期的380万台,超出了分析师约390万台的预期。The strong iPhone sales, thanks in part to a recent distribution deal with China Mobile, offset other, more disappointing results from Apple’s other signature product, the iPad. The company sold 13.3 million iPads, down 9 percent from the year-ago quarter. Analysts had predicted it would sell an average of 14.4 million.iPhone的强劲销量一定程度上要归功于不久前与中国移动达成的一项分销协议,也抵消了苹果另一款主打产品iPad令人失望的业绩。这一财季的iPad销量为1330万部,同比下降了9%。分析师此前的平均预期为1440万部。But a small dip in iPad sales is not so bad if iPhone sales are up. Apple’s gross profit margin was 39.4 percent, up 2.5 percentage points from the quarter a year ago. Apple makes more money on each iPhone than it does on each iPad, so when sales momentum shifts away from the iPad toward the iPhone, profit margins are better.但如果iPhone销量上升,iPad销量即使小幅下滑也无大碍。苹果这一财季的毛利率为39.4%,同比增长了2.5个百分点。每部iPhone带来的利润要高于iPad,所以如果销售势头从iPad转移到iPhone,利润率会出现增长。And unlike Samsung, which is having a difficult time fending off low-cost competition from companies like Xiaomi and Huawei, sales in China gave Apple a big boost over the quarter. Apple’s revenue in China grew 28 percent from a year ago.三星正在艰难地抵抗来自小米和华为等公司的低成本竞争。与三星不同,苹果公司这一财季的在华销售为公司带来了极大的提振。苹果在华营收同比增长了28%。China is an increasingly vital market for the company, especially now that the smartphone markets in the ed States and parts of Europe have become saturated.对于苹果来说,中国市场的重要性正日益增强,尤其是因为美国和欧洲部分地区的智能手机市场已经出现饱和。In fact, the importance of China would be an impetus for Apple to develop a lower-cost, big-screen iPhone to target the Asian region, said Ben Bajarin, a consumer technology analyst for Creative Strategies.创意策略公司(Creative Strategies)的消费科技分析师本·巴加林(Ben Bajarin)说,事实上,中国市场的重要性将成为苹果以亚洲地区为目标、开发成本更低的大屏iPhone的动力所在。IDC, the research firm, estimates that at least 20 percent of all smartphones shipped last year in China were five inches or larger. It predicts that number will balloon to 50 percent by 2017.据研究公司国际数据公司(IDC)估计,去年在中国销售的智能手机中,至少20%拥有五英寸及以上大小的屏幕。该公司预计,这一比例到2017年将飙升至50%。“Positioning a lower-cost iPhone that’s in the larger screen size would fit Asia’s trend perfectly,” Mr. Bajarin said.巴加林说,“推出一款屏幕更大、价格更低的iPhone将完全符合亚洲的趋势。”And that is what Apple intends to do in the fall, according to a person briefed on Apple’s product plans who spoke on the condition of anonymity because the plans were private. Analysts expect Apple torelease two sizes — a model with a screen that measures 4.7 inches diagonally and the other at 5.5 inches.一名了解苹果产品计划的知情者说,这正是苹果今年秋天打算做的事。由于这些计划是保密的,知情者要求匿名。分析师预计,苹果将推出两种型号,屏幕尺寸分别为4.7英寸和5.5英寸。Still, the excitement over the iPhone was tempered somewhat by iPad results.“IPad sales met our expectations, but we realize they didn’t meet many of yours,” Timothy D. Cook, Apple’s chief executive, told analysts on the company’s financial earnings call. Shares of Apple were down about half a percentage point in after-hour trading Tuesday evening.尽管如此,iPad销量下降或多或少还是冲淡了iPhone的强劲表现所引发的兴奋。“iPad销量达到了我们的预期,但我们知道,它没有达到你们许多人的预期,”蒂莫西·D·库克(Timothy D. Cook)在公司的财报电话会议中对分析师说。周二晚间,苹果股票在盘后交易时段下跌了约0.5%。In an interview, Luca Maestri, Apple’s chief financial officer, said iPad sales brought in mixed results in different regions. In China and India, tablet sales grew substantially. In more mature markets, like the ed States, however, iPad sales were softer.苹果首席财务官卢卡·马埃斯特里(Luca Maestri)在采访中说,iPad销量因地区而异。在中国和印度,平板电脑的销售出现了大幅增长。在美国等更成熟的市场,iPad的销售就会低迷一些。Apple cited data from IDC, the research firm, indicating that tablet sales in the ed States and Western Europe would decline 5 percent last quarter.苹果援引IDC的数据表示,在美国和欧洲西部国家,平板电脑的销量上季度可能下降了5%。Traditionally, the quarter ending in June is a slow time of year for smartphone sales industrywide because many consumers are holding out until fall or the holiday shopping season to buy new smartphones.传统上讲,对整个行业来说,截至6月的季度都是一年之中智能手机销售较为缓慢的时间段,这是因为许多消费者都想等到秋天或假期购物季再购买新的智能手机。Samsung Electronics, the No. 1 handset maker in the world and Apple’s top rival in the mobile handset industry, is no exception to this trend. This month, Samsung said it estimated its quarterly profit would fall 24 percent compared with the period a year ago. In part, the company blamed the time period — a slow season for smartphone sales in China, the largest smartphone market in the world — for the shortfall. The company also blamed intense competition from its low-cost rivals.作为世界第一大手机制造商,以及苹果在手机业的头号竞争对手,三星电子也不例外。三星本月表示,预计本财季利润同比将下降24%。三星认为,这部分是因为目前是中国智能手机销售的淡季,而中国是世界上最大的智能手机市场,另一个原因是来自低成本竞争对手的激烈竞争。Tablet sales shrank for Samsung, too, last quarter. The company said that generally, consumers upgrade tablets less often than they do smartphones.三星上季度平板电脑销量也出现下降。公司表示,总的来说,消费者更换平板电脑的频率低于智能手机。That might be the same reason iPad sales slowed this quarter as well.这可能也是这一财季iPad销量放缓的原因。“It’s part of a pattern — lots of new people are buying iPads, but people who aly have them haven’t been replacing them very quickly,” said Jan Dawson, an independent telecom analyst for Jackdaw Research.杰克道研究公司(Jackdaw Research)独立电信分析师简·道森(Jan Dawson)说,“这是有规律的——许多新用户在购买iPad,但已经拥有iPad的人不会很快更新换代。”Mr. Maestri of Apple added that he believed Apple’s new partnership with IBM would only help lift iPad sales among businesses using tablets. Earlier this month, the companies said they would work together on 100 business programs exclusively for iPhones and iPads.苹果的马埃斯特里还表示,他相信,苹果与IBM新的伙伴关系将会提升iPad在使用平板设备的企业中的销量。本月早些时候,两家公司表示,将共同开发专门用于iPhone和iPad的100款企业程序。Mr. Maestri said he felt it was too early to draw conclusions about how often people replace iPads, because the first iPad came out only four years ago. “We still don’t know exactly what the replacement cycles are,” he said.马埃斯特里说,他认为对于人们多长时间更换iPad的问题,现在下结论为时过早,因为第一台iPad四年前才面世。他说,“我们现在还不知道更换周期究竟是怎样的。” /201407/314821

Playing the piano may seem like nothing special to you, but what about playing it on apple instead of piano keys? Lin Hai, a 24-year-old graduate from Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, did exactly that with his homemade electronic board.也许对你而言,弹钢琴没什么特别的,可如果让苹果化身为琴键,你会怎么想?毕业于浙江科技学院、24岁的林海(音译)就用一款自制电路板令这一想法变成现实。Geek boy技术狂人Wearing thick glasses and a simple T-shirt, Lin looks no different to other engineering students. But under his plain appearance lies a true geek heart.厚厚的眼镜加上简单的T恤,林海看上去和其他工科生没什么两样。但在他朴素的外表下,却跳动着一颗技术狂人的心。When Lin was little, he loved disassembling things to look at how they work. Even though he often failed at putting them back together, his curiosity was never satisfied and he laid hands on everything, except computers.林海从小就喜欢将东西“大卸八块”,来观察它们工作原理。尽管他常常无法将它们复原,但他的好奇心一直很旺盛。除了电脑,他什么都拆过。“My parents told me not to disassemble computers because they’re expensive, so I researched the software instead,” says Lin. When he went to university, Lin chose a subject that was related to engineering and programming: automation.林海说:“父母告诉我电脑太贵,不要对它们下手,所以我便开始研究起软件。”上大学时,林海选了一个与工程和编程有关的专业:自动化。Lin is a typical geek who often spends days in the laboratory inventing new things.作为一个典型的极客,林海经常会花费几天的时间埋头在实验室里研发新东西。“I have a lot of ideas in my head. My biggest interest is realizing them,” says Lin. His inventions include a guide robot, an earthquake alarm and an electronic door lock. But his most successful invention is an electronic board he calls “Crazyer”, the one that turns bananas into piano keys.林海说:“我脑袋里有很多想法。我最大的爱好就是去实现它们。”他的发明包括一个导盲机器人、一台地震报警器和一把电子门锁。但他最成功的发明是一个叫做“酷乐宅”的电路板,它可以让香蕉变身为钢琴琴键。Learn from Makey Makey灵感来自神奇电路板“Makey Makey”Lin Hai’s Crazyer electronic board was inspired by a similar device built by two PhD students at MIT. Their device is called Makey Makey, which turns everyday objects into touchpads.林海发明的“酷乐宅”电路板,其灵感来自于麻省理工两名士研发的“Makey Makey”,这个同“酷乐宅”很像的装置可以将日常物件变成触屏设备。Having seen a , Lin was so impressed by the device that he searched for its website in the hope of buying one. It turned out to be a prototype, and Lin would have needed to wait for six months for the real product.在看过一段介绍视频后,Makey Makey给林海留下了深刻印象,他搜寻官网想要入手一个。结果Makey Makey只是一台样机,林海要等上六个月才能买到真正的产品。For most people, the story would have ended there. But for Lin, it was about to begin: “Why not make my own Makey Makey?” he thought. So he studied the and website, trying to figure out how it worked.对于许多人来说,可能故事到这就没有然后了。但对于林海而言,故事才刚刚开始,他心想:“为何不自己做一个Makey Makey出来呢?”为此他研究了视频以及网站上的内容,试图弄清楚它的工作原理。“I found that the mechanism Makey Makey is based on was similar to that of the electronic lock I built before. The only difference was that the Makey Makey had an extra wire,” says Lin. With this vital clue and his automation expertise, it didn’t take long for Lin to understand how Makey Makey worked.林海说:“我发现Makey Makey的工作原理和我以前发明的一个电子锁很相似。唯一区别就是Makey Makey多了一根线。” 凭借这一重要线索再加上他本身的自动化专业知识,很快林海就弄清了Makey Makey的工作原理From watching the to building an electronic board and writing a program for it, Lin spent an entire month bringing Crazyer to life. His hard work paid off.从看视频到做电路板,再到给它写程序,林海花了整整一个月的时间,最终发明出“酷乐宅”。他的努力没有白费。Social responsibility社会责任With the money he earns from selling Crazyer, Lin can give back to society. “Crazyer can help those who have lost their fingers or limbs,” says Lin. “With Crazyer, some people can use their feet or arms to use a computer.” Lin has helped many disabled people by building customized Crazyer boards for them.林海用销售“酷乐宅”所赚来的钱回报社会。林海说:“‘酷乐宅’可以帮助那些失去手指或肢体的残障人士。有了它,人们可以用脚或胳膊来操控电脑。”通过制作特制的“酷乐宅”电路板,林海已经帮助了许多残疾人。Another benefit is that the money he earns can support Lin in inventing new things. “I’m thinking of adding new functions to Crazyer. I’m also working on a 3-D printer,” he says. Lin’s geek spirit is always striving toward new goals.还有一个好处是,有了资金持,林海就可以研究新发明了。林海说:“我想给‘酷乐宅’添加一些新功能。同时,我还在研发3D打印机。”极客精神总是推动林海朝着新目标前进。 /201408/318022

U.S. Internet companies like Facebook and Google live or die on mobile. The same will be true of Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba.对于Facebook和谷歌(Google)这样的美国互联网公司来说,生死取决于移动业务;对于中国电子商务巨头阿里巴巴集团(Alibaba Group)来说,也同样如此。Alibaba#39;s filing for a U.S. initial public offering boasts rapid growth and rising margins, but it raises concerns around its ability to make money off mobile traffic. This is no idle matter: Companies that can#39;t show their business migrating well from desktops to mobile devices have justifiably fallen out of investor favor, as more people access the Internet through smartphones and tablets.在其美国首次公开募股(IPO)申请文件中,阿里巴巴提到了公司的快速增长以及不断扩大的利润率,但是这也令外界对于该公司手机流量盈利能力的担忧升温。这种担忧并非无足轻重的问题。由于越来越多的人通过智能手机和平板电脑连入互联网,所以如果一家公司的业务无法展现出从个人电脑到移动设备的良好转变,那么这家公司将无疑失去投资者的青睐。Alibaba says mobile accounted for 19.7% of total transactions on its e-commerce platforms in the fourth quarter of last year, up from 7.4% in the same period a year earlier. But that is only one piece of the puzzle.阿里巴巴称,去年第四季度,移动设备在其电子商务平台总交易额中占19.7%,高于上年同期7.4%的占比。不过,这仅仅是整体情况中的一个部分。For Amazon and eBay, mobile has been a blessing as it allows more users to shop for longer, driving volumes higher, says Bernstein analyst Carlos Kirjner. But companies that rely on advertising have faced greater challenges due to the limited real estate on smartphone screens.Bernstein的分析师Carlos Kirjner表示,对于亚马逊公司(Amazon.com)和eBay来说,移动设备是一件好事,因为这类设备可以使得用户购物时间延长,并增加交易量。不过,由于智能手机的屏幕有限,依赖于广告的互联网企业可能面临较大挑战。Alibaba is a mix of the two models. Tmall, its newer, higher-end shopping platform charges merchants a percentage of total sales. For this business, increased mobile adoption should be a clear positive.阿里巴巴的业务模式则分为两种。推出时间较短、较高端的购物平台天猫(Tmall)从商户整体销售额中收取一定比例的费用。对于这一块业务,移动设备的利用程度增加应该明显是一个积极因素。But Taobao, the site where small business and private individuals go to sell their wares, is free to use. It sells advertising space to merchants, and charges them for more prominent placement on the marketplace website. Room for both is more limited on smartphone screens, says Mr. Kirjner.不过,针对中小型商户和个人商户的淘宝(Taobao)则是免费使用。淘宝向商户出售广告位置,同时也会帮助商户调到网站更加明显的位置并从中收费。Kirjner称,受制于智能手机屏幕,这两项务的收入空间都较为有限。So understanding how much revenue comes from Tmall and how much from Taobao is crucial for investors to judge the outlook on mobile monetization. Unfortunately, Alibaba neglected to share this crucial information with investors.对于投资者来说,若想要评断阿里巴巴手机业务的盈利前景,对天猫和淘宝收入各自占比多少有所了解具有至关重要的作用。但是不幸的是,阿里巴巴并没有将这一关键信息分享给投资者。Alibaba does say it expects monetization rates to be lower on mobile as compared with PCs. But the company seems unconcerned, explicitly stating that it has no plans for now to focus on maximizing mobile monetization. Throughout the prospectus Alibaba is at pains to stress a lack of focus on short-term profits, probably enabled by a corporate structure giving insiders control over most of the board.不过阿里巴巴表示,预计移动设备上的盈利水平低于个人电脑。但是阿里巴巴似乎并不担心这个问题,公司明确表示目前没有专注于将移动设备盈利水平最大化的计划。在整个招股书中,阿里巴巴花费了大量力气强调对于短期利润关注的缺乏,导致这种情况出现的原因可能在于董事会主要由其内部人士掌控。Investors may not be so sanguine. Concern over mobile monetization was one factor that drove down Facebook shares after they listed in 2012. The stock rebounded sharply once Facebook was able to show traction in mobile, notably from the second quarter of 2013 when mobile advertising jumped as a percentage of total ad revenue.投资者可能没有这么乐观。Facebook 2012年上市后,投资者对该公司移动业务业绩的担忧就是导致其股价下跌的因素之一。Facebook的移动业务随后显示出了增长迹象,尤其是在2013年第二季度,在该公司移动业务广告收入占广告总收入的比重上升之后,Facebook的股价出现了大幅反弹。In China, mobile is likely to be even more important as many new Internet users skip desktops and rely mainly on smartphones. The number of mobile Internet users in China rose 19% last year to 500 million, nearly twice as fast as overall Internet users, according to according to state research center CNNIC.在中国,不少互联网新用户已不再使用台式电脑,而主要用智能手机上网,因此移动业务在中国可能会变得更加重要。来自中国互联网信息中心(CNNIC)的数据显示,去年中国的移动互联网用户数量增长19%,达到5亿户,增幅较整体互联网用户增幅高出近一倍。Mobile is also where Alibaba will encounter the fiercest competition,notably from archrival Tencent. This diversified Internet giant has the advantage in mobile thanks to WeChat, a massively popular messaging app that is native to smartphones.移动业务也将是阿里巴巴面临最激烈竞争的领域,尤其是来自腾讯(Tencent)的竞争。腾讯推出的基于智能手机的通讯应用微信(WeChat)大受欢迎,令这家多元化互联网巨头在移动领域占得先机。Tencent is now using WeChat to direct potential shoppers to JD.com, a smaller Chinese e-commerce company, also preparing for a U.S. listing, in which it holds a 15% stake. It is also integrating its payment platform Tenpay, which competes with Alibaba-linked Alipay, into WeChat.腾讯目前正在通过微信将潜在消费者导向规模较小的中资电子商务公司京东(JD.com)的网站,京东也正准备在美国上市,腾讯持有该公司15%的股权。腾讯还计划将付平台财付通(Tenpay)与微信整合在一起。财付通是阿里巴巴旗下付宝(Alipay)的竞争对手。Alibaba isn#39;t sitting on its hands. It has amassed a 66% stake in UCWeb, a popular mobile Web browser, and recently struck a deal to take full control of mapping service AutoNavi. Alibaba says it will likely make more acquisitions in this area. Yet these investments, plus intense competition in the mobile space, may start to eat away at Alibaba#39;s sky-high operating margins, which were north of 50% in the fourth quarter.阿里巴巴并没有坐以待毙。该公司已收购热门移动浏览器UCWeb 66%的股份,近期还达成了收购地图务公司高德软件(AutoNavi)全部股权的交易。阿里巴巴表示,可能将在移动领域收购更多资产。但这些投资,再加上移动领域的激烈竞争,可能会开始侵蚀阿里巴巴水平极高的营业利润率,该公司去年第四季度的营业利润率超过50%。Given the importance of mobile, investors may forgive Alibaba for some heavy spending. But the experience of Facebook and others indicates Alibaba will need to show before long that it is translating eyeballs on smartphones into real money.考虑到移动业务的重要性,投资者可能会理解阿里巴巴的一些大规模出。但Facebook和其他一些公司的经历表明,阿里巴巴不久就需要向投资者显示,该公司能将消费者对其移动业务的关注转化成真金白银的利润。 /201405/296543

语义网来源:The Guardian 编辑:Vicki 翻译:译言网各种创新在计算机世界里不停发生。语义网,一种新的网页形式,正在互联网的世界里起到革命性作用。通过语义网我们可以更加智能地控制我们的设备。通过它,我们还能更好的理解和处理数据内容。我们也可以通过它,增加我们和网页的互动性,使网页更好被浏览。 现今,开发语义网两种最重要的技术已经出现:可扩展标记语言(XML)和资源描述框架(RDF)。使语义网的开发称为可能。不久将来,我们就可以在现实生活中利用语义网来实现各种务,使我们的家庭生活更加智能。 另一方面,语义网也可以帮助人类的语言进步。在社区活动中,人与人之间更加和谐。The Semantic WebThe entertainment system was belting out the Beatles' "We Can Work It Out" when the phone rang. When Pete answered, his phone turned the sound down by sending a message to all the other local devices that had a volume control. His sister, Lucy, was on the line from the doctor's office: "Mom needs to see a specialist and then has to have a series of physical therapy sessions. Biweekly or something. I'm going to have my agent set up the appointments." Pete immediately agreed to share the chauffeuring. 语义网,一种新的网页内容,可能对计算机世界起到革命意义.当电话响时,系统正热情播放披头四的“我们要尽欢”。在皮特回答之前,他传送一个信息给他的音响设备,把它们的音量关小。他的路西从她医生那里打电话给他,说:“妈妈需要看一位专家,需要一系列的物理治疗。大概两个星期或者多些。我打算让我的代理约个时间。“皮特立即答应开车送她们。At the doctor's office, Lucy instructed her Semantic Web agent through her handheld Web browser. The agent promptly retrieved information about Mom's prescribed treatment from the doctor's agent, looked up several lists of providers, and checked for the ones in-plan for Mom's insurance within a 20-mile radius of her home and with a rating of excellent or very good on trusted rating services. It then began trying to find a match between available appointment times (supplied by the agents of individual providers through their Web sites) and Pete's and Lucy's busy schedules. (The emphasized keywords indicate terms whose semantics, or meaning, were defined for the agent through the Semantic Web.) 在医生的办公室里,路西指令她的语义网的代理商用手持设备浏览网页。代理商尝试重新从医生那里获取她妈妈药物治疗信息,找寻几个供应商,在她家二十里范围内检查她妈妈最好和最可信的保险计划。同时开始尝试从路西和皮特的行程中,找到最好的 预约时间(几个供应商通过他们的网页提供这些资料)。(语义网通 过主要的关键字来表明语义,意思 ,还是指定的代理)。In a few minutes the agent presented them with a plan. Pete didn't like it?University Hospital was all the way across town from Mom's place, and he'd be driving back in the middle of rush hour. He set his own agent to redo the search with stricter preferences about location and time. Lucy's agent, having complete trust in Pete's agent in the context of the present task, automatically assisted by supplying access certificates and shortcuts to the data it had aly sorted through. 几分钟之前,代理商给皮特和路西看了他的计划,但是皮特不喜欢它。大学附属医院是从他妈妈家穿过城镇,他将在交通不是高峰期开车回家。他要求代理根据时间和地点重新查找。路西的代理完全信任皮特的代理计划,在存取验和快捷键的帮助下任务自动 被排序。Almost instantly the new plan was presented: a much closer clinic and earlier times?but there were two warning notes. First, Pete would have to reschedule a couple of his less important appointments. He checked what they were?not a problem. The other was something about the insurance company's list failing to include this provider under physical therapists: "Service type and insurance plan status securely verified by other means," the agent reassured him. "(Details?)" 没多久新的计划就给出了:一个离医务所更近和更早时间。但是有两封警告信。第一个是皮特更改了他的几个次重要的预约,缺席他们没有问题。其他包括保险公司名单, 没有包括物理治疗的提供者:“务类型和保险计划已经被其他方法安全验。”代理商将确认他 。Lucy registered her assent at about the same moment Pete was muttering, "Spare me the details," and it was all set. (Of course, Pete couldn't resist the details and later that night had his agent explain how it had found that provider even though it wasn't on the proper list.) 路西登记了,但是皮特有点不满:“给我些详细资料”, 这是我所有资料。(当然,皮特不能拒绝计划,尽管它不在名单中, 在晚上他让他的代理解释。)Expressing Meaning(表达方式 )Pete and Lucy could use their agents to carry out all these tasks thanks not to the World Wide Web of today but rather the Semantic Web that it will evolve into tomorrow. Most of the Web's content today is designed for humans to , not for computer programs to manipulate meaningfully. Computers can adeptly parse Web pages for layout and routine processing?here a header, there a link to another page?but in general, computers have no reliable way to process the semantics: this is the home page of the Hartman and Strauss Physio Clinic, this link goes to Dr. Hartman's curriculum vitae. 皮特和路西能让他们的代理处理这些任务,不但要感谢今天的互联网,还要感谢明天将会出现语义网。今天大部分网页内容是设计给普通人读的,不是专给程序来操作。通常计算机能敏捷分隔网页和常规地处理主题,并可以把它连接到另一个网页,但是计算机并没有一种可靠的方法处理语义:这是Hartman和Strauss医务所的主页,连接可以带到Hartman医生的简历的网页。The Semantic Web will bring structure to the meaningful content of Web pages, creating an environment where software agents roaming from page to page can ily carry out sophisticated tasks for users. Such an agent coming to the clinic's Web page will know not just that the page has keywords such as "treatment, medicine, physical, therapy" (as might be encoded today) but also that Dr. Hartman works at this clinic on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and that the script takes a date range in yyyy-mm-dd format and returns appointment times. And it will "know" all this without needing artificial intelligence on the scale of 2001's Hal or Star Wars's C-3PO. Instead these semantics were encoded into the Web page when the clinic's office manager (who never took Comp Sci 101) massaged it into shape using off-the-shelf software for writing Semantic Web pages along with resources listed on the Physical Therapy Association's site. 语义网可以对不同内容进行分类,当软件代理商浏览网页时候,能够为用户预先处理复杂的任务。当病人来到医务所的网页不只是能够看到“治疗,药,物理治疗”等关键字(可能今天已经被加密),而且告诉Hartman医生在星期一,星期三,星期五工作时间和预约时间。在2001‘s Hal 或者StarWare's C-3PO 不需要人工智能就可以知道这些。利用物理治疗联盟的资源,医务所的经理用现成的软件写语义网。Keke View:语义网就是能够根据语义进行判断的网络。  简单地说,语义网是一种能理解人类语言的智能网络,它不但能够理解人类的语言,而且还可以使人与电脑之间的交流变得像人与人之间交流一样轻松。 /200907/77833

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