明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年03月19日 09:17:19
When you are traveling solo, it’s not always a breeze to strike up a conversation with a stranger.独自旅行时,与陌生人攀谈并不总是那么容易。In fact, how do you meet other single travelers or locals in the first place? And if you’re looking for friendship — or even something more — how do you ensure that amid all the fun you don’t neglect to take safety precautions?实际上,第一个问题是:你如何遇到其他单身旅行者或当地人?如果你想交个朋友——甚至谈场恋爱——你怎么确保在享乐的同时没有忽视安全防范?Before we get to tactics, it’s helpful to know that you are likely to be rewarded for overcoming apprehensions about approaching someone new when you’re on the road.在我们讲述具体策略之前,知道下面这一点可能会对你有所帮助:在旅途中克接近陌生人的恐惧很可能会给你带来回报。“Its easy to imagine all the ways things will go badly or believe that this person doesn’t want to connect,” said Nicholas Epley, a professor of behavioral science at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. But if you reach out, he continued, “almost everybody reaches back.”“人们很容易去想像各种尴尬场面,或者认为对方不想交谈,”芝加哥大学布思商学院的行为科学教授尼古拉斯·埃普利(Nicholas Epley)说。他继续说道,但是如果你主动攀谈,“几乎所有人都会回应”。Social scientists have found that making such connections, whether traveling or not, boosts happiness, and yet strangers in proximity “routinely ignore each other,” as Dr. Epley and his colleague Juliana Schroeder put it in the Journal of Experimental Psychology last year. During a series of nine experiments, they saw again and again that we underestimate other people’s interest in connecting.社会科学家们发现,不管在旅行中还是平时,进行这样的交往能增加幸福感,不过就像埃普利士和同事朱莉安娜·施罗德(Juliana Schroeder)去年在《实验心理学杂志》上说的那样,离得很近的陌生人“通常会忽略彼此”。在一系列九个实验中,他们一再发现,我们低估了其他人的交往兴趣。How to break the ice then? Dr. Epley suggests simply saying to that stranger on the bus or in the cafe: “Hi, I’m visiting. Can you tell me what I ought to see in town?”那么如何打破沉默呢?埃普利士建议,只用在公交车上或咖啡馆里对陌生人简单地说:“嗨,我正在旅行。你能告诉我城里有哪些地方一定得去看看吗?”“Everybody loves to brag about their city,” he said.“谁都喜欢吹捧自己所在的城市,”他说。Or offer a compliment, he suggested. “I think you’re just best off in your relationships if you’re transparent with people.” (This is not to gloss over any genuine concerns about talking to strangers, Dr. Epley said. But we’ll address those in a bit.)他的另一个建议是赞美对方。“我觉得,只要你真诚待人,就一定会在人际交往中如鱼得水。”(埃普利士说,这么说不是为了掩饰与陌生人交谈的真正隐患。不过我们一会儿再讨论那些问题。)As experienced solo travelers know, opportunities for pleasurable connections are everywhere: trains, planes, parks, bars, museums, walking tours, group hikes. Yet should all that fail, technology provides seemingly innumerable ways to increase the odds. Obviously dating websites and apps like OkCupid and Tinder can facilitate in-person get-togethers around the world. Yet the travel industry has its own tools, designed not specifically for romance, but for friendship.经验丰富的单身旅行者都知道,到处都有跟人愉快交往的机会:火车上、飞机上、公园里、酒吧里、物馆里、徒步游览或集体远足时。但是如果这些都没给你带来机会,那么科技似乎能给你提供无数交往机会。显然,OkCupid和Tinder这样的交友网站和应用程序为在世界各地当面聚会提供了便利。但是旅游业也有自己的工具,不是专为恋爱设计的,而是为友谊设计的。I’ve previously written about some of these websites and apps, including Highlight and Planely. The app Skout enables travelers to meet locals or one another wherever they are, be it a concert in London or a soccer game in Barcelona. More recently there’s Tripr, which allows travelers to find others who will be in the same place. But if you’re seeking a like-minded companion, a couple of veteran sites deserve another look.我之前写过这样一些网站和应用程序,包括Highlight和Planely。应用程序Skout能让旅行者与当地人或其他游客相聚——不管是在伦敦的一场音乐会上,还是巴塞罗那的一场足球赛上。Tripr是一款较新的应用程序,它能让将去同一个地方的旅行者找到彼此。但是如果你想寻找志同道合的旅伴,有几个老网站值得你再去看看。Unlike a lot of start-ups aimed at connecting travelers, Couchsurfing.com was founded in 2004 and has grown to some nine million members. You may know it as the purview of frugal travelers who see the world by sleeping on the couches and air mattresses of strangers, but it’s also a great way to meet other solo travelers and locals — even if you don’t crash on their couches. Some 120,000 cities worldwide offer weekly Couchsurfing art gallery tours, hikes, dinners or gatherings in coffee shops and bars. (Becoming a member of the site is free.)与很多旨在把旅行者联系在一起的新应用程序不同,Couchsurfing.com成立于2004年,已拥有约900万会员。你可能以为它只是给穷游者用的,他们通过在陌生人家的沙发或充气床垫上过夜来游览世界,但实际上它也是结识其他单身旅行者和当地人的好办法——即便你不在他们的沙发上睡觉。全世界约有12万个城市每周都举办Couchsurfing艺术馆参观、远足活动、咖啡馆和酒吧聚餐或聚会(你可以免费成为该网站的会员)。In addition to joining events, you can also reach out to other members who have set their “hosting availability” status to “wants to meet up,” meaning that while their couch is unavailable, they’re happy to meet for coffee or be a resource while you’re visiting their city.除了参加这些活动,你还可以联系那些把“招待”状态设定为“想会面”的会员,意思是虽然他们不提供沙发,但他们很乐意跟你一起喝个咖啡,或者在你去他们所在的城市旅行时为你指点一二。Another digital stalwart is VirtualTourist.com, which offers tips and reviews from fellow globe trekkers and has been around since 1999. That means you’ll find a true online community, a deep well of people with whom to interact. Members have profiles that may include photos, their hometown, travel interests and where they’ve been. Each member’s travel tips are tied to his or her profile, and should you like what you or have questions, you can message the user. Who knows, maybe you’ll even get together offline. Once you’re on the ground in a city, you can meet dozens of people at once by attending a cocktail hour, group run, or tour through the worldwide events site Meetup.com.另一个资深网站是1999年创建的VirtualTourist.com,它提供全球旅行者的小贴士和。那意味着你将找到一个真正的在线社区,遇到一大群可以交流的人。会员档案可能包括照片、故乡、旅行兴趣和去过的地方。每个会员的旅行贴士都是和他/她的档案连在一起的。如果你看到喜欢的内容或者有些疑问,可以给那个用户发消息。谁知道呢,你们也许甚至会在线下见面。你每到一个城市,只要参加全球活动网站Meetup.com组织的鸡尾酒会、集体跑步或游览,就能一下子遇到几十个人。While meeting someone new is exciting and can be deeply fulfilling, such overtures must be balanced with safety measures. Even Couchsurfing, which refers to strangers as “friends you haven’t met yet,” has a page devoted to safety, warning members to trust their instincts (“If a person, situation or profile seems unsafe for any reason, move on. Don’t worry about seeming rude”) and know their limits (“Partying like a rock star might be fun, but it puts your safety and well-being in the hands of others”). For women, especially, the site advises being educated about your destination’s cultural and religious norms and to “be clear about your boundaries and don’t be shy about stating them.”虽然结识新朋友令人兴奋,让人很有成就感,但同时也要注意安全。Couchsurfing网站把陌生人称为“你尚未见面的朋友”,甚至连它也有个页面专门讲述安全问题,提醒会员相信自己的直觉(“如果某个人、某种情况或者某人的档案因为任何原因让你觉得不安全,那么赶紧离开。不要担心自己显得很粗鲁”),知道自己的底线(“在派对上像摇滚明星那样玩可能很有趣,但也会把你的安全和健康置于他人手中”)。该网站特别建议女性了解目的地的文化和宗教习惯,“清楚自己的底线,不要羞于表明自己的态度”。At the same time, Dr. Epley said most people are not interested in taking advantage of you. “The person who wants to take advantage of you wants to find you immediately,” he explained. It’s different when you’re the one who decides to initiate a conversation. “When there’s random selection, you don’t have that risk of being targeted,” he said.不过,埃普利士说,大部分人没兴趣占你的便宜。“想占你便宜的人会立刻找上你,”他解释说。而当你是主动攀谈的那个人时,情况就不同了。“如果是随机选择,你就没有被盯上的风险,”他说。Solo travelers are often told to keep friends and loved ones informed about where they’re going and when (including the time they expect to return), know which neighborhoods to avoid, and learn local emergency numbers. Additionally, consider registering with the nearest ed States Embassy or consulate at Step.state.gov/step. This allows the embassy to reach you in an emergency (natural disaster, civil unrest) and family and friends to contact you if there’s an emergency.单身旅行者大多都知道,要让朋友和爱人知道自己的目的地和到达时间(包括期望返回的时间),要知道提防哪些邻居,要知道当地的应急号码。另外,你可以考虑在Step.state.gov/step上向最近的美国大使馆或领事馆进行登记。这样,大使馆可以在紧急情况(自然灾害、社会动乱)下通知你,你的家人和朋友也可以通过大使馆联系你。You may also want to memorize words such as “help,” “police” and “fire” in the local language, and have a plan for how you’ll get back to your hotel anytime you’re out after dark. If you are in a place where there’s no mass transit or if mass transit is not safe at night, have the number of a taxi service with you. If you use Uber, make sure the photo of the driver that appears on the app matches the face of the person who picks you up. Also, the Uber app has a “Share my ETA” option that allows you to send someone your whereabouts and estimated arrival time. (Before I even get into a car I send the driver’s name, car make and my destination to a friend or family member.)你可能也需要记住用当地语言怎么说“救命”、“警察”和“失火啦”,想好天黑后如何返回酒店。如果你去的地方没有公共交通工具,或者公共交通在晚上不安全,随身带上一家出租车公司的电话号码。如果你用Uber打车,要看清来接你的人和应用程序上司机的照片是否相符。Uber应用程序也有“分享我的预计到达时间”这个选项,你可以把你的行踪和预计到达时间发给某个朋友(我甚至在上车前就把司机姓名、车的品牌和目的地发给一个朋友或家人)。The fear of strangers has deep evolutionary roots. Do not, Dr. Epley said, disregard your intuition. “Our research does not suggest that you should talk to everybody that you meet or that you should have the volume turned up to 11 in all your social interactions,” he said. It’s just that for most of us, “the dial for engaging others seems set a little too low. Nudge it up.”对陌生人的恐惧有深刻的进化根源。埃普利士说,不要忽视你的直觉。他说,“我们的研究并不是建议你与所有遇到的人攀谈,或者在所有社会交往中过度投入”,只是我们大多数人“与他人交往的信心似乎有点不足。鼓起勇气!” /201502/359168

Chinese cuisine is noted for the following characteristics:中国菜肴具有以下有名的特点:Vegetables are the main ingredients.蔬菜是主要配料。This explains why most Chinese women are slim and men free of cardiovascular diseases. This is because in China an there is a traditional respell for land. As the old saying goes agricultural country,Live on the mountain if you live in one and live on water if you live by water.”The Chinese are meticulous about food preparation. Whether the ingredients they use are pastries or vegetables,they always try to make the dishes tasty. For example,beans,a tommon vegetable,are exquisitely prepared into such delicious dishes as bean sprouts and bean curd.这就是中国妇女十分苗条而男子不用担心得心血管疾病的原因。中国作为一个农业国家,对土地有着传统的敬仰。正如一句老话所说的:“靠山吃山,靠水吃水。”中国人对于食物的烹制十分讲究。无论是糕点还是蔬菜,他们总是力图将其做得美味可口。例如,豆子这种普通的蔬菜就精致地做成了诸如豆芽和豆腐等美味的菜肴。The Chinese people like well prepared food.中国人喜欢精心烹制的食物。To facilitate food absorption and digestion,they are scrupulous about the temperature while cooking. Undercooked food is unacceptable to them. To the Chinese,the sight of Westerners eating undercooked steaks still oozing blood inside is horrible. In addition,warm soup is very important. Wonton,or dumpling soup,and noodles are popular nationwide. Other hot soups include jellied bean curd,rice porridge and corn porridge.为了便于食物的消化和吸收,中国人注重烹饪时的温度。对于他们来说,没有烧熟的食物是难以下咽的。当中国人看到外国人吃着渗着血的半熟牛排时会觉得十分恶心。此外,热汤也是极为重要的。馄饨汤或饺子汤以及面条都在全国深受欢迎。其他热汤包括豆腐脑、米粥以及玉米粥。Chinese also like to eat together,a tradition that can be traced back a long time ago.中国人还喜欢在一起吃饭,这个传统可以追溯到很久之前。It reflects the Chinese notion of union versus division round tables,round dishes,and round bowls all syriibolize union and perfection. Dishes are usually placed at the center of the table so that everyone around the table can share them. A hot pot, in particular, adds to the atmosphere of harmony and union. Friends eat and live together. A recent book by an American Sinologist held that the Chinese collective tradition developed out of the practice of eating together.这反映出中国人喜欢团圆不愿分离的观念—圆桌、圆盘、还有圆碗都象征着团圆和美满。盘子通常放在桌子的中央,这样坐在桌子面前的所有人都可以吃得到。一锅热汤尤其可以增加和谐、团圆的气氛。朋友们在一起吃饭、生活。最近一位美国汉学家的著作认为,中国人的集体观念就是从一同吃饭发展而来的。 /201506/378438

When a person meets you for the first time they ask themselves two questions. The answers to these two questions will have all sorts of knock-on effects for how they think about you and how they behave towards you。当别人与你第一次见面,他们都会问自己两个问题。这两个问题所得出决定了他们对你的看法和行动。Professor Susan Fiske of Princeton University has shown that all social judgements can be boiled down to these two dimensions:普林斯顿大学教授苏珊·菲斯克通过研究各种社会性判断,得出这些判断都能被总结成以下两个问题:1.How warm is this person?这个人有多热情?The idea of warmth includes things like trustworthiness, friendliness, helpfulness, sociability and so on. Initial warmth judgements are made within a few seconds of meeting you。热情的定义包括可信度、友好度、有益性、社交性等等。这种最初的热情与否的判断在你与他人见面后几秒钟内就能得到。2.How competent is this person?这个人有没有能力?Competency judgements take longer to form and include things like intelligence, creativity, perceived ability and so on。能力的判断需要花更长的时间来得出,能力包括了智力、创造力和领悟力等等。Susan Fiske#39;s research has looked at different cultures, times and types of social judgements, but these two concepts come up again and again in slightly different guises. Not only do we make these judgements about other people, but we frame their behaviour using these two questions。苏珊·菲斯克教授的研究涵盖了不同的文化、不同的时代和不同类型的社会性判断,即使有细微差别,但是这两个问题一再地在研究中出现。我们不但通过这两个问题来判断别人,而且会做出相应的行为动作。The primacy of warmth and competence may reflect evolved, instinctual reactions to these two questions about others:关于热情和能力的最基本的判断会让我们做出直觉的反应,从而引申出下面的两个问题:1.Friend or foe? Is this person going to hurt me or help me?是敌是友?这个人是来害我的还是来助我的?2.Capable of hurting or helping? Can this person help me if they#39;re friendly or hurt me if they#39;re not?能不能害我/帮我?如果来人是友好的,能不能帮我?如果来者不善,会不会害我?How warm and competent do other people find you? You probably know quite well how other people view you。别人是如何看待你的?有多热情?有多少能力?你可能知道得很清楚。 /201507/386174

  China#39;s Ancient Clothing中国的古代装China#39;s traditional clothing is characterized as magnificent, as shown in ceremonies and court, and grand and exerts immense influence on the neighboring countries. An outstanding characteristic of traditional Chinese clothing is not only an external expression of elegance,but also an internal symbolism. Each and every piece of traditional clothing communicates a sense of vitality of its own intrinsically. Such a perfect combination of external form with internal symbolism of clothing is clearly exemplified in the pair of fighting pheasant feathers used in head wear originating in the battle wear of the Warring States period(475一221 ).Two feathers of a ho bird(a type pheasant good at fighting)were inserted into the helmet wom by warriors of this period to symbolize a bold and warlike spirit.中国传统衣着的特点是华丽。中国的传统衣着的一大显著特点就在于它不仅表现出外在的典雅,而且还具有内在的象征意义。每一件传统装都传递出其自身所具有的内在活力感。从人们所佩带的一副难鸡羽毛中,就可以体现出这种饰的外在形式与内在象征的完美结合。这起源于战国时代(前475一前221年)战斗时的习俗。因为在当时如果将两片凤鸟(这是一种非常擅长战斗的难鸟)的羽毛插在武士所佩戴的头盔上的话,便可以以此来象征大无畏的尚武精神。According to archaeological findings,18 000-year-old artifacts such as bone sewing needles and stone beads and shells with holes bored in them attest to the existence of ornamentation and of sewing early in ancient Chinese civilization. Variety in clothing was roughly established by the era of the Yellaw Emperor and the Emperors Yao and Shun(about 4 500 years ago).Remains of woven silk and hemp articles and ancient ceramic figures further demonstrate the sophistication and refinement of clothing in the Shang Dynasty( 16th to I 1 th century ).根据考古学的发现,18 000年前的文化遗迹中有诸如骨针和穿孔的石珠和贝壳,它们都明了在中国古代文明很早的时候装饰和缝纫就已经存在了。而到了黄帝和尧舜时代(大约距今4 500年前),装的品种已经初具规模。丝麻织物的残片和古代的陶俑进一步表明商代(公元前16至公元前11世纪)装的精密程度和优雅程度。The three main types of traditional Chinese clothing are the pien-fu,the ch#39;ang-p#39;ao,and the shen-i. The plan-fu is an ancient two-piece ceremonial costume of a tunic-like top extending to the knees and a skirt or trousers extending to the ankles. The ch#39;ang-p#39;ao is a one-piece garment extending from the shoulders all the way to the heels. The shen-i is a cross between the pies and the ch#39;angp#39;ao;on the one hand,it consists of a tunic and a skirt or trousers like the pierfu, on the other hand,the tunic and the skirt are sewed together and essentially one piece like the ch#39;ang-p#39;ao. Consequently, the shen-i was the most widely worn of the three types. Typical of these three types of clothing were wide and voluminous sleeves and a very loose fit. Tunic and trousers or tunic and skirt,utilized a very small number of stitches for the amount of cloth used. So because of their relatively plain design and structure,embroidered edgings,decorated bands,draped cloth or silks,patterns on the shoulders,and sashes were often added as ornaments. Variety in designs came to be one of the unique features of traditional Chinese dress.传统的中国装可以分为弃、长袍以及深衣三种。弃是一种分为上衣和下裳的古代装束,它的上衣类似于束腰外衣并且长至膝盖,而其下裳则为裙子或裤子并长至脚躁。长袍则是由肩部到脚踵的单件外衣。深衣则是介于弃和长袍两者之间的另一种装,它一方面由束腰上衣和裙子或裤子组成,这一点和弃很像;而另一方面束腰_r_衣和裙子缝合在一起;实际上就像长袍一样是单件外衣。因此,深衣是这三种装中使用最广泛的一种。这三种装的典型特征就是宽大的袖子和宽松的腰身。无论是采用束腰外衣和裤子组合还是束腰外衣和裙子组合,它们相对于所使用的布料量而言都尽可能少地使用针脚数量。由于它们的设计和结构相对比较朴素,因此它们经常绣上花边、饰以镶边、辅以褶皱布料或丝料、肩部加上图案花样、并配上腰带。这些不同的式样便成为中国传统装的一个特殊之处。Darker colors were favored over lighter ones in traditional Chinese clothing,so the main color of ceremonial clothing tended to be dark while bright,elaborate tapestry designs actented. Lighter colored clothing was worn more frequently by the common people for everyday life and around the house use. The Chinese associate certain colors with specific seasons:green represents spring,red symbolizes summer, white represents autumn,and black symbolizes winter. The Chinese are said to have a fully developed system of matching,coordinating,and contrasting colors in apparel.中国的传统装对暗色调的偏好程度要大于亮色调,因此礼的主色调往往采用暗色调,然后辅之以精巧的亮色调织锦式样。普通百姓平常生活和在家附近则通常穿亮色调的装。中国人将某些色与特定的季节联系在一起:绿色代表春天,红色代表夏天,白色代表秋天,而黑色则代表冬天。据说,中国人已经拥有一整套对装颜色进行搭配、协调和对比的方法了。China#39;s Modern Clothing中国的近代装After the 1911 Revolution,the garments changed greatly,and the dresses and the official cap were eliminated. Particularly,hair plaits were cut off, but chi-pao(one-piece mandarin robe)still exist. The Blue Short Gown of schoolgirls was the main style,and it gradually became popular.自从1911年辛亥革命以来,外套便产生了巨大的变化,同时装和官员所戴的帽子均被废除。尤其是剪掉了辫子,但是旗袍(单件式满清官袍)依然保留了下来。女学生所穿的蓝色短袍成为主流款式,并且这逐渐流行起来。The government specified the system of formal dresses of men and women in the first year of the Republic of China. Men had dress suits and routine suits. Dress suits included day suit and evening suit,which were all made of black cloth,trousers and cravats. Routine suits included Western style and Chinese style(e. g. long gown and mandarin jacket).The formal dress of women had collars and was long to the knees with buttons down the front. Skirts were decorated with cartouches in the front and back,both sides were sewn with pleats,and both ends had patterns of knots.在中华民国元年,当时政府规定了男子和女子的正式着装制度。男子可以穿着礼和常。礼又包括午和晚礼,两者均包括黑色衣、裤子以及领结。常则包括西式和中式两种(即长袍和马褂)。妇女所穿着的正式装则带领子而且长至膝盖,并在前侧下方缀有纽扣。裙子上配有装饰镜板,同时两侧均缝有褶皱,两端则采用打结式样。Along with the emergence of cinema,film stars became eminent figures gradually. Shanghai City became the base camp of women#39;s wear in China. The garments of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong became one of the branches of Shanghai City garments随着电影院的兴起,电影明星也逐渐成为显赫的人物。上海市成为中国妇女饰的大本营。广东省和香港的外衣则成为海派外衣的一。Changes of Men#39;s and Women#39;s Costume男子和妇女装的变迁Men wore western-style clothes and Sun Yat-sen#39;s uniform(Chinese tunic suit ) . These two styles of clothes were foreign styles,and most officials and intel lectuals more usually wore them. White garments were worn in the summer, but black or dark garments were worn in other seasons. The style with a mandarin jacket over a long gown was still one of the common dressing styles. The student#39;s clothing with erect collar .three pockets and seven buttons were mainly the uniform and women included a jacket and trousers or covered with a ramie skirt(long or short small skirt fastened on body ).男子穿着西式装和中山装。这两种风格的装均为西式装,大多数官员和知识分子通常都穿着这些装。在夏天穿着白色外衣,但在其他季节则穿着黑色或暗色调外衣。在长袍上穿马褂依然是常见的穿着风格。学生的装则采用立领、三个口袋以及七粒纽扣,这主要是大学和学院的学生所穿的装。此外,农村男女的普通穿着方式是一件短褂加一条裤子,或是在裤子外面再罩上竺麻裙子(系在身上的小裙子,可长可短)。Women#39;s costume changed greatly during the period,some kept the Qing Dynasty(1644一1912)style of trousers and clothes with curving front,some imitated western-style with a jacket and a skirt,most schoolgirls wore black silk skirts and short jackets that had a round lower hem and short sleeves to elbow. The common garments of social women were mainly Chi-pao.妇女的装发生了巨大的变化,有些保留了清朝(1644一1912 )的裤子和衣式样,它们前侧采用了弧形造型,有些则仿照了西式装并采用短褂加裙子,大多数女学生则穿着黑色的丝裙和短上衣,并且在下方有个圆形的褶边,它的袖子较短只及肘部。社交女性的普通外衣则主要采用旗袍。The overall tendency of new garments was divided into two types:one type was the long Chi-paos made of solid-color cloth or printed materials;characteristi-tally, laces or patterns were added to the edges,or the small waistcoat and silk scarves were over the jacket. As to the other dressing type,the upper garment and lower skirt were separated.新式外衣的整体倾向可以分为两种类型:一类是长旗袍,它由纯色布料或印花布料所制成;它的特点是在边上加花边或图案,或是在短褂上罩小马甲和丝巾。至于另一种穿着类型,则分别穿着上衣和裙子。In the 1920s,people began to wear Chi-pao whose style was mostly the same as that of the Qizhuang garments(garments of banner men)existing at the end of the QingDynasty. Later,the cuff was reduced gradually,and embroidered border was not as broad as the previous one. By the end of the 1920s,dressing style was affected by that of Europe and America,and the pattern of chipao was changed significantly. By the early 19306,Chi-pao had been very popular. The main changes of garments in that time were the modifications of collar, sleeve and length,etc. The garments with high collar were popular at first,and the higher the collar, the more popular. Gradual1y,garments with low collars began to be popular,and the lower the collar,the more modern. Finally,people wore collarless and sleeveless Chi-pao.到了上世纪20年代,人们开始穿着旗袍,它的风格基本上与清末的旗装(旗人的外衣)是一样的。之后,旗袍的袖口便逐渐收小,而且绣边也不像之前那么宽了。到了上世纪20年代末,装式样受到了欧美的影响,而旗袍的式样也发生了巨大的变化。到了上世纪30年代初,旗袍已经极为流行了。当时外衣的主要变化是对领口、袖子以及长度等进行了修改。高领外衣起初十分流行,而且领口越高越流行。低领外衣逐渐开始风靡,而且领口越低越时髦。最后,人们开始穿着无领、无袖的旗袍了。Influence of Foreign Costume西方装的影响With the inflow of foreign goods into China,western life styles penetrated into the society. Women living in Chinese big cities often attended social activities in the 19305一19405. All this resulted into the change of social morals accordingly. Women wore the western-style clothing and skirt together with glass and watch,and sunshade in hands,looking more modern and romantic. The modem fashion-able dress of Europe and Japan affected Chinese women in terms of short skirts, underwear and colors, etc. More and more women began to imitate ahem,and some e}len imitated the simple dressing style of America. Ladies who liked sports always wore red pleated skirts and used brassiere to replace the old-time bellyband (an undervvear that was made of red embroidery cloth and hung from the neck with gold or silver chains,it came down from ancient times).In addition,women#39;s one-piece dress was more popular. During the 19205一19405,fur coats were still popular in rich families.随着西方商品进人中国,西方的生活方式开始渗透社会。居住在大城市中的妇女在上世纪30年代至40年代经常参加社交活动。所有这些导致社会道德出现了相应变化。妇女们穿着西式的衣和裙子,戴着眼镜和手表,手里打着太阳伞,看上去更加时髦、浪漫。欧洲和日本近代的流行装在短裙、内衣以及颜色等方面对中国妇女产生了影响。越来越多的妇女开始对此进行模仿,有些妇女甚至模仿美国简约的着装风格。喜爱运动的妇女经常穿着红色褶皱裙并用文胸来取代之前所使用的肚兜(一种用红色刺绣布料制成的内衣并用金、银锁链悬挂在颈部,它自从古代便一直得以使用)。此外,女式单件装也更加流行。在20世纪20年代至40年代,毛皮大衣在富裕家庭中依然十分盛行。Today#39;s Clothing如今的装China#39;s fashion designers use a mixture of traditional and modern ideas to create new fashions. These new fashions also incorporate age-old motifs such as guardian deities, lions,and masks of Chinese opera characters. Chinese bronze is another source of printed,woven,and embroidered design for clothes. Some of the distinctive designs include dragons,phoenixes,clouds,and lightning. Motifs from traditional Chinese painting also end up in woven or printed fashion designs.中国的时装设计师运用了各种传统和现代理念来创造出新的时装。这些新式时装还加入了古老的图案,例如守护神、狮子以及中国京剧人物所使用的面具。装上还印上、织上或缝上中国青铜器的图案。某些独特的设计图案包括龙、凤、云以及闪电。传统中国画中的图案也被编织或印在时装设计中。Many accessories such as macrame are used to decorate shoulders, bodices, pockets, seams,and openings of clothing,as well as belts,hair ornaments,and necklaces. Some successful examples of combinations of modern and traditional fashion elements are the modern bridal tiara,based on a Sung Dynasty design and the Hunan Province style of embroidered sash made in the traditional colors of pure red,blue, and green. From these examples,it can be seen how traditional Chinese dress is the foundation of modern fashion. However, the Chinese have also adopted many Western styles of clothing such as business suits and jeans.为了装饰衣的肩部、胸衣、口袋、缝合线、开口以及腰带、头饰以及项链,采用了诸如流苏等许多装饰品。有许多例子成功地将现代和传统的时装要素融合在一起,其中有现代化的新娘冠饰,它采用了宋朝的设计和湖南风格的刺绣饰带,并且色调使用了传统的大红色、蓝色以及绿色。从这些例子可以看出传统的中国饰乃是现代时装的基础。但是中国人也采用了许多西式的装,例如商务套装和牛仔。In modern society,Chinese men are seen at social occasions wearing ceremovial clothes in two varieties on formal occasions,t. e. the dignified and refined traditional Chinese long gown and the Sun Yat-sen#39;s uniform,which is a creative blending of fashion elements from the East and West, and a milestone in the history of Chinese garment design-was hailed as the ;State Suit;.White women often wear the ch#39;i-p#39;ao,a modified version of a traditional Ching Dynasty. fashion. The variations of height, length,width,and ornamentation of the collar, sleeves,skirt and basic cut of this Oriental fashion are limitless.在现代社会,中国男子在社交场合穿着两种礼,一种是威严、精巧的传统中国长袍,另一种则是中山装,它创造性地将东西方的时装要素揉合在一起并成为中国装设计史上的里程碑—被称为“国”。而女子则经常穿着旗袍,这是清朝一种传统时装的现代化版本。这种东方时装的领口、袖子以及下摆的高度、长度、宽度、装饰以及基本的剪裁方法都是不受拘束的。 /201506/378231

  Stories like the virgin birth lack freely given female consent. Why don#39;t they bother us more?故事就像被大多数女人认为的那样-处女生育会缺乏自由。只会给我们带来很多麻烦?Powerful gods and demi-gods impregnating human women—it#39;s a common theme in the history of religion, and it#39;s more than a little rapey.强大的神和半神血统的人类女性-这是在宗教史上的一个共同的主题,就非常怪异了。Zeus comes to Danae in the form of a golden shower, cutting ;the knot of intact virginity; and leaving her pregnant with the Greek hero, Perseus.宙斯看到了达那厄后乘她睡觉的时候化做一阵金雨与达那厄交配(结束了达那厄童贞)并生育了珀耳修斯。Jupiter forcibly overcomes Europa by transforming himself into a white bull and abducting her. He imprisons her on the Isle of Crete, over time fathering three children.宙斯变成了一头白牛并且说了欧罗巴,绑架了她。他禁锢她在克里特岛,随着时间的推移,他们生下三个孩子。Hermes copulates with a shepherdess to produce Pan.赫尔墨斯交配牧羊女生下潘。The legendary founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus are conceived when the Roman god Mars impregnates Rea Silvia, a vestal virgin.罗马传奇的创始人,罗穆卢斯和瑞斯是当时罗马战神让西尔维亚公主怀(一个处女)的结果。。Helen of Troy, the rare female offspring of a god-human mating, is produced when Zeus takes the form of a swan to get access to Leda.特洛伊的海伦,当宙斯化妆成天鹅勾引丽达时,一个罕见人神交配的雌性后代产生了。In some accounts Alexander the Great and the Emperor Augustus are sowed by gods in the form of serpents, by Phoebus and Jupiter respectively.在有些传说中,伟大的亚历山大和奥古斯塔斯大帝各自是由日神菲斯和宙斯化身蛇播种生下。Though the earliest Christians had a competing story, in the Gospel of Luke, the Virgin Mary gets pregnant when the spirit of the Lord comes upon her and the power of the Most High overshadows her.即使最早的基督教,也流行着一个故事,即在卢克福音中,上帝遇到圣母玛利亚,并且使圣母成功受。The earliest accounts of Zoroaster#39;s birth have him born of a human father and mother, much like Jesus,; but in later accounts his mother is pierced by a shaft of divine light.最早的传说中,拜火教圣人是人类父母的儿子,很像耶稣。但随后流传的故事中讲到他母亲是由神灵受而产下了他。The Hindu god Shiva has sex with the human woman Madhura, who has come to worship him while his wife Parvathi is away. Parvathi turns Madhura into a frog, but after 12 years in a well she regains human form and gives birth to Indrajit.印度教中的造物主席尔瓦令人类女孩马杜拉受。在他的妻子帕尔瓦蒂离开时,马杜拉基于对席尔瓦的崇拜使两人处在一起。之后帕尔瓦蒂将马杜拉变成了青蛙。但12年后在一口井中,她又恢复人形,并生下了因陀罗。The Buddha#39;s mother Maya finds herself pregnant after being entered from the side by a god in a dream.释迦尼的母亲玛雅夜里梦见与一个神仙交欢后怀。Underneath this remarkably enduring and widesp trope lie two assumptions that, in their most primitive form, may trace their roots all the way back to evolutionary biology.在这些不同寻常并且广为流传的故事中,存在两个假设,即以最原始的方式,追寻生物进化论的根源。The biology hypothesis, much oversimplified, goes something like this: Males and females of each species have instincts that maximize their genes in the next generation. Among humans, females seek the highest quality sperm donors that they can attract. They maximize the quality and survival of their children by mating with high status, powerful males. Males, on the other hand, maximize the quality and quantity of their offspring by seeking young fertile females (with beauty signaling fertility), controlling some females and fending off other males while also sping their seed around if they can get away with it.很多关于进化论的假说都过于简单,大体上都这样表述:每个物种的雄雌两性都具备本能,最大程度地把他们的基因传递给下一代。在人类中,女性追求她们所能吸引到的最高质量的精子贡献者。通过与强壮俊美的男性交配,保繁衍出最佳质量的下一代。另一方面,男性通过寻找年轻的生殖能力出众的女性(美丽容貌象征着生育能力),从质量和数量两方面保繁衍出自己的最佳后代。他们控制住某些女性,并且防止周边其他男性的介入。Biology may be the starting point, but over time, human impulses are embellished and institutionalized and made sacred by culture and religion. The mythic trope of gods mating with human females embodies powerful cultural and religious beliefs about sexuality. Familiar stories of this type derive from male dominated societies, which means they legitimize male reproductive desires: Powerful men not only want to control the valuable commodity of female fertility, they should. Gods ordain it and model it. And they prescribe punishments for those—especially females—who violate the proper order of things.进化论或许是起点,但历经沧桑,人类的本性冲动受到修饰和系统化加工,并且被文化和宗教赋以神话论。神话中的上帝与人间女子的交合便体现出强大的文化和宗教对性本身的信念理解。类似的故事从父系社会中流传下来,意味着子承父业的繁衍。强大的男子希望控制女性的繁殖权,他们也能够做到。上帝赐给他们权力并且成为典范。他们为此建立了惩罚机制,尤其对于妇女,那些要违反正确规律的人。The miraculous conception stories I listed may have roots in pre-history, in early religions centered on star worship and the agricultural cycle, but they emerged in modern form during the Iron Age. By this time in history, most women were chattel. Like children, livestock and slaves, they were literally possessions of men, and their primary economic and spiritual value lay in their ability to produce purebred offspring of known lineage. The men at the top owned concubines and harams, and virgin females were counted among the spoils of war. (See, for example, the Old Testament story of the virgin Midianites in which Yahweh commands the Israelites to kill the used women but keep the virgin girls for themselves.)我列出的这些神话故事或许扎根于史前时代,早期的宗教以人神崇拜和世代农耕为中心,但在石器时代融入了现代的形式。在那段历史时期,大多数妇女作为货品,像儿童、工具和奴隶一般,他们几乎是属于男性的财产,他们基本的经济和意识形态价值在于是否具有能够为名门望族进行生育的能力。高高在上的男人们妻妾成群,处女们被当做战争中的战利品。(例如,旧约故事中,耶和华命令以色列士兵杀死米甸人中已为人妇的女子,而留下处女为其享用。)It was also a time when gods picked favorites and meddled in the affairs of tribes and nations, and great men were born great. Small wonder, then, that so many powerful men claimed powerful paternity. In the tradition of the ancient Hebrews, this took the form of an obsession with lineage and pure, favored bloodlines. Writers of the Hebrew Bible trace the genealogy of King David back to Abraham, for example, and the genealogy of Abraham to the first man, Adam. In the Greek and Roman worlds, entitlement claims took the form of assigning supernatural paternity to public figures. The Christian tradition, somewhat awkwardly, tries to lay claim to both of these—tracing the lineage of Jesus through his father Joseph back to King David, while simultaneously denying that he had a human father.还是在那个时期,上帝来挑选喜欢的东西,并且插手部落和宗族事务,使得伟大男人天生便伟大。因此,很多强权男人们可以凭借父辈拥有权力。在古老的希伯莱传统中,以血统和纯粹的天赋血脉而拥有权力。希伯莱圣经的作者们将戴维大帝的族谱追溯到亚伯拉罕身上。例如,亚伯拉罕传承到下一代是亚当。在希腊和罗马世界,皇权天赋凌驾于普通大众之上。基督传统有些尴尬,试图将耶稣的血统追溯到其父亲耶和华以及戴维大帝的身上,而同时否认耶稣有一个人类父亲。This is the context for the miraculous conception stories, and in this context, the consent of a woman is irrelevant. Within a society that treats female sexuality as a male possession, the only consent that can be violated is the consent of a woman#39;s owner, the man with the rights to her reproductive capacity—typically her father, fiancé, or husband. Many Christians are surprised when told that nowhere in the Bible, either Old Testament or New, does any writer say that a woman#39;s consent is necessary or even desirable before sex.这构成了这些神话的背景。在这种背景下,取得妇女同意无关紧要。在一个把妇女的性权利当做男人财产看待的年代,唯一需要同意的便是妇女的主人,男人们有权主宰妇女的生育,通常是她的父亲、未婚夫或丈夫。很多基督徒感到吃惊,因为在圣经中,无论是旧约还是新月,没有任何作者写道在与妇女交欢前需要取得他们的同意。This omission is more than regrettable, it is tragic. Two thousand years after Hebrew and Aramaic texts were assembled into the modern Jewish Bible, 1600 years after a Roman Catholic committee voted books in and out of the Christian Bible, 1400 years after Muhammad wrote the Koran (which draws heavily on the moral framework of the Judeo-Christian tradition), we still struggle with the question of female consent. Our struggle is made immeasurably harder by the presence of ancient texts that have become modern idols— texts that put God#39;s name on men#39;s desires.这种疏漏非常令人遗憾,造成了悲剧。希伯莱和阿拉伯教义合并成现代犹太圣经后已经过去了2000年,罗马天主教委员会表决选用圣经已经过去了1600年,穆罕穆德完成古兰经(很大程度上借鉴了犹太教与天主教的共同道德经典)已经过去了1400年,我们还在为征求妇女同意这一问题而苦苦斗争。古老的经文直到今天也是崇拜的对象,它们以神的名义为男人的欲望背书,这使得我们不得不付出多得多的努力。The most extreme example may be a document published by the Islamic State, outlining rules for the treatment of sexual slaves, rules drawn from the Koran. Closer to home for most Americans is the awkward but widesp existence of Christian leaders who teach that a woman#39;s glory is in childbearing, and that a woman who fails to service her husband whenever he desires is failing to serve God.最为极端的例子莫过于伊斯兰国家颁布的法令,古兰经的条文规定对待性奴的处理方法。说到底,大多数美国人会有些尴尬,但基督教领袖们广泛宣扬妇女们最高荣耀是生育子孙,而且没能在丈夫有需求的时候侍好丈夫的女人,也是对上帝的忠实。But even closer to home for many is the shocking prevalence on college campuses and in society at large of sexual manipulation and coercion perpetrated by males who otherwise seem morally intact. One can#39;t help but notice that a large number of high-profile cases involve high-status males: fraternity members, a famous actor, a radio host, small-town football stars and big-league professional athletes—men, in other words, who think they are gods. These men are so convinced of their own deific qualities, they believe the object of their attentions has gotta want it—and if she doesn#39;t, well, that#39;s fine too, because when a god wants a woman, consent isn#39;t really part of the story.但进一步触及痛处,令很多美国人震惊的是放眼国内,美国高校和社会中存在大量男性性侵和强制猥亵事件,而且实施者表面上看却并非作恶多端,行为下流之人。我们不禁要注意到,大量广受注目的案件发生在知名男性身上,包括:大学兄弟会成员、著名演员、广播主持人、小镇足球明星以及大联盟球星。换句话说,认为自己是上帝的男人们,非常自信自己具备神一般的素质,以至于他们相信自己所关注的目标会愿意让他们为所欲为。如果她不愿意,那么好吧,因为传说中上帝需要女人时是不需要征得同意的。 /201501/351850。

  Most people, and I was no exception, credit numerous stereotypes about introverts. Yes, they are reserved, sometimes strange and hard to understand, but they are people as well. Moreover, dating an introverted man can have many advantages. So, what should you remember when dating someone who’s more withdrawn than you? Here are 7 essential tips for dating an introvert.大多数人对内向的人抱有偏见,当然我也不例外。是的,他们比较沉默,有时候很奇怪让人捉摸不透,但其实他们和我们是一样的。而且,和内向的人约会也有许多好处。所以,如果你要和一个比你还沉默寡言的人交往,你应该要牢记什么呢?下面是七条与内向的人约会时的重要建议。1. Silence isn’t a sign of estrangement1.沉默不表示有隔阂存在A different style of communication is the most striking and significant thing about dating an introverted man. When your man isn’t asking you questions or isn’t joking, most probably he’s not interested in you as a woman. With introverted men, it’s absolutelydifferent. They talk less, but whenever they say something it’s really important to them. Introverts simply don’t waste time on silly talk.和一个内向的男人约会,最显著最重要的一点就是交流的风格不一样。当你的男朋友不问你问题或者不开玩笑,那么很可能他对身为异性的你不感兴趣。但如果对内向的人来说,情况就截然不同了。他们话少,但是他们说的话对他们而言都很重要。内向的人只是不会把时间浪费在说蠢话上。2. Less violent conflicts2.暴力冲突减少If you’re dating an introvert, you will rarely have severe conflicts and fights. Introverts never act and speak rashly. They need a lot of time to reflect on things; therefore their responds are deliberate. Chances are you’ll forget about the argument, but your sweetheart can start talking about it in several days. When you really want to settle a conflict, adopt a patient behavior. An excessive pressure will only lead to distrust andresentment.如果你和内向的人交往,你基本上不会和他们发生严重的冲突或者争吵。内向的人在言谈举止上从不鲁莽冲动。他们需要很多时间去反思事情;因此他们会做出小心谨慎的回应。你很有可能会忘记你们之间的争论,但你的心上人可能几天后又开始旧事重提。如果你真想要解决矛盾,那就耐心一点吧。压力过大只会导致彼此的不信任甚至是厌恶。3. Your social life will be different3.你会有一个不一样的社交生活Get y that your spouse will never be the center of attention at a party, during friend gatherings or a party with unknown people. In fact, introverts don’t lack communication skills and they aren’t anti-social; they just need less time socializing. You should also be y to spend a great amount of time at home watching films or ing. Spontaneous and unplanned events are highly stressful and unwelcome for introverted people. You won’t go out every day, but if your leisure time is properly planned, your guy will be more confident and comfortable.你得做好准备,因为无论是在朋友聚会或是陌生人参加的派对上,你的伴侣永远都不会是人们注意力的焦点。事实上,内向的人并不缺乏沟通技能,也不是反社会人士;他们只是不想要花太多的时间用来社交。你也要做好另一手准备——绝大多数时间你可能就呆在家中看电影或是读书。碰上自发或是他们事先没有计划好的事情,内向的人就会高度紧张并且产生抗拒的心理。你不会每天都出去但是如果你将空闲时间合理地安排好,你的男朋友就会感觉更加自信舒。4. Introvert can’t be converted into extrovert4.内向的人无法变得外向This is the most common mistake most people make when dealing with introverts. You can’t change their temperament and it’s no use struggling with their personality. Beingpushy is indeed the worst strategy you can choose. You won’t stir up your partner by asking him thousand questions or telling jokes. Most probably your man will retreat to save his sanity. You shouldn’t urge your partner to do anything or embarrass him, especially in public. It’s very hard to change yourself and it’s almost impossible to change another person. Remember it.这也是大多数人在和内向的人相处时最常犯的错误。你无法改变他们的性格,和他们的个性较真也是徒劳。一意孤行是最糟糕的策略。哪怕问他上千个问题或是讲笑话你也无法让他放得开。你的男朋友有可能为了不失去理智而逃避。你不应该强迫他做任何事或是让他尴尬,特别是在公共场合下。请记住:改变自己很难,而要改变另一个人几乎是不可能的。5. They need more me time5.他们需要更多自我空间It always made me frustrated, but I couldn’t accept this aspect of our relationship. It doesn’t mean I wanted to spend every second with him, but I suffer when I feel lack of attention. Introverts need more time to recharge their strength and energy. Stillness and solitude are essential things they will always need. Thus, don’t minimize the importance of me time and try not to take it personally. If you aren’t able to adjust to this need, your relationship would be rather disastrous.这一点总让我十分懊恼,恋爱关系的这方面让我无法接受。这并不意味着我想要每时每刻都和他呆一起,但是当我没有感受到足够的关注时就感觉难过。内向的人需要更多的时间来补充精力。他们总需要两样重要东西:安静和孤独。因此,不要忽略自我空间的重要性,尽量避免参杂个人感情色。如果你不能适应这种需要,你们的关系将会遭受重创。6. Honesty is a huge plus of being an introvert6.诚实是内向人士的一大亮点A great advantage of dating an introvert is that your man will always be honest with you about his feelings and thoughts. Introverts focus their attention on people they are interested in. While extroverts are often superficial and pretended, introverted people say and do exactly what they mean. Don’t be afraid that you partner is a player or that he might be cheating on you. If you’re dating an introvert, you can be sure you’re the only one in his life. Moreover, introverts tend to stay in long-lasting relationships since they’re very picky when choosing a girlfriend.和内向的人约会有一个最大的好处,那就是他总是会诚实地表明他的感受和想法。内向人士会关注他们感兴趣的人。外向的人经常表现得肤浅和做作,而内向人士通常言行一致。不要担心你的另一半是个或者劈腿。如果你和一个内向的人交往,你完全可以相信你就是他生命中的唯一。另外,内向的人的恋爱关系会维持得更久,因为他们选择女友的标准非常苛刻。7. You should show tolerance and indulgence7.你要学会宽容并迁就对方Sometimes it’s awfully hard to accept his strangeness and those special needs. It feels difficult to get along with an introvert when you have totally different desires. You want to go to a party, while he tends to stay at home. Or, you’re overflowed with emotions and your partner just can’t take it. An introvert will never belong to you 100 percent. Introverts seem moody at times because they are utterly introspective and sensitive to their feelings. You should give them a lot of time to process. Remember that acompromise is a pledge of any healthy and long-lasting relationship. Try to understand that your introverted man also makes efforts to handle your relationship, even if you don’t notice that.有时候他的一些古怪而特殊的需求让你难以接受。当你们的需求截然不同时,你会感觉很难和内向的人相处。你想要去参加晚会但他更愿意待在家。或者你情绪高涨而你的另一半却无动于衷。内向的人绝不会完完全全属于你。有时他们看上去有点忧郁,那是因为他们处于内省的情绪敏感状态。你应该给他们大量的时间去整理情绪。记住妥协是使恋爱关系健康且持久的保。试着理解你那个内向的他,虽然你并未察觉到,他也在努力经营你们的感情。It’s up to you to make your extrovert-introvert relationship comfortable and satisfying. Like any other relationships, it requires great work, common efforts and compromise. Just a little understanding and sacrifice will help your relationship flourish and work out. Remember that love is about accepting but not changing a person.在这段你外向而他内向的恋爱中,是否让它变得舒且令人满意取决于你。和其它恋爱关系一样,这需要很多精力,共同的努力和妥协。只要彼此多一点理解,多作一点牺牲,就有利于维持你们的关系,达到预期的效果。记住:爱是接纳一个人,而非改变一个人。 /201411/341981

  An amputee who was cruelly nicknamed #39;peg-leg#39; by school bullies has conquered her insecurities to become a model。英国有位截肢姑娘,她读书时经常被同学取笑、还有人给她起了个外号“木桩腿”。 如今,她已经成功战胜各种不安全因素成为了一名模特。Taylor Crisp, 19, from Leicester, was born with femur fibula ulna syndrome, which left her with a shortened femur on her right leg, no kneecap or ankle and a missing toe, had to have leg amputated at 15 after an MRSA infection。19岁的泰勒·克里斯普来自英国莱斯特,她生来就患有股骨腓骨综合症,右腿股骨短、而且没有膝盖骨和脚踝骨,还缺了一根脚趾头、脚跛得很厉害。15岁时,克里斯普因感染耐甲氧西林金葡菌被迫截肢。 /201506/379219



  Say goodbye to the animal print, mink and gold lamé. After a rocky 1990s and noughties when the dour Soviet colour wheel was swapped for the excesses of the Putin oil boom, Russia’s fashion world has finally hit its stride, with a new crop of designers putting a modern take on Russia’s cultural heritage and enjoying crossover success in the west.动物斑纹装、貂皮装以及金色亮片装已成往事。经过上世纪90年代与21世纪头十年的重重困难(前苏联单调乏味的装色调因普京时代的滚滚石油财源而彻底改观),俄罗斯的时装业开始大踏步前行,新涌现的一波设计师赋予了俄罗斯文化传统以现代风格,成功实现风格转型,在西方社会大获成功。In recent months, designers such as Olga Vilshenko, Vika Gazinskaya (both available from Net-a-Porter) and Ulyana Sergeenko, who specialise in Russian folk art-inspired bohemian designs, have gained a following in Hollywood, New York and London that remains undimmed by the geopolitical events. Opening Ceremony in the US and Brown’s in London have also begun stocking Walk of Shame Moscow, a new brand by Andrey Artemov.近几个月以来,奥尔加#8226;维尔申科(Olga Vilshenko)、维卡#8226;甘琴斯卡娅(Vika Gazinskaya)以及乌里扬娜#8226;瑟吉安科(Ulyana Sergeenko)等设计新锐师在好莱坞、纽约以及伦敦拥有众多明星拥趸。前两人的时装在Net-a-Porter网店有售,而乌里扬娜#8226;瑟吉安科则专门设计受启发于俄罗斯民间艺术的波希米亚风格的时装。西方的时尚拥趸们也完全清楚乌克兰因地缘政治而爆发的战事。美国的Opening Ceremony及伦敦的布朗百货店(Brown’s)也开始囤积Walk of Shame Moscow的货,这是设计师安德雷#8226;阿尔捷莫夫(Andrey Artemov)最新设立的时尚品牌。At the Golden Globes last month nominee Julianna Margulies wore a Sergeenko gown, while Rihanna andKim Kardashian have become fans of Sergeenko’s more revealing outfits: Rihanna chose a white body suit and sheer robe for the MTV Movie Awards, while Kardashian has been photographed in various plunging bodices.在好莱坞的金球奖颁奖典礼上,入围者朱丽安娜#8226;玛格丽丝(Julianna Margulies)身穿瑟吉安科设计的长外衣,而蕾哈娜(Rihanna)与卡戴姗(Kim Kardashian)也已成为瑟吉安科暴露装的忠实粉丝:蕾哈娜穿了瑟吉安科设计的白色紧身衣与睡袍参加MTV电影大奖颁奖(MTV Movie Awards)典礼,而卡戴姗更是身穿深V紧身胸衣公然亮相。The actress Elle Fanning, meanwhile, is a follower of Gazinskaya and Walk of Shame Moscow. Across the Atlantic, London “It” girl Alexa Chung and the singer Florence Welch have both been seen in Vilshenko.与此同时,少女明星艾丽#8226;范宁(Elle Fanning)则是甘琴斯卡娅与Walk of Shame Moscow的拥趸。在大西洋彼岸的伦敦,时尚名媛艾里珊#8226;钟(Alexa Chung)与歌星佛洛伦丝#8226;韦尔奇(Florence Welch)则身穿维尔申科品牌时装抛头露面。The timing of their newfound popularity may seem off, but it’s evidence of a sea change in Russian fashion. It has ceased being a dalliance for a few well-off socialites and become a real industry more fitting of the Russian fashion market, worth bn in 2014, according to Fashion Consulting Group. “There is a myth about Russian fashion that it can’t be a real business#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;that it’s just some rich girls — the wives of rich businessmen dressing up their girlfriends. But, actually, it hasn’t been like this for a while,” says Ksenia Solovieva, editor-in-chief of Russian Tatler.这些新的流行时装的风头似乎已经过去,但这是俄罗斯时尚业彻底转变的据。它们也不再是少数阔绰时尚名媛们的“一时兴起”,而是已成长为契合俄罗斯时装业实际的真正产业——根据时尚咨询集团(Fashion Consulting Group)的统计数字,2014年俄罗斯时装业的总产值达580亿美元。“坊间一直流行这样的错误看法:俄罗斯时装业不可能真正成为产业……仅是一些有钱女孩(原是商界富豪的女友,由对方出资从事设计,如今已为人妇)的‘游戏’。但实际情况早已今非昔比,”俄罗斯《Tatler》杂志主编柯西尼娅#8226;索洛维耶娃(Ksenia Solovieva)如是说。“The husbands who at one time were helping their girlfriend designers with money aren’t [doing that] any more. The husbands are now asking for a business plan#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;A lot of designers are looking at fashion foremost as a business, and developing a strategy for how to make money not today or tomorrow, but long-term.”“一度出资协助自己设计师女友的富豪丈夫如今已改变策略。他们如今要求爱妻提供商业发展计划……很多设计师首先把时装业视为产业,并着手制订长远赢利策略,而非中短期战略。”Vilshenko was one of the first designers to forge this route. While her husband was once the principal investor, he exited after an outside investor took over. She is now managing 25 staff with a boutique and workroom in Moscow and a London office for UK clients.维尔申科是制订长远发展规划的首批设计师。尽管她丈夫过去是主要出资者,但在外部投资者接管后他选择了全身而退。她如今雇有25名员工,在莫斯科拥有自己的专卖店与工作室,并在伦敦开设了专为英国客户务的办公室。For Vilshenko, the brand’s foreign client base has been a blessing — mitigating the effects of the weakening Russian currency. “It’s good we’re not only in Russia,” she says of her business, which has a strong following in the Gulf also. “Garments that have a long length, a high neck and long sleeves are popular there,” says Vilshenko. “Their traditions are actually quite close to ours.”对于维尔申科来说,拥有外国客户群实属福音——此举可以大大减轻俄罗斯货币贬值造成的负面影响。“我们成功开拓了俄罗斯之外的市场,十分有利。”她指的是自己的生意,如今她的品牌在海湾国家也有众多拥趸。“超长款高领长袖装在海湾地区十分畅销,”维尔申科说。“她们的穿着习惯与我们十分相近。”However, even international sales can’t protect Russia’s leading designers from the effects of an almost 50 per cent fall in the rouble over the past year — Vilshenko and Sergeenko, for instance, import most of their materials.但是,国际市场的销售成绩再亮丽,也无法真正保护俄罗斯的知名设计师,因为过去一年,卢布的汇率几近腰斩——举个例子,维尔申科与瑟吉安科使用的多数面料均为进口。In an interview Sergeenko, who at Paris Couture Week decided to forego doing a show, instead offering one-on-one appointments, said she is also worried about the damaging effect of US and EU sanctions, as well as those on the Russian side — last year, the Kremlin’s chief economic adviser hinted it could ban the import of some European clothing and fabrics.瑟吉安科接受访谈时说:自己除了担心俄罗斯对美欧实行制裁的影响外,还对美欧对俄经济制裁所造成的破坏效应忧心忡忡——俄罗斯首席经济顾问去年曾暗示可能会禁止进口部分产自欧洲的装与面料。“I can’t imagine how in the modern world people can create these limits,” Sergeenko said, sitting in her Moscow showroom. “We have lived through so much #8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;In Russia you always witness some sort of historical event. There will be a period of calm, then something else happens.”“我无法想象生活在现代社会的人相互之间会如此‘以邻为壑’”,坐在自己莫斯科时装陈列室的瑟吉安科如是说。“我们与西方之间经历了如此多的风风雨雨……在俄罗斯,总能亲历某些历史性事件。往往过上一段时间的宁静生活后,就会折腾些波折来。”At her couture show in Paris last July — against a backdrop of conflict in east Ukraine — Sergeenko’s show began with the sound of a gunshot before a model entered in a calf-length leather jacket reminiscent of the Soviet secret police uniforms. (The designer says the idea was dreamt up long before the events of 2014.) Andrey Artemov of Walk of Shame Moscow says the crisis has been commercially unpredictable, describing how a Russian client might complain about the rouble but still buy the entire collection.去年七月,瑟吉安科在巴黎举办了自己的高级时装展(尽管此时乌克兰东部地区的冲突不断),开场白竟是一声响,然后是一位模特上场,她身穿长及腿肚子的皮夹克,不由得让人想起前苏联秘密警察的制。(设计师说其灵感早在2014年乌克兰危机爆发之前就已构思好。)设立Walk of Shame Moscow品牌的设计师安德雷#8226;阿尔捷莫夫说乌克兰危机给商业前景造成不可预测性,他形容一位俄罗斯客户尽管会抱怨卢布大幅贬值,但仍会悉数买下整个系列。Like other designers, Walk of Shame Moscow is taking no chances on the domestic market. Last year, the brand which specialises in lingerie-inspired dresses, trucker hats and boyfriend jackets — its muse being a hipster Holly Golightly, or “the cool and funny girl who drinks champagne for breakfast”, as Artemov puts it — opened a temporary showroom in Paris to coincide with the city’s fashion week.与其他设计师的选择一样,Walk of Shame Moscow为万全起见,并没在俄罗斯国内销售。去年,这家主打连衣裙(设计灵感来自贴身内衣)、卡车司机帽以及女夹克的品牌在巴黎开设了临时展厅,恰巧与巴黎时装周“撞墙”。Walk of Shame Moscow的御用模特是潮女霍莉#8226;戈莱特丽(Holly Golightly),也就是那位新潮风趣、早餐就喝香槟酒的时尚女。Artemov’s dream is to open an office in Europe. “I don’t want to create a Russian brand,” the designer says. “I want to create an international brand.”阿尔捷莫夫的梦想是在欧洲开办自己的分部。“我不希望创建俄罗斯时尚品牌,”她这样说道。“我的理想是创立国际知名品牌。”Courtney Weaver is the FT’s deputy Moscow bureau chief柯特妮#8226;韦弗为《金融时报》莫斯科分部副主任 /201503/364606。

  Ladies, if you want a man at your feet, wear high heels。女士们,想要男人为你们尽折腰,就穿高跟鞋吧。Research shows that men are more likely to help a woman wearing heels than one in flats。调查显示男人们更愿意对穿高跟鞋的女人们伸出援手,而不是穿平底鞋的。This assistance ranges from taking part in a survey, to chasing after a woman who has dropped a glove。助人为乐的范围从参与问卷,到追上去归还女人落下的手套都有。French researcher Nicholas Guéguen said: ‘Women’s shoe heel size exerts a powerful influence on men’s behaviour.’法国研究员尼古拉斯#8226;盖冈说道:“女人鞋跟的高度对男人的行为表现出巨大的影响力。”Professor Guéguen first showed that men were much more likely to agree to fill in a questionnaire when stopped in the street by a woman in heels. And the higher the heels, the more willing they were。盖冈教授首先展示了:当一个女人穿着高跟鞋站在街头时,男人们更愿意停下来填写调查问卷。鞋跟的高度越高,他们就更愿意停下来。When the women doing the survey were in flats, just 25 of the 60 men took part。当穿着平底鞋的女人要求他们做问卷时,60个男人中只有25个表示愿意。A two-inch heel made them more amenable, with 36 out of the 60 that were approached agreeing to answer the woman’s questions。两英寸的高跟让她们显得更有责任感,每60个人中有36人表示愿意回答这些女人的问题。But when the heels rose to almost four inches, the number of male volunteers rose to 49 out of 60, or as Professor Guéguen put it: ‘Men responded more favourably to the survey request as soon as the length of her heels increased.’但是当鞋跟高到几乎四英寸时,男性参与者增加到每60人中有49人同意,或如盖冈教授所说的那样:“鞋跟的高度越上涨,男人对于参与问卷的回应就越积极。”Tellingly, heel height had no effect on women’s odds of agreeing to do the survey。显然,高跟鞋不影响女人们同意做问卷的几率。In another experiment, men were almost twice as likely to return a glove to a woman if she was in high heels。在另一个实验中,如果女人穿着高跟鞋,男人归还女人手套的可能性翻倍。Some 56 out of 60 men stopped or chased down a female who dropped a glove while walking ahead of them in four-inch heels。对于穿着四英寸高跟鞋走在前面的女子,每60个男人中有56人停下来或者追上去归还她们落下的手套。The professor, from the University of South Brittany, said that men may see offering help as a non-threatening way of making contact with an attractive female。这位南布列塔尼大学的教授说,男人们可能把伸出援手视为和迷人女性接触的一种平和方式。。His final experiment involved watching how long it took men standing drinking in a bar to approach a woman sitting alone at a nearby table。他的最后一个实验是观察一个男人站在酒吧喝酒,会盯着一个独自坐在邻近桌边的女人多久。A woman in high heels was chatted up almost twice as quickly as one in sensible shoes, the journal Archives of Sexual Behavior reports。《性行为档案》杂志表明,穿高跟的女人要比穿平跟的女人被搭讪的概率高出一倍。Professor Guéguen isn’t sure why heels make a woman more attractive but he says that it may be by that changes in gait and posture make her seem more feminine。盖冈教授不确定高跟鞋为何让女人变得更有吸引力,不过他说也许是步态和姿势的改变让她们变得更有女人味。However, a previous British study found that a man can’t tell from a woman’s walk whether she is wearing heels。然而,一份早前的英国研究发现男人不能从女人走路的姿势看出她是否穿了高跟。In any case, the women in the bar were sitting down。无论如何,酒吧里的女人是坐着的。Another possibility is that that the use of high heels in sexy films and adverts has led to men near-automatically associating them with desirability。另一个可能性就是,性感电影和广告中出现高跟鞋而让男人不由自主地把高跟鞋和吸引力联想到一起。 /201507/385611

  The best way to prevent yourself from becoming paralyzed with worry, writes psychiatrist Edward M. Hallowell, is to simply make sure you never worry all by yourself.精神病学家爱德华·M·哈洛威尔写道:为了不让自己担心到焦头烂额,最好的方法就是确保自己,永远的一无所忧。Hallowell argues in his new book, Driven to Distraction at Work: How to Focus and Be More Productive, that when you feel real or imagined concerns piling on, share them with a friend, and there#39;s a better chance that aimless anxiety will morph into problem-solving.哈洛威尔在他的新书《工作中的心烦意乱:如何保持专注和创造力》指出,当你是真的烦恼,或是想象里的烦恼越积越多,同朋友说说,由此为漫无目的的焦虑化解提供一个机会。He believes that worrying alone is one of the major reasons that people can#39;t focus, both at work and elsewhere in their lives.他认为人们不能集中注意力的一大原因在工作中或是生活的其他方面独自烦恼。What exactly is so bad about worrying alone? Why it#39;s so detrimental?独自担心的危害究竟是什么?如此有害的原因是什么?Worrying alone does not have to be toxic, but it tends to become toxic because in isolation we lose perspective. We tend to globalize, catastrophize, when no one is there to act as a reality check. Our imaginations run wild.独自担忧并本身无害,但它往往会变得有害,因为在自我隔离中我们失去了自己的观点。当没有人在现实中扮演检查角色,我们的脑洞会越开越大,变得小题大做。我们的想象力脱了缰。Indeed, Samuel Johnson, a prodigious worrier himself, called worry a ;disease of the imagination”. When we worry alone we risk losing touch with reality, becoming paralyzed in worry, making bad decisions, and even getting sick, as toxic worry depresses immune function.事实上,塞缪尔·约翰逊——一个担忧重度患者,称担心为“想象力的疾病”。当我们独自担心时,我们可能会与现实失去联系,变得为担心焦头烂额,做出糟糕的决定,甚至生病,让有害的担忧压垮了免疫功能。What does worrying with someone else look like in action? For instance, does this mean you simply describe the things you are worried about to a friend? Or is it best if the pair of you talks about something you#39;re both worried about?与别人分享担忧表现为什么样的行动?例如,这是否意味着你只是向朋友描述你担心的事情?还是最好你们都对谈论的事情有所担忧?Doesn#39;t matter if the other person is worried about the same matter or not. You just have to find someone you like and trust. My basic three-step method of worry control is as follows:不管对方是否和你担心着同样的问题都没有关系。你只需要找到你喜欢和信任的人。我控制担心的基本三步法如下:1. Never worry alone.从不独自担忧。2. Get the facts. (Toxic worry is rooted in wrong information, lack of information, or both.)获取事实信息。(有害的担忧源于错误的信息,缺乏信息,或者两者都有)。3. Make a plan. Having a plan reduces feelings of vulnerability and increases feelings of control.制定一个计划。拥有一个计划可以减少脆弱感和并加强控制。 /201503/362441

  Concern over levels of drinking during pregnancy raised by studies一项调查研究引起了人们对于妇饮酒的担忧More than 17,000 women in the UK, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand were questioned, with confusion over guidelines blamed for the figures在英国,爱尔兰,澳大利亚和新西兰,超过17000名妇女参与了调查,由这一数字引起的看法也受到了质疑Alcohol use during pregnancy is #39;prevalent and socially pervasive#39; in the UK and Ireland, health experts have warned, after carrying out a large-scale study.在开展了大规模的调查之后,健康专家提醒指出,在英国和爱尔兰,怀期间饮酒是;流行的,普遍的;。Drinking in pregnancy is common, according to a study which labels it a ;significant public health concern; even though most women appear to give up once they know they are pregnant.一项研究表明,怀期间饮酒很常见。并将之归为“公共健康的重要问题”,即使大多数女人知道自己怀了,可能会放弃饮酒。The authors of the study, in the journal BMJ Open, say the guidelines on safe drinking are confusing, pointing out that Ireland, New Zealand and Australia recommend no alcohol for the entire pregnancy, while the UK says one to two units once or twice a week will do no harm after the first three months.该研究的作者,在BMJopen杂志中说,安全饮酒的准则是比较令人困惑的。他指出,在爱尔兰,新西兰和澳大利亚,都提倡整个期不要饮酒,而在英国,怀三个月之后的妇女,每周一到两次,少量的饮酒是没有坏处的。Substantial numbers of women appear to be taking no heed of guidelines when they become pregnant, according to the findings. The research pulled together results from several studies carried out in different ways in the UK, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. They found that as much as 80% of more than 17,000 women may have drank during the first trimester of pregnancy.研究表明,当女人怀时,她们中的大多数都不会对所谓的准则加以理睬。这一研究是将各项研究融合到一起,这些研究曾经在英国,爱尔兰,澳大利亚和新西兰以不同方式进行过。在这接受调查的17,000名妇女中,80%甚至更多,都在怀的头三个月期间喝酒了。In all countries, drinking dropped dramatically in the second trimester (between three and six months pregnant).而在所有的国家,怀第二个阶段(三到六月期间)饮酒人数就会急剧的减少。A higher level of education, having other children, and being overweight/obese were also associated with a lower risk of drinking while pregnant, but being a smoker made it more likely that a woman would drink while pregnant.更高层次的教育,有其他孩子,以及超重/肥胖这些情况也与怀时饮酒较少有关,但是如果一个人吸烟的话,她就更可能在怀时饮酒。The authors write that alcohol exposure may occur in over 75% of pregnancies in the UK and Ireland. Since women drink in the first three months, when the development of the foetus is less well understood, they say, ;the widesp consumption of even low levels of alcohol during pregnancy is a significant public health concern;.作者还写道,在英国和爱尔兰怀女性中,75%会接触酒精。他们说,怀头三个月妇会饮酒可能是因为那时胎儿发育还不健全。;在怀期间尽量少饮酒在公共健康方面是很受重视的;。审校:哎呀 校对:落花生 编辑:Freya然 /201507/385120

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