楼主:中国诊疗 时间:2017年12月13日 02:13:13 点击:0 回复:0
HONG KONG — The wide new boulevards that cut across parts of Weifang in eastern China are largely free of traffic, a quiet reminder of the coastal city’s big ambitions.香港——这条簇新的大马路径直穿过中国东部城市潍坊,基本上没什么车,无声地彰显着这个沿海城市的雄心壮志。“It’s empty here, and I always come here to dry my wheat,” said a 77-year-old farmer surnamed Zhang who, along with his wife and son, was sping grain on a sidewalk in one of the city’s newer districts on a recent summer day.“这里很空,我一直到这儿晒麦子,”77岁的农民张某说。最近的一个夏日,他和妻子、儿子在该市新区的人行道上铺散麦粒。Weifang is quickly outgrowing its rural roots, and officials see a wave of urbanization reshaping the local economy for years to come. Across the city, plans are underway for billions of dollars of major public projects, including new highways, high-speed rail lines, water treatment plants, schools and health care facilities.潍坊正在迅速改变它的农村性质,官员们认为城镇化浪潮将在未来几年改变当地经济。全市各地正在开展价值数十亿美元的大型公共项目,比如新公路、高速铁路、自来水处理厂、学校及卫生设施。There is just one hitch: Weifang can’t pay for all the projects.他们只有一个难题:潍坊无力承担所有项目的费用。In the past, city officials would have turned to low-cost loans from state-owned banks, as the national government encouraged local spending to spur economic growth. But the Chinese leadership, worried about the country’s ballooning debt problem, is backing away from that strategy.过去,市政府官员会通过国有获得低成本贷款,因为中央政府鼓励地方政府加大开刺激经济增长。但中国领导层担心不断膨胀的债务问题,正在撤销这一策略。Like hundreds of cities across China, Weifang is now wooing deep-pocketed private investors, both local and overseas, to help foot the bill for public infrastructure and services. Behind the spot where Mr. Zhang dries his wheat, a gleaming new hospital dominates the skyline, built in part with outside capital.与全国数以百计的城市一样,潍坊正在努力吸引本地及海外财力雄厚的私人投资者,帮助政府付建造公共基础设施和开展务项目的费用。在张某的晒谷场后面耸立着一栋崭新的医院大楼,修建这栋参天大楼的资金部分来自外部。“If the project suits the public-private partnership model, we will try to fund it that way,” said Liu Xitian, the deputy director of Weifang’s finance bureau. “The next step will be to improve public services. We will release lots of projects in that area.”“适合搞PPP(public-private partnership model,公共私营合作模式——编者注)的我们就会通过PPP这种方式来融资,”潍坊市财政局副局长刘锡田说。“下一步就是提升公共务,[展开]提升性的务项目,下一步会有很多项目推出。”The push reflects the precarious financial state of many cities and towns.这种行动反映了很多城镇不稳定的财务状况。Although the country escaped the worst of the global financial crisis six years ago, it did so on the back of a borrowing binge by local governments, which spent heavily on new but often unprofitable infrastructure projects. Now, many local governments are mired in debt.虽然中国在六年前避开了最为严重的全球金融危机,但当时是靠地方政府大量借贷,用于修建全新但通常无利可图的基础设施。如今,很多地方政府深陷债务泥潭。In Weifang, a city known for seafood processing and an annual kite-flying festival, rapid urbanization over the last decade has saddled the local government with debts totaling 88.4 billion renminbi, or .2 billion, as of June 2013, the most recent data available.在潍坊这个以海鲜加工和一年一度的风筝节而闻名的城市,过去十年快速的城镇化进程给当地政府带来了大量债务,截至2013年6月,潍坊政府的总债务为884亿元人民币,这是可以获得的最新数据。Since 2007, China’s overall local government debt has risen at an annual rate of 27 percent. It now totals almost trillion, according to estimates from the consulting firm McKinsey amp; Company.自2007年以来,中国地方政府总债务的年增长率达到了27%。根据咨询公司麦肯锡(McKinsey amp; Company)的估计,地方政府债务总额目前接近三万亿美元(约合18.6万亿元人民币)。Companies, too, have gorged on cheap credit in recent years. Altogether, China’s total debt stands at 282 percent of its gross domestic product — a high level that raises the risk of a financial crisis should borrowers prove unable to repay and a wave of defaults ensue.公司近些年来也获得大量低息贷款。中国的总债务是国内生产总值的282%,如此高的债务水平,一旦借款人最终无法偿还贷款,可能引发金融危机和违约浪潮。It has created a conundrum for the country. China’s leaders want to wean the country from this debt-fueled growth model. But they also need to continue stimulating the economy, particularly at a time when growth is slowing.这给中国带来了一个难题。中国领导人希望中国摆脱这种依赖债务推动经济增长的模式。但他们还需要继续刺激经济发展,特别是在增长放缓的时期。Part of Beijing’s solution has been to help local governments lower their borrowing costs through refinancing. Local government-controlled companies that are struggling to pay bonds are being encouraged to exchange them for new loans at lower interest rates from state-run banks. China’s Ministry of Finance recently expanded this local government debt refinancing program to 3 trillion renminbi, or nearly 0 billion, up from 1 trillion renminbi just a few months ago.北京的部分解决方案是通过再次融资帮助地方政府降低借贷成本。由地方政府控制的难以偿还债券的公司被鼓励以债券作为交换条件,获得国有提供的利率较低的新贷款。中国财政部最近将地方政府债务再融资计划的规模增加至三万亿元人民币,而几个月前这一计划的规模只有一万亿元人民币。China has also begun a national campaign to encourage private investment in local infrastructure projects.中国还开始在全国鼓励私人投资地方基础设施项目。In May, the nation’s top economic planning agency released a list of more than 1,000 projects worth 2 trillion renminbi that local governments across the country are seeking to finance with outside investment. Analysts estimate that is on top of roughly 1,500 other projects worth 3 trillion renminbi that had been previously announced by the local authorities.今年5月,中国最高经济规划机构公布了一份包含1000多个项目的清单,这些项目总共价值两万亿美元人民币,全国各地的地方政府寻求获得外部投资来开展这些项目。此外分析人士估计,地方政府此前共公布了大约1500个项目,价值三万亿元人民币。A decade ago, the MTR Corporation, the Hong Kong subway operator, was an investor in Beijing’s fourth metro line. Beijing had won the right to host the 2008 Summer Olympics and was expanding its transport network at a blinding pace.十年前,香港地铁运营商港铁公司(MTR Corporation)是北京地铁4号线的投资方之一。当时北京赢得了2008年夏季奥运会的举办权,需要对交通网络进行大规模扩张。By the time it opened in 2009, passenger flows on the new line were much higher and revenue much lower than either party had forecast. This prompted huge subsidy payments from the Beijing government to the MTR, which did not sit well with local officials.4号线在2009年投入运行的时候,其客流量之大,营收之低,远出乎任何一方的预期。北京市政府需要为港铁公司提供巨额补贴,该市官员对此难以接受。So city officials simply rewrote the contract. The new terms reduced subsidy payments to the MTR, and were on balance more favorable to the city government. MTR, as the minority shareholder, had little room to object.因此北京市官员直接改写了合同。新的条款减少了对港铁公司的补贴,更加有利于北京市政府。作为少数股东,港铁公司几乎没有反对之力。Ren Yuhang, general manager of the finance department at Beijing Infrastructure Investment, the city government company charged with financing subway investment, compared such deals to a marriage.北京市基础设施投资公司是负责融资修建地铁的市政府公司,其财政部门总经理任宇航把这样的交易比作婚姻。“It takes a lot of negotiation and compromise,” he said.“这需要大量谈判和妥协,”他说。Xie Hua, a deputy manager at the MTR in charge of business development in China, said local officials often failed to appreciate the long duration of rail partnerships, which can extend to 30 years. Also, some local officials tend to focus too narrowly on just getting money.港铁公司负责中国业务发展的副经理谢华说,当地官员常常不能体会长期铁路合作关系的价值,这种关系可以持续30年之久。此外,一些地方官员往往把目光过于狭隘地集中在赚钱上。Foreign investors bring expertise and they want a say in how a project is run, but local officials often reply that their “biggest problem right now is funding,” Mr. Xie said. “The two sides have mismatched solutions.”境外投资者带来了专业知识,也希望对项目运营拥有一定的话语权。不过,地方官员对此的回答往往是,他们“眼下最大的问题就是融资,”谢华说。“所以双方的解决方式并不对等。”Such experiences, say analysts, could limit the appetite of foreign investors.分析人士称,类似的经历或许会抑制境外投资者的胃口。“The initial wave of all these projects definitely is going to be more suited to the local players,” said Stephen Ip, a partner and the head of government and infrastructure business at KPMG China, based in Shanghai. Foreign investors “can’t really make the leap of faith at the moment.”“第一批这样的项目肯定是更适合当地的参与者,”驻上海的毕马威中国(KPMG China)政府机构和基建行业主管合伙人叶伟成(Stephen Ip)表示。境外投资者“目前并不能放手一搏”。In Weifang, the local government has a list of nearly 70 projects it hopes to finance through the private-partnership model, for a total investment of 124 billion renminbi — about a quarter of the city’s economic output.在潍坊,地方政府列出了一个包含近70个项目的清单,希望通过公私合作模式帮它们筹集1240亿元人民币的总投资。这一金额大约相当于该市经济产出的四分之一。Officials hope the money will help the city cope with rapid transformation. Farmland is giving way to new roads, rail lines and other large-scale infrastructure projects. A huge industrial park on the outskirts of town is busy with construction activity, but it is also dotted with symbols of previous booms that have fizzled.官员希望,这笔钱能够帮助潍坊应对快速的变化。农田正让位于新的道路和铁路线等大规模基础设施建设项目。郊区有一座大型工业园,建设工作开展得如火如荼。不过,这里也不时可以看到之前的几轮开发热潮消退后留下的痕迹。Part of the idea behind bringing in private investment is to help offset a slowdown in other parts of the local economy, including real estate. Evidence of the property market slump can be seen in half-finished projects in the same industrial park, like Jinhe Aristocratic Family, a luxury housing development.引入私人投资的部分想法是要帮忙缓解地方经济中其他一些领域的放缓,包括房地产业。在这座工业园里,就能通过停工的项目看到楼市滑坡的据,比如豪华公寓开发项目“顺德·金和世家”。The six-tower complex was supposed to be completed this year, but the developer ran out of money. Dormant construction cranes tower over the site. Wild grass has since overtaken much of the freshly cleared earth.这片由六栋高楼组成的住宅区本应今年完工,却遭遇了开发商资金枯竭的问题。工地上的起重机处于闲置状态。不久前清理的土地上,不少地方长了野草。“If you are interested, I would suggest you purchase after the construction restarts,” said a lone security guard living at the Jinhe site, declining to give his name.“如果想买,要我说最好等到重新开工以后,”工地上唯一的那名保安说。他不愿透露自己的姓名。The falling property market has cut deeply into local coffers. In Weifang, land sales, which account for a major share of the city’s income, plunged 40 percent last year, according to figures from Deutsche Bank.楼市下滑对地方财政影响巨大。在潍坊,卖地的进账占到全市财政收入的一大块。然而,根据德意志(Deutsche Bank)提供的数据,该市去年的卖地收入大降40%。Weifang officials had some early success in attracting private capital.在吸引私人资金方面,潍坊官员取得了一些初步成就。The new hospital, built with funding from Sunshine Insurance, a company based in Beijing, aims to be the biggest medical facility in Shandong Province. The insurer, which this year spent 0 million to buy the Baccarat Hotel in New York, has local connections. The company’s chairman, Zhang Weigong, is a native of Weifang.那家新医院的建设资金来自阳光保险集团,意图成为山东省内规模最大的医疗机构。阳光保险的总部位于北京,今年耗资2.3亿美元收购了纽约的巴卡拉酒店(Baccarat Hotel)。公司与潍坊有一定的联系——董事长张维功就来自这里。One of the biggest projects in Weifang is the local section of a new high-speed rail line connecting the major cities of Jinan and Qingdao. It is the country’s first high-speed rail project to secure private financing.潍坊规模最大的项目之一是一段高铁线路。这条高铁将把两大城市济南和青岛联接起来,是中国首个得到私人融资的高铁项目。But the definition of private is a bit stretched, in some cases.不过,在部分情况下,“私人”的概念有些扩大了。The Weifang government is responsible for 4 billion renminbi of the 26 billion renminbi budget for the 147-kilometer, or 90-mile, portion that will run through the city. The main outside investor is the Postal Savings Bank of China, a sprawling, state-owned bank. Temasek Holdings, the Singapore state investment firm, has also agreed to participate in funding at the provincial level, according to local officials.这条铁路线的潍坊段长147千米,预算260亿元人民币,而市政府将提供40亿元。主要的外部投资者是庞大的国有企业中国邮政储蓄。根据地方官员的说法,新加坡的国有投资公司淡马锡控股(Temasek Holdings)也同意参与该项目的省级融资。Even if the enthusiasm of private investors fails to keep pace, the force of urbanization seems unlikely to slow.就算私人投资者的热情滞后,城镇化的力量也似乎不可阻挡。In the sleepy village of Beiying on the outskirts of Weifang, a farmer who gave his surname as Pei is worried that the rail project will force him out of his home.在潍坊郊外宁静的北营村,一名裴姓农民担心,高铁项目会让他失去家里的房子。“I was born in this village and have worked as a farmer my whole life,” said Mr. Pei, 50, who grows fruits and vegetables a few hundred yards from where construction on the rail line will start soon. “What else can I do if I don’t farm?”“我生在村里,在这里当了一辈子农民,”50岁的老裴说。他种植蔬果的地方离马上就要开工的高铁工地只有几百米。“不种地我还能干什么去?” /201508/391411

Child abduction alert system防儿童走失系统China#39;s first child abduction alert system, which will close all the exits of a building for 10 minutes to search for missing children, came into force in Nanjing, Jiangsu, on Monday.全国首个防儿童走失系统6月1日在江苏南京正式启用,该系统启动后会关闭建筑物所有出口10分钟,以寻找走失儿童。In addition to exit close, speakers will also broadcast information on the missing children while workers search for the children.除关闭出口外,工作人员在搜寻儿童时,广播还将播放走失儿童的信息。If after 10 minutes the child has not been found, the exits will be reopened and police will begin to investigate the case.如果10分钟内未找到走失儿童,所有出口将再次打开,警方则介入调查。Children often go missing in places of high population density, such as shopping malls, railway stations and amusement parks.儿童容易在购物商场、火车站和游乐园等人口密度高的场所走失。It is reported that around 200,000 children are lost every year in China and many of them get lost in public places.据悉,中国每年大约有20万儿童走失,大部分是在公共场所走失的。 /201506/378560

Tension is growing between employers looking to rein in spending and business travelers who treasure their hard-earned frequent-flier miles. 一些航空公司采取了根据票价而不是距离来奖励乘客的新政策。在航空公司纷纷调整常旅客奖励政策之际,寻求控制出的雇主与珍惜来之不易的里程奖励的员工之间矛盾越来越大。Under new airline policies that reward travelers based on fares, not distance, fliers have incentive to book expensive tickets close to the departure date rather than plan ahead with cheaper advance-purchase itineraries. The Business Travel Coalition, a lobbying group of travel managers and travel agencies, polled 66 industry executives this week and found 84% believe the new way of calculating frequent-flier rewards will lead to higher travel prices. 一些航空公司采取了根据票价而不是距离来奖励乘客的新政策,这些政策或促使旅行者临行前才订购价格昂贵的机票,而不是提前安排行程,预订优惠机票。代表差旅经理和旅行社的游说组织美国商务旅行联盟(Business Travel Coalition)近期对业内66名管理人士进行的调查发现,84%的人认为,计算常旅客奖励的新方式会导致差旅费用增加。Some corporate travel managers suspect travelers are starting to delay bookings or make superfluous trips because airlines have made it tempting to do so. #39;We have people requesting trips they might not have taken in the past,#39; said Kevin Maguire, director of travel for intercollegiate athletics at the University of Texas and a past president of the Global Business Travel Association. #39;And it#39;s going to get worse.#39; He also thinks employees are booking later. 一些公司的差旅经理怀疑,在航空公司新规的诱惑下,旅客会推迟订票或者做出不必要的行程安排。得克萨斯大学(University of Texas)校际运动员旅行事务负责人、全球商务旅行协会(Global Business Travel Association)前总裁凯文·马圭尔(Kevin Maguire)表示:“有人要求安排一些他们过去不会安排的行程。估计情况还会变得更糟。”他还认为现在员工订票比过去晚了。How baited is the hook? Southwest Airlines, which switched to fare-based rewards in 2011, offers 1,847 Rapid Rewards points on its 3 #39;Wanna Get Away#39; discounted fare, and 11,654 points on its ,066 #39;Business Select#39; fare. Pay three times the fare and collect six times the points. 缩水的常旅客里程奖励那么诱惑究竟有多大呢?美国西南航空(Southwest Airlines)2011年将奖励计划调整为与票价挂钩,针对售价353美元的“Wanna Get Away”打折机票的Rapid Rewards计划返点为1,847点,针对售价1,066美元的“Business Select”机票的返点则为11,654点。付三倍的票价就可以获得六倍的返点。Starting next year, Delta Air Lines will pay four times as many SkyMiles on a ,600 ticket as on a 0 ticket. Today, it awards miles based mostly on distance. Even JetBlue Airways has changed its calculations, giving three points per dollar spent, plus bonuses for booking directly with JetBlue and for extra-legroom fares. 从明年开始,在达美航空公司(Delta Air Lines)购买售价1,600美元的机票,可获得相当于400美元机票四倍的飞凡里程常客计划(SkyMiles)返点。该公司现在主要根据飞行距离来奖励里程。就连捷蓝航空(JetBlue Airways)也改变了计算方法,在该公司每花一美元购票,可获得三点返点,另外,直接在捷蓝航空订票或者订购加长空间座位还可获得额外奖励。Most businesses let employees keep frequent-flier miles or rewards accrued on business trips, a perk of being away from home that travelers care passionately about. High status brings upgrades and smoother travel. Any move by companies to claim the miles would touch off a backlash, industry executives say. 多数公司都允许员工保留常旅客里程或者在商务旅行中累积的奖励,而员工也非常看重这项出差带来的福利。等级较高的常旅客计划会员可以享受升舱,旅途也更为舒适。业内管理人士称,公司一旦采取行动收回里程奖励,就会招致激烈反对。Steve Howarth, a quality-control expert from Salt Lake City, travels to inspect facilities for clients and is easily within Delta#39;s highest frequent-flier status, called Diamond. He got an email from the airline saying based on his past trips he is likely to end up with more miles under the new plan. Flight by flight, Mr. Howarth compared his 2014 miles so far with miles he would expect to get under the 2015 rules at the same fares. The result, covering a period of almost four months: a 19,000-mile reduction, or about 20% less. He expects to spend his own money more often for tickets for his four children on family trips. 来自盐湖城的质控专家史蒂夫·豪沃思(Steve Howarth)经常到各地出差,为客户检查设备,他轻松成为达美航空级别最高的 石卡(Diamond)会员。豪沃思收到达美航空的一封电子邮件称,根据他过去的行程,在新规下他有望获得更多里程奖励。于是豪沃思把他2014年以来历次飞行累积的里程数与2015年新规下相同票价的累积里程数逐一对比。结果显示,在将近四个月的时间段中:累积里程数减少了19,000英里,降幅约为20%。他估计今后在家庭旅行时,他要更多地为四个孩子的机票自掏腰包了。Anthony Black, a Delta spokesman, said although the airline will issue fewer miles under the redesigned program, it will make more award tickets available at lower mileage redemption levels. So while Mr. Howarth will earn fewer miles, he#39;ll spend fewer miles to get free tickets. Miles will become more valuable and travelers like Mr. Howarth will have an easier time claiming awards, Mr. Black said. 达美航空的发言人安东尼·布莱克(Anthony Black)说,根据新计划,虽然里程奖励减少了,但该公司也针对较低的里程兑换等级推出了更多奖励机票。也就是说,虽然豪沃思获得的里程奖励减少了,但他用较少的里程数就能兑换到免费机票。布莱克说,里程会变得更有价值,而像豪沃思这样的乘客领取奖励会变得更轻松。#39;The 2015 SkyMiles program isn#39;t intended to change the behavior of a corporate or business traveler or to direct them to more expensive fares,#39; he said. #39;It will benefit the traveler who often is unable to book lower fares that require an advance purchase or who must book flights that have only higher classes of service available.#39; 他说:“2015年的飞凡里程常客计划不是要改变公司或商务旅行者的行为,也不是要诱导他们购买更贵的机票。新政策将有利于那些经常因没有提前预定而买不到优惠机票或者必须购买仅有更高等级舱位航班的旅客。”Mr. Howarth says he is #39;not real happy#39; about the changes but will continue to seek discounted business-travel fares. Trying to fly on more-expensive fares, he says, #39;really is up to the individual and their integrity.#39; 豪沃思说,他“其实并不乐意”看到政策的变化,但他会继续在商务旅行时寻找打折机票。他说,买不买更贵的机票“其实取决于个人和他们的诚信度”。The Business Travel Coalition survey found 82% of travel executives believe the new incentives will make it harder to get employees to adhere to corporate travel policies. Kevin Mitchell, the coalition#39;s chairman, thinks companies will police travel spending more, track which employees book trips close to departure and force more high-level approval for expensive tickets. #39;I think this is a big move,#39; he said. 商务旅行联盟的调查发现,82%的差旅管理者认为,新的奖励规定会导致员工更难遵守公司的差旅政策。该机构主席凯文·米切尔(Kevin Mitchell)认为,公司会更加严格地监督差旅出,追踪哪些员工在临行前订票,并要求员工购买高价机票时须经过更多的高层审批。他说:“我认为这是一项重大的变化。”Yet some of the biggest abusers historically have been senior executives, Mr. Mitchell said. Word gets around. #39;It all gets down to: What#39;s in it for me?#39; he said. 但米切尔说,从过去的情况来看,违规最严重的恰恰是高管。他表示,说来说去,“一切都归结为:新规对我有什么好处?”Other airlines are expected to follow Southwest, Delta and JetBlue into revenue-based frequent-flier rewards. After all, it#39;s the fares that matter most to airlines, and they say they want to give their best rewards to their best customers. 预计其他航空公司也会效仿美国西南航空、达美航空和捷蓝航空的做法,采取基于运营收入的常旅客奖励政策。毕竟,对航空公司来说最重要的是票价,而航空公司表示,他们想把最好的奖励授予最好的顾客。Southwest#39;s average fare has risen 19% over the past three years -- faster than the rest of the industry. The airline says there are many reasons for the rise, including the addition to its network of more long flights that cost more. But the frequent-flier change has led to more purchases of higher fares. #39;The program is contributing to that but is not the largest driver,#39; a Southwest spokesman said. The airline has found customers are #39;willing to pay more#39; to get points, he added. 美国西南航空的平均票价在过去三年里上涨了19%——增速比业内其他公司快。该公司称,票价上涨有很多原因,其中之一是公司在网络中增加了更多费用较高的长途航班。但常旅客计划的调整也导致乘客更多地购买价格较高的机票。美国西南航空一名发言人称:“常旅客计划是原因之一,但不是最重要的原因。”他补充称,公司发现,顾客“愿意花更多钱”来获得点数奖励。Airline incentives to accumulate points are more powerful than hotel and car-rental loyalty programs, which have always based points on dollars. Several airlines have added spending requirements to qualify for elite-level status. That means reaching gold, platinum or higher isn#39;t just a matter of how many miles you fly or flights you take. Carriers sometimes exclude frequent-flier rewards on low international fares; if you want to earn miles, you have to buy a higher fare. 航空公司的点数累积奖励政策比酒店或租车公司的客户忠诚计划力度更大。酒店和租车公司一直都将返点与消费金额挂钩。有几家航空公司提高了取得精英等级的出要求。这就意味着,要达到金卡、白金卡会员或更高等级,不能只看你飞了多少里程或乘坐了多少个航班。航空公司有时候不累积低价国际机票的常旅客奖励里程;如果你想赢得更多里程数,就得购买较贵的机票。Corporate travel managers set policies specifying preferred airlines, hotels and car-rental companies, plus limits on business-class and first-class bookings, whether the lowest fare must be selected and whether travelers have to make a connection to get a better fare or can fly on more-expensive nonstop flights. Airlines sign contracts with companies for loyalty, offering travel managers ticket discounts and upgrades to dole out, in exchange for a percentage of the company#39;s bookings overall and on specific routes. 公司的差旅经理制定政策,指定优先选择哪些航空公司、酒店和租车公司,限制商务舱和头等舱机票的订购。他们还就是否必须选择最低票价,是选择需要转机的路线以获得更优惠机票还是选择票价较贵的直飞航班等问题做出规定。为赢得客户的忠诚,航空公司会与企业签订合同,提供机票折扣和升舱机会供差旅经理分配,并从企业手中获得一定比例的订单和特定路线订单。Travelers often break policies when they book, though. A Global Business Travel Association study in February found 59% of business travelers went out of policy on at least one major expense during their most recent trip. Out-of-policy bookings typically were 14% more expensive, the study found. These expenses may be legitimate. An expensive flight might be needed to make a last-minute meeting on time. 不过,商务旅行人士在订票时经常会违反政策。全球商务旅行协会2月份一项研究发现,59%的商务旅行者在最近一次行程中至少有一项重大花销违反了规定。研究发现,违规订购的票价一般要贵14%。不过,这些花费也可能是合情合理的。比方说,要想准时出席临时召开的会议,就有可能需要购买价格昂贵的机票。Robin Whitley, who works for the U.S. government in England, travels often around the world for business plus personal trips home to California. She has top-tier status on both American and Delta. Her office insists on booking the lowest fare. But, like many travelers, she#39;ll sometimes tweak her schedule to get the flights she wants, such as adding a Saturday night stay so a Delta or American fare becomes lower or comparable to another airline. 美国政府驻英国的工作人员罗宾·惠特利(Robin Whitley)经常在世界各地出差,并因私回加州的家。她在美国航空(American)和达美航空都享有最高会员级别。她的办公室要求订购价格最低的机票。但和许多旅行者一样,有时候她会稍稍调整一下自己的时间安排,以搭乘她想订的航班,比如周六晚上多住一晚,这样一来,达美航空或美国航空的票价就会比另一家航空公司低,或者与之相当了。She figures next year she#39;ll get only about 60% of the miles she currently gets on Delta due to the change. #39;I#39;m not going to pay ,500 to fly across the Atlantic,#39; she said. Still, she knows many frequent fliers obsess over miles and will find ways to maximize benefits under the new rules. #39;It is going to change the face of the game,#39; she said. 她发现,政策调整后,明年她在达美航空就只能累积相当于现在60%左右的里程了。她说:“我是不会花3,500美元从英国飞到加州的。”不过,她知道许多常旅客很在乎里程数,他们会在新规下想方设法实现利益的最大化。她说:“这会改变游戏的格局。” /201404/287331

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