明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年12月14日 21:14:58
This is the story of two deals and the future of healthcare in the UK. 这是一个关于两笔交易以及英国医疗卫生事业未来的故事。The first was made in September 2015, under which three UK hospitals in the Royal Free NHS Trust handed the identifiable patient records of more than 2m Londoners to DeepMind, an artificial intelligence company wholly owned by Google.第一笔交易完成于2015年9月,根据这项交易,三家隶属英国皇家自由NHS信托基金会(Royal Free NHS Trust)的医院将超过200万名伦敦市民的可识别个人身份的病历交给了DeepMind,谷歌(Google)全资拥有的一家人工智能公司。With the company riding high on breakthroughs in the fields of game play and image recognition, DeepMind Health was launched in February. 随着DeepMind在游戏竞技以及图像识别领域不断取得重大突破,DeepMind Health在今年2月应运而生。Strangely for an AI company with no healthcare experience, DeepMind Health’s inaugural project claimed it had nothing to do with AI. 而对一家没有医疗经验的人工智能公司来说颇为奇怪的是,DeepMind Health的首个项目号称与人工智能没有任何关系。Rather, it involved developing Streams, a mobile app, to integrate data and co-ordinate push alerts concerning acute kidney injury, 相反,该项目涉及开发一款名为Streams的移动应用,用于有关急性肾脏损伤的整合数据以及协调推送通知。a serious condition affecting up to one in six National Health Service patients.在英国国家医疗务体系(NHS)的病人中,存在这一严重病情的病人比例高达六分之一。In April, an investigation by New Scientist revealed the scale of DeepMind’s data hoard — a five-year superset, covering almost every patient passing through Royal Free — as well as the commercial terms: essentially, that there were none. 今年4月,由《新科学家》(New Scientist)进行的一项调查揭示了DeepMind海量数据的规模——这是一个时间跨度长达5年的超大集合,涵盖了皇家自由基金会系统内的几乎所有病人——调查还揭示了这些数据的商业条款:基本上没有任何商业条款。The claimed basis for sharing the data was implied consent for direct clinical care for kidney injury. 这一数据共享的公开依据是对肾脏损伤进行直接临床救治的默示同意。The problem is that the data set extended well beyond those who will be monitored or treated for this condition: it extended hospital-wide, raising issues about proper compliance with data protection, privacy and medical confidentiality rules. 问题在于,数据集的覆盖面远远超过了因这一病症而被监测或治疗的群体:数据延伸至整个医院,由此引出了有关如何恰当遵守数据保护、隐私以及医疗保密等方面规定的问题。Perhaps even more importantly, engaging with citizens about the deal and exploring the desirability of open, competitive, forward-looking service procurement beyond Google, seemed not to enter consideration.或许更重要的是,与市民接触、交流对于此项交易的看法,以及在谷歌之外探索公开、竞争性、前瞻的务采购的可取程度,似乎并未被纳入考虑范围。The second deal was rather more proactive. 第二项交易更加主动积极。Last month, perhaps in anticipation of regulatory action after a year of silence (the first deal is the subject of an investigation by the UK Information Commissioner’s Office and a review by the National Data Guardian, plus DeepMind’s self-styled independent reviewers), a five-year agreement was signed.上月,或许是预见到了在一年的沉寂之后将有监管举措出台(第一笔交易受到了英国信息专员办公室(UK Information Commissioner’s Office)的调查以及国家健康和医疗数据守护者(National Data Guardian)的评估,DeepMind自诩的独立评估方也参与了评估),双方进一步签署了一项为期五年的合作协议。This accord contains a remarkable pivot. 这项协议包含了一个值得关注的转折。After a year of structuring the whole Trust-wide data set, DeepMind has developed a software interface that allows multiple conditions to be monitored and provides a platform for an open innovation ecosystem. 在花费了一年时间设计整个基金会系统的数据集结构之后,DeepMind开发了一个软件界面,可用于监测多种病情,并为开放创新的生态系统提供一个平台。Open, that is, except that the platform is strictly owned and controlled by DeepMind under a time-bound licence that prevents the Royal Free hospital working directly with any other provider. 不过,这种开放是有限度的——整个平台由DeepMind根据一项有时间限制的许可协议(阻止皇家自由医院与其他任何提供商直接合作)严格拥有和掌控。DeepMind, for its part, wishes to enable a community of innovators to develop niche applications over the top of data acquired through the first deal.DeepMind希望借此形成一个创新者社区,在通过第一项交易获得的数据基础上开发细分应用。Many of DeepMind’s aspirations are laudable, particularly its promises to bring cutting-edge provenance, transparency and audit to data flows. DeepMind有不少值得赞许的抱负,特别是该公司承诺将把尖端的来源鉴定、透明化以及审计技术应用到数据流上。However, it is critical that this company’s dealmaking does not involve special treatment, particularly given it can only do much of what it does because of the money and power of Google, its patron, which has long coveted the healthcare market. 但有一点非常关键,该公司的商业交易不应牵涉特殊待遇,尤其是考虑到该公司之所以能开展其目前进行的绝大部分业务,靠的是来自其母公司谷歌的资金和影响力,而谷歌长期以来一直对医疗卫生市场垂涎三尺。Until now, DeepMind’s deals have attracted no comment from those with oversight of sensitive data processing, despite clear questions about both the direct care justification for processing and where the control of data-processing lies.直到现在,负责监督敏感数据处理的相关部门也没有对DeepMind的交易发表,尽管在两方面(以直接救治为理由的数据处理,以及对数据处理的管控从何体现)明显存在问题。These deals matter as a litmus test of our institutions and our instincts, and whether we can advance technologically without evading due process and hard-earned rights. 这些交易意义重大,是检验我们的机构、我们的直觉、以及我们能否取得技术进步而不回避正当程序和来之不易的权利的试金石。The primary limits to promising advances in machine learning are access to data and computing power. 机器学习取得重大发展所面临的主要限制在于数据的可获得性以及计算能力。The Royal Free deals do a civic disservice if they undervalue publicly funded data sets, while failing to consider the long-term consequences of giving advance access to powerful private prospectors. 皇家自由基金会的交易对公众不利——如果它们低估了源于公共资金持的数据集的价值,同时也未考虑到给予实力强劲的私营开拓企业先入优势的长期后果。DeepMind may be a worthy partner but it must prove itself as such so that the future of healthcare is genuinely competitive, open, fair and in the public interest.DeepMind或许是一个有价值的合作伙伴,但该公司必须明自己确实如此,以确保医疗卫生事业的未来真正具有竞争性、开放、公平以及符合公众利益。 /201612/485920Three long decades ago Norman Tebbit, a British politician, became in#172;famous for saying that in the 1930s his unemployed father got on his bike to look for work. 30年前,英国政治家谭百德(Norman Tebbit)曾说到,30年代,他的父亲在失业后骑上他的自行车找工作,这番言论给他带来恶名,It was meant to be sensible advice. 尽管他的本意是提供明智建议。But Onyerbike, as Mr Tebbit came to be known, sparked fury because many unemployed people did not want to move to new areas.谭百德(后来他被人称为骑上你的自行车)之所以引发人们的愤怒,是因为很多失业者不想搬到新的地方。Echoes of this are playing out, this time in Virginia. 类似的事情最近发生在佛吉尼亚州,Hillary Clinton has infuriated coal miners in the Appalachian region by suggesting during her presidential campaign that her environmental policies will put coal miners out of jobs. 希拉里.克林顿(Hillary Clinton)激怒了阿巴拉契亚地区的煤矿工人,因为她在竞选总统期间表示,她的环境政策将让煤矿工人失业。She then tried to make amends by pledging bn to promote measures such as retraining; as the Financial Times reported this week, some miners are becoming software engineers.她接着试图弥补,承诺拿出300亿美元推动再培训等措施;正如英国《金融时报》本月报道的那样,一些矿工正成为软件工程师。This sounds reasonable but there is a hitch: Appalachia has few software jobs. 这听上去很合理,但存在一个问题:阿巴拉契亚地区的软件工作岗位很少。So far, former coal miners seem unwilling to get on their bikes — or even into their pick-up trucks.迄今,失业的煤矿工人似乎不愿骑上他们的自行车——或者说开着他们的皮卡——搬家。On one level this seems unsurprising. 从一个层面上来讲,这似乎并不让人意外。On another, however, it points to a mystery hanging over the American economy and a policy issue that the next president urgently needs to address.然而,从另一个层面上来讲,它指向萦绕着美国经济的一个谜团,以及下届总统亟需应对的一个政策问题。The US used to be renowned for having a more flexible and mobile workforce than Europe; in previous centuries millions of people travelled in search of land, riches and jobs. 曾几何时,美国因劳动力比欧洲更灵活和流动性更强而知名;之前的几个世纪,数百万人为了寻找土地、财富和就业而迁徙。But mobility has declined, not just in Appalachia but everywhere else as well. 但流动性已经下滑,不仅是在阿巴拉契亚地区,在美国其他所有地区也是一样。In 1990, for example, economists calculated that more than 3 per cent of the workforce moved across state borders each year; that has tumbled to 1.5 per cent.例如,1990年,经济学家估计,每年有超过3%的劳动者般到另一个州;如今这一比例下降至1.5%。The decline has affected almost all ages, educational groups and regions. 这种下滑涉及几乎所有年龄段、教育程度和地区的人群。Indeed, the only highly mobile group are low-skilled Mexican Hispanics: as economists Brian Cadena and Brian Kovak show, Mexican-born immigrants are still moving to find work in big numbers. 的确,唯一流动性较高的群体是低技能的西语裔墨西哥人:正如经济学家布莱恩.卡德纳(Brian Cadena)和布莱恩.科瓦克(Brian Kovak)所指出的那样,大量在墨西哥出生的移民仍在搬家找工作。White unskilled workers are not.技能低下的白人劳动者没有这样做。Why? One theory suggests that, when house prices collapsed in 2008, it left millions of households underwater on their mortgages, making it hard for owners to sell and move. 为什么?一种理论提出,在2008年房价暴跌时,数百万家庭背负的房贷远高于房屋现值,房主很难出售房产和搬家。But this is unlikely to be the only explanation since mobility was aly declining in the decade before the crash of 2008, a period when houses were easy to sell.但这不太可能是唯一的解释,因为流动性在2008年危机爆发前10年就已出现下滑了,那时房屋很容易出售。Policymakers would do well to note an intriguing second theory that emerged this week from the research and statistics group at the New York Federal Reserve: this suggests the problem reflects indirect consequences of demographics. 政策制定者最好关注一下最近纽约联邦储备(New York Federal Reserve)研究和统计小组提出的另一种耐人寻味的理论:这个问题反映出人口结构的间接后果。In the past three decades, as Fatih Karahan and Darius Li observe, the proportion of middle-aged workers in the US economy has risen sharply, from 45 per cent to 60 per cent.正如法提赫.卡拉汉(Fatih Karahan)和达赖厄斯.李(Darius Li)所观察到的,过去30年,美国经济中的中年员工比例大幅上升,从45%升至60%。Older workers tend to have less desire — or ability — to move. 年纪较大的员工往往更不愿(或者不能)搬家。The fact of ageing may partly explain the decline in mobility. 老龄化可能在一定程度上解释了流动性放缓。But Mr Karahan and Mr Li suggest that, when populations age, younger workers also become less willing to move. 但卡拉汉和李认为,当人口老龄化时,较年轻员工也变得不愿搬家。Between 1990 and 2010, mobility rates for middle-aged workers fell from 2 per cent to 1 per cent; and, for younger workers, from 5.5 per cent to 3 per cent.1990年至2010年,中年员工的流动比率从2%降至1%,较年轻员工的比例从5.5%降至3%。While no one knows exactly why this occurs, the NY Fed economists suspect the trend reflects the fact that companies are adapting by becoming more adept at hiring local workers, and Americans are losing the habit of travelling for jobs. 尽管没有人知道其中的确切原因,但纽约联邦储备的经济学家怀疑,这种趋势反映出企业正在适应现实,变得更擅长聘用本地员工,美国人正放弃跨州找工作的习惯。A 10 per cent rise in the share of middle-aged people implies a 30 per cent rise in the share of local hires,他们总结称:中年人比例上升10%,暗示当地人聘用比例上升30%。 they conclude, arguing that this localisation trend in hiring accounts for 1.2 percentage points of the 1.5 percentage point decline in interstate mobility.他们辩称,在跨州流动性下滑的1.5个百分点中,招聘本地化趋势占到了1.2个百分点。This localisation trend might seem counterintuitive as the internet is supposed to have created a hyperconnected world that makes it easier to connect workers with far-flung jobs. 这种本地化趋势似乎是反常的,因为互联网本该缔造出一个超连接的世界,员工更容易从事远距离的工作。But if the theory is correct — and I suspect it is — it has two big implications.但如果这种理论是正确的(我猜是这样),它具有两大潜在影响。First, it helps to explain why so many communities find it hard to adapt to wrenching industrial change and the impact of trade. 首先,它有助于解释为什么这么多社区很难适应工业变革以及贸易影响,觉得痛苦。Hence the appeal of Donald Trump’s America first sloganeering on the campaign trail.因此,唐纳德.特朗普(Donald Trump)在总统竞选中提出的美国第一的口号颇受欢迎。Second, the unwillingness of workers to travel implies that policymakers need to rethink. 其次,员工不愿搬家的现象暗示,政策制定者需要三思。Instead of offering retraining, the next incumbent in the White House might need to offer big incentives to companies to move.美国的下任总统可能不需要考虑提供再培训,而是需要为公司搬迁提供巨大激励。The next president may also need a 21st-century version of the 1862 Homestead Act — which offered land to settlers who went west — and find new ways to encourage workers to relocate. 下任美国总统可能还需要制定一个21世纪版本的1862年《公地放领法》(Homestead Act,该法为那些去西部拓荒的定居者提供土地),并找到新的方法鼓励员工搬迁。It will not be easy. 这并不容易。But if mobility keeps falling, the sense of political polarisation and rage in places such as Appalachia will rise. 但如果流动性持续下滑,政治两极分化感和阿巴拉契亚等地区的愤怒情绪将会加剧。Either way, one thing is clear — whatever happens on November 8 — the wrenching process of industrial change will not go away.不管怎样,有一点很清楚,不管11月8日的总统大选结果如何,工业变革的痛苦过程不会消失。 /201611/475980

The disruptive impact of artificial intelligence on jobs, law enforcement or healthcare could be enormous. 人工智能可能给职业、执法或医疗带来巨大的颠覆性影响。It raises concerns among politicians, regulators and society that the technology industry needs to address intelligently and flexibly. 这已经引发了政界人士、监管者及社会的担忧,科技行业需要灵活巧妙地解决这些担忧。Too often, however, the industry sees these intrusions as a threat to be brushed aside. 然而,更常见的情况是,科技行业将这些干预视为威胁而置之不理。It should not.这是不应该的。US technology groups, including Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Amazon and IBM, have set up a non-profit body to work out how society could harness intelligent machines to its benefit, while keeping the risks in check.谷歌(Google)、Facebook、微软(Microsoft)、亚马逊(Amazon)及IBM五大美国科技集团成立了一家非盈利机构,以解决社会如何利用智能机器的好处、同时又保持风险可控的问题。Grandly titled as the Partnership on artificial intelligence to benefit people and society, it promises to conduct research into questions that surround artificial intelligence, such as ethics, and develop ways to make the technology more understandable.被冠以人工智能造福人类和社会合作组织(Partnership on Artificial Intelligence to Benefit People and Society)之名,该机构承诺对围绕人工智能的问题进行研究,例如道德伦理以及寻找方法让技术更易于被理解。One does not have to be a believer in some dystopian future to recognise the benefits of such research. 就算你不是反乌托邦主义者也会认识到此类研究的好处。The landscape is dotted with signs of what happens when clever algorithms are left to their own devices, from the self-driving Tesla car that crashed to Microsoft’s out-of-control chatbot on Twitter.我们已经多次看到当人们让聪明的算法自己操控设备时会发生什么——从特斯拉(Tesla)自动驾驶汽车撞毁,到微软聊天机器人在Twitter上失控。A recent study found that 60 per cent of those surveyed think that intelligent machines would lead to fewer jobs within a decade.最近的一项研究发现,60%的受访者认为,智能机器将在10年内导致工作岗位减少。The industry is fast overcoming the technical obstacles around artificial intelligence. 科技业正在迅速克人工智能领域的技术障碍。Technology experts in a report argued that our lives will soon be shaped by machine-learning algorithms. 技术专家们在一份报告中称,不久以后,我们的生活将被机器学习算法所改变。Rather than superhuman robots, we should expect more precise health diagnostics and predictive regulating. 我们应该期待的是更精准的医疗诊断和预测性监管,而非超人机器人。These changes can have profound positive impacts, experts say, but can also lead to disruptions in how human labour is augmented or replaced. 专家表示,这些变化可能将带来深远、积极的影响,但也可能导致人类劳动力获得补充或被取代的方式出现混乱。The pace of new developments and their direction therefore highlight the urgency to respond to public concerns.因此,人工智能新进展的速度和方向凸显了回应公众担忧的紧迫性。What is less clear is that the right entity to regulate the direction of development is an industry body. 不太确定的一点是,一个行业组织是否是监管人工智能发展方向的合适实体。True, tech companies have a deep understanding of the scope of artificial intelligence and its pace. 没错,科技公司对人工智能的发展空间及速度有更深入的理解。But it would be naive to think that those with a direct stake in the technology can be immune from commercial interests or from the gung-ho enthusiasm of their research teams.但认为那些与这一技术有直接利害关系的公司能够不受商业利益或研究团队的狂热影响的想法也是天真的。The tech industry likes to regard itself as the future, with governments and rival industries mired in the past. 科技业喜欢把自身视作未来,而政府和对手行业代表着守旧。They are, with justification, worried that misinformed regulation would slow down investment in start-ups that focus on artificial intelligence.他们有理由担心,错误的监管将阻碍对人工智能初创企业的投资。But turning their back on policymakers is not an option. 但对政策制定者不理不睬并不是一种选择。Clearly, public opinion demands external oversight of new developments. 显然,公众舆论要求对这些新进展进行外部监督。In its absence, an industry-led regulator would only fuel a perception that tech titans are devising the rules that would suit their own interests.在缺乏外部监督的情况下,行业牵头的监管机构只会让人们更加相信,科技巨头们正在制定符合自身利益的规则。There are examples of groups that have successfully bridged the divide between those in technology and government. 已经有一些组织成功弥合了科技公司与政府之间分歧的例子。The UK’s Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority for instance has dealt with the ethical dilemmas raised by an emerging technology. 例如,英国的人类生育和胚胎学(Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority)负责处理相关新兴技术带来的道德困境。What artificial intelligence needs is a similar but independent public-private partnership that could not only address concerns but also allow policymakers to start preparing for the future.人工智能领域需要的是一个类似但独立的公私合作组织,这样不仅可以化解担忧,还可以让政策制定者开始为未来做好准备。Artificial intelligence opens up immense possibilities. 人工智能开启了无限的可能性。If we want to share the benefits the technology brings to society, it is too important for politicians to hold it back. 如果我们要分享这项技术给社会带来的好处,由政治家来对它加以控制非常重要。The tech industry has a critical role to play but, for it to be effective, it should work with government rather than against it.科技业可以发挥关键作用,但要收到实效,行业应该与政府合作,而非对抗。 /201610/470820


  The Four Books and The Five Classics四书五经The Four Books and The Five Classics were the canonical works of the Confucian culture in the feudal society in ancient China.《四书五经》是中国古代封建社会儒家的经典书籍。The Four Books refers to The Great Learning , The Doctrine of the Mean , Confucian Analects and The Works of Mencius.四书是指《论语》、《孟子》、《大学》和《中庸》;And The Five Classics includes The Book of Poetry (also known as The Book of Songs, The Book of Odes ) , The Book of History , The Book of Rites , The Book of Changes, and The Spring and Autumn Annals .而五经是指《诗经》,《尚书》、《礼记》、《周易》、 《春秋》。The Five Classics got its name during the reign of Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty, and there emerged a group of scholars responsible for the interpretation of these classics.汉武帝独尊儒术,置五经士,专门研习五经。The Four Books are short for The Texts and Annotations of the Pour Books, which were compiled and annotated by Zhu Xi, a Neo-Confucian scholar of the Southern Song Dynasty to establish his own theoretical system of li or Principles.南宋时,大学者朱熹写成一本《四书章句集注》,简称《四书集注》。Collectively called The Four Books and The Five Classics, they cover such a wide range of subjects as literature, history, philosophy, politics, economics, education,moral ethics, geology, arts,science and technology,etc.“四书”的名称就这样流传下来; “四书五经”的内容涉及文学、史学、哲学、政治、经济、教育、伦理、道德、天文、地埋、 艺术、科技等各个方面,and are the most important textbooks for the Confucian scholars to disseminate the educational thoughts of the Confucian School and a must for ancient scholars who had to pass the imperial competitive examination to become government officials.是儒家施行其儒学教化的重要教科书,中国古代文人科举做官的必读书。In short, they have a far-reaching influence on the way of existence, intellectual quality, moral ethics and esthetic values of the Chinese nation.对中国人的民族生存方式、民族心理素质、价值观念、审美观念等都产生了深远的影响。 /201508/394027。

  Some 85 percent of respondents are looking forward to experiencing the application of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) technologies in real life, a survey by China Youth Daily finds.近日,据《中国青年报》的一份调查显示,约有85%的受访者表示期待在实际生活中体验虚拟现实以及增强现实设备。Virtual realities artificially create sensory experiences, which include sight, touch, hearing, and smell, in a way that allows the user to interact with them. Augmented reality uses computer-generated sensory input to enhance a user#39;s perception of the reality.虚拟现实技术可以人为地创造包括视觉、触觉、听觉和嗅觉等感官体验,使用户有身临其境的感觉。而增强现实技术通过计算机产生感官体验以加强使用者的现实体验。In the survey, 84.9 percent said they are y to embrace VR and AR technologies to change their lives, and 76.8 percent said they pay attention to the development of VR and AR.调查中显示,84.9%的受访者表示希望能通过虚拟现实及增强现实技术来丰富自己的生活,此外,76.8%的人表示一直关注这方面的技术发展。More than 78 percent want to try new products that use modified reality technologies. The younger and better-educated the respondent, the more likely they are to be open to new technologies, according to the survey.根据该调查显示,超过78%的受访者想要体验、应用增强现实技术的新产品,越是年轻、学历越高的受访者对此项新技术越持开放的态度。Yan Qing, a respondent in the survey, said he bought a VR headset but found the technology not as powerful as he had imagined. However, Yan is still confident VR will bring more vivid and comfortable experiences in the near future.一位名为颜庆的受访者表示,他曾购买了一部虚拟现实耳麦,但是实际使用效果并没有之前预想那样强大。但是他表示仍然相信虚拟现实技术在未来将给人类带来更加生动和舒适的用户体验。In terms of expectations of how the technologies could be used, 65.6 percent see the application of VR and AR being useful in tourism and shopping, 61.6 percent in education, and 30.5 percent in the medical sector.关于此项技术的应用领域,65.6%的人表示虚拟现实及增强现实技术将被应用于旅游和购物领域,而61.8%的人表示此项技术将被应用于教育领域,还有30.5%的人表示其将应用于医疗领域。Nearly 70 percent said they worry about online safety and 56.3 percent are concerned about the potential risks posed by immature technology, or being unfamiliar with the use of the technology. About half also worry about the threat of high technology to human beings.另外,接近70%的人表示他们担心线上体验的安全性,有56.3%的受访者表示担心此项不成熟的技术存在隐患风险,或者表示对于此项技术比较陌生。另外还有大约一半的人担心此项高科技对人类有威胁。Among the 2,001 participants, 21.8 percent were born in the 1990s and 53.2 percent in the 1980s.在所有2001位受访者中,有21.8%的人为90后,另外80后的比例也占到了53.2%。 /201604/438454


  It#39;s the most expensive cheese in the world, produced by just one farm in Serbia, but donkey cheese could be the next cult food item.驴奶酪是世界上最昂贵的奶酪,全球仅有塞尔维亚一家农场生产,但其有望成为新一代热捧食品。Although incredibly rare, the cheese is being hailed as a health food thanks to its nutritional value - donkey milk is exceptionally high in protein, calcium and omega 3 fatty acids, which in turn are extremely good for maintaining cardiovascular health.虽然极其稀有,但因其营养价值,驴奶酪被称为健康食品——驴奶的蛋白质、钙质和欧米伽3脂肪酸含量都异常地高,这对保持心血管健康大有裨益。With more and more people claiming to have an intolerance to cow#39;s milk and cheese, the donkey alternative is becoming an increasingly attractive option.随着越来越多的人自称有牛奶和牛奶酪不耐受症,驴奶酪也越来越受欢迎。However donkey cheese#39;s hefty price tag means it#39;s unlikely you#39;re going to see it on the shelves of your local Sainsbury#39;s any time soon - the cheese costs 880 per kilo.然而,驴奶酪高昂的价格意味着它近期不太可能出现在你当地的塞恩斯伯里超市货架上——因为它每千克的售价为880英镑。Slobodan Simi#263; is the world#39;s only producer of donkey cheese - he does it all on his farm in Zasavica, 50 miles west of the Serbian capital Belgrade.斯洛丹.西米奇是全球驴奶酪唯一的生产商——他在位于塞尔维亚首都贝尔格莱德西边50英里处的扎撒维卡农场完成全部生产过程。Despite starting out with just 12 donkeys 16 years ago, Simi#263;#39;s herd has now grown to nearly 300. The reason the cheese, known as pule, is so expensive is that it takes 25 litres of fresh donkey milk to make a single litre of cheese.16年前,西米奇仅仅有12头驴,而如今农场的牲畜数量已接近300。 驴奶酪,即“普勒”奶酪如此昂贵的原因在于25升新鲜驴奶仅能做出1升奶酪。What#39;s more, donkeys produce a lot less milk than cows or goats to start with.另外,驴的产奶量比奶牛或山羊要少得多。On Simi#263;’s farm, the female donkeys are milked by hand three times a day.在西米奇的农场,每天要给母驴手工挤3次奶。But the difficulty in creating cheese lies in the fact that donkey milk doesn#39;t have enough casein to coagulate - how Simi#263; gets around this is a closely-guarded secret.但制造驴奶酪的困难在于驴奶的酪蛋白不足,难以凝成奶酪——至于其秘方,西米奇严守如瓶。Although not many people in the world have tasted the rare cheese, it is said to be similar to Manchego with a rich, nutty, earthy flavour and a crumbly texture.尽管世界上尝过稀罕的驴奶酪的人并不多,但据说,其与曼彻戈奶酪相似,味道浓郁深厚,有坚果口味和乡土味道,且口感松脆。One person who is a fan of the filling cheese, however, is Novak Djokovic, who was a few years ago reported to have bought the whole supply, a claim he denied.网球名将诺瓦克.德约科维奇就是驴奶酪的狂热爱好者之一。据报道,他曾在几年前买断所有的驴奶酪。但他对此予以否认。And if legend is to be believed, Queen Cleopatra was also a fan - she is said to have bathed in asses milk to maintain her beauty.如果古埃及传说是可信的话,埃及艳后克利奥佩特拉也钟情于驴奶酪——据称她用驴奶沐浴以使容颜永驻。Donkey milk has a number of health benefits which make it superior to cow#39;s milk - it has 60 times as much vitamin C as the more common milk.驴奶的健康益处数不胜数,使之优于牛奶——其维C含量是普通牛奶的60倍。Donkey milk also has anti-allergen properties and is just 1% fat.驴奶还含有抗过敏物质,而且脂肪含量仅占1%。What#39;s more, it#39;s been claimed that consuming even just a tiny amount daily can help tackle asthma and bronchitis.另外,据称只要每日食用少量驴奶就有助于治疗哮喘和气管炎。But unless it becomes cheaper to produce, it#39;s unlikely donkey cheese is going to give the wider population a health-boost any time soon.然而,若其价格一直居高不下,驴奶酪的健康价值也无法早日惠及大众。 /201611/480859Google’s recent announcement that its DeepMind technology had defeated one of the world’s highest-ranked champions at the ancient game of Go is just one example of the many dramatic advances unfolding in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics. Machines are rapidly taking on ever more challenging cognitive tasks, encroaching on the fundamental capability that sets humans apart as a species: our ability to make complex decisions, to solve problems — and, most importantly, to learn. DeepMind’s feat was especially remarkable not just because the technology ultimately prevailed, but because the system largely trained itself to do so.谷歌(Google)最近宣布其DeepMind技术在古老的围棋比赛中击败了世界排名最高的冠军之一。这只不过是人类在人工智能和机器人领域取得的许多戏剧性进展的一个例子。机器正在迅速承担起越来越具挑战性的认知任务,开始形成使人类有别于其他物种的根本能力:我们做出复杂决定的能力、解决问题的能力,以及(最重要的)学习的能力。DeepMind的功绩之所以尤其引人瞩目,不仅仅是因为技术终于占了上风,而且还因为它基本上是凭借自我训练战胜了对手。In the coming decades, machine learning is likely to be the primary driving force behind a Cambrian explosion of applications in robotics and software automation. It won’t be long before the tools and building blocks that enable engineers and entrepreneurs to create smart robotic systems will be so advanced and accessible that nearly any opportunity to leverage the technology will be identified and addressed almost immediately. The near-term future is likely to be transformed not by general purpose robots or AI systems but rather a nearly limitless number of specialised applications. Collectively, these systems are likely to span the entire job market and economy, ultimately consuming nearly any kind of work that is on some level routine and predictable.在今后几十年里,机器学习可能是机器人和软件自动化应用出现“寒武纪大爆发”(Cambrian explosion,化石记录显示绝大多数的动物“门”都在距今5.42亿年前的寒武纪时期出现,由此得名——译者注)背后的主要推动力量。不久之后,能让工程师和企业家们创建智能机器人系统的工具和构造块将会如此先进和易于获得,以至于近乎所有能够利用这种技术的机遇都会被立即发现和抓住。转变近期未来的,很可能不是一般用途的机器人,而是近乎无限数量的专业应用。总体而言,这些系统可能覆盖整个就业市场和经济,最终接手几乎所有在某种程度上例行和可预见的工作。Sceptics will be quick to point out that history clearly shows that advancing technology creates new types of work even as it destroys existing occupations. This process will doubtless continue, but it seems unlikely that sufficient opportunities will be created to absorb the workers pushed out of traditional jobs. To take just one example, consider the impact of self-driving cars. Clearly, the jobs of millions of people who drive taxis or delivery vehicles or work for Uber will be at high risk.怀疑者将很快指出,历史清楚地表明,先进技术在破坏现有就业机会的同时还会创造新型的就业机会。这种过程无疑将会持续,但机器人技术似乎不太可能创造足够就业机会吸收那些被挤出传统岗位的劳动者。这里只举一个例子,想想自动驾驶汽车带来的影响吧。显而易见的是,驾驶出租车或投递车辆、或者为优步(Uber)工作的数以百万计的人的就业将面临极高风险。On the other hand, building a truly robotic car, capable of operating completely without human intervention, remains a substantial challenge. Autonomous car technology relies heavily on highly detailed advanced mapping of the routes to be driven. The problem is handling the unexpected and infrequent challenges that defy that kind of data-driven approach: the fallen tree that blocks the road, the unscheduled construction or any number of other unpredictable situations that might arise.另一方面,建造真正的、完全不需人类干预就能运行的机器人汽车依然面临严峻挑战。自动驾驶技术严重依赖极为详细的驾驶路线图。问题在于应对背离这种基于数据方式的意外及偶尔出现的挑战:倒下的树木挡在路上,计划外的建筑活动或者其他可能出现的许多无法预测的情况。An obvious solution presents itself: keep people in the loop just to handle those unusual situations. It’s easy to imagine a future where vehicles operate 99 per cent autonomously, but somewhere a control centre contains specially trained people, y to take over when a car signals that it has encountered something outside the bounds of its normal operating environment. Those controllers, of course, will be engaged in one of those “new” occupations on which we rest our hopes. But how many of those jobs will there be, relative to the number of driving jobs lost?一个显而易见的解决办法应运而生:让人留在环路中,以便处理那些异常情况。不难想象未来的车辆在99%的情况下自动驾驶,但在控制中心会有经过特殊培训的专业人员,他们随时准备在汽车发出信号表明其遭遇正常运行环境以外的情况时接手。当然,那些控制人员将从事我们寄予厚望的“新”职业之一。但是相比失去的那么多驾驶工作,会有多少那样的工作机会?Needless to say, this mismatch between job destruction and creation isn’t going to be confined to driving. This basic approach — automating nearly all routine and predictable aspects of an occupation and then consolidating the remaining unpredictable tasks into a small number of jobs — is likely to be applied across the board. The low-wage service sector jobs in areas such as fast food and retail, which constitute a substantial fraction of the jobs being created by the economy in both the US and the UK, are certain to be heavily affected. Even more important will be all the white-collar occupations that involve relatively routine information analysis and manipulation. As these “good” jobs, often held by university graduates, begin to evaporate, faith in evermore education and training as the common solution to technological disruption of the job market seems likely to also erode.不用说,这种就业破坏和创造之间的不匹配不仅局限于驾驶。这种基本套路——将一份工作的几乎所有例行和可预见的部分都自动化,然后将剩余的不可预测的任务整合为少数的工作岗位——很可能被应用于各行各业。快餐和零售等低薪务行业的就业机会无疑会受到巨大影响——目前美国和英国经济创造的就业岗位中有一大部分是在这些务行业。甚至更为重要的将是,所有那些涉及相对例行的信息分析和操纵的白领职业都会受到影响。随着这些往往由大学毕业生从事的“好”工作开始消失,人们很可能不再相信越来越多的教育和培训是针对技术对就业市场破坏的良方。All of this portends a social, economic and political disruption for which we are completely unprepared. Widesp unemployment (or even underemployment) has clear potential to rend the fabric of society. Beyond that, it also carries substantial economic risks: in a world with far too few jobs, who will have the income and confidence to purchase the products and services produced by the economy? Where will demand come from? For years, average households in the US have been relying ever more on debt to support their consumption. How will they continue to service those debts in a future where jobs are beginning to evaporate en masse?所有这些预示着一场我们毫无防备的社会、经济和政治混乱。普遍失业(甚至不充分就业)显然有可能撕裂社会架构。此外,它还带有巨大的经济风险:在一个就业岗位实在太少的世界里,谁会有收入和信心购买经济体生产的产品和务?需求将会来自哪里?多年来,美国普通家庭越来越依赖债务持他们的消费。在就业岗位开始大规模消失的未来,他们如何才能继续偿还这些债务?In recent years, prominent individuals such as Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk have warned of the risks associated with “killer robots” or super-intelligent machines. While these concerns may some day be relevant, and while there are certainly important ethical considerations involving the use of autonomous systems in military and security applications, I would argue that the most important immediate challenge we face will be adjusting to the economic and social implications of a robotic revolution in the workplace. That disruption is aly beginning to unfold, and one might reasonably argue that its impact can aly be measured in terms of the political upheaval occurring in both the US and Europe. If we fail to have a meaningful public conversation about what robotics and artificial intelligence mean for the future, and develop workable ways in which to adapt our economy and society, then far greater, and more frightening, volatility is sure to soon arrive.最近几年,史蒂芬#8226;霍金(Stephen Hawking)和埃隆#8226;马斯克(Elon Musk)等知名人士警告了与“机器人杀手”或超智能机器相关的风险。尽管这些担忧有朝一日会变得相关,尽管在军事和安全应用场合采用自动化系统确实有重要的伦理课题,但我仍会主张,我们面临的最重要最紧迫的挑战将是适应职场机器人革命的经济和社会影响。这种影响已经开始显现,人们可以合理地辩称,从美国和欧洲的政治动荡已经可以看出这种影响。如果我们不能围绕机器人和人工智能对未来意味着什么展开有意义的公共讨论,并找到让我们的经济和社会适应的可行方法,那么更严重更可怕的动荡必定会很快到来。 /201605/444167

  愿意惹的麻烦As someone who subscribes to and s a dozen personal finance blogs, I have noticed something that many of those in the blogosphere would probably see as a wonderful problem to have. As both a hard worker and a diligent saver, I have been able to save the maximum retirement amount and the maximum SEP amount each year. I no longer meet the income level to contribute to a Roth, but you better believe I did when I was able. I also fund my 3 kids’ 529 plans every month. Educational charities and my kids’ PTA also get nice donations every year.After doing this for a decade or more, I realize that I love the idea of saving the money. I have prepaid my mortgage so that I have only a year to go to pay off a 15 year loan in 8 years. I also have non-retirement assets that have experienced the ups and downs of the uncertain economy.Poor me, right?What astounds me is that for the first time in my life, I can do whatever I want, but I don’t know what to do. I never prepared myself for this day. After 15 years’ of diligent and careful saving, I find that the spending of money doesn’t provide the joy or happiness I thought it would.Don’t get me wrong. The freedom to not worry when a car breaks down or I need a suit is satisfying. I love my house even more now that it is about to be all mine. My favorite luxury is actually using a service to do our laundry. For .00/lb they get it, wash it, fold it, and return it. I know it isn’t worth it, but both my wife and I hate doing laundry.For all you savers, please pay attention — do your best to figure out why you are saving the money. For me it was always the ability to stop working early — something I coveted when I was 25. Now that I am about to turn 40, I realize that I like my jobs, and that I don’t do as well without structure in my days. So yes, I saved, but now what?Here are 7 questions to consider in advance:What are you going to do once your financial moves come to fruition?What will you concentrate on next?What will make you happy?What will you do with the money?What aspects of my financial planning will be difficult to change?How have your priorities changed over time?And finally—how are they likely to change going forward?I always thought I could turn off the saving, frugal, careful part of my brain once I reached a certain level of financial security. However, I am increasingly aware of the fact that if you pursue something diligently for 15 years, it becomes who you are.Be careful in what you wish for. Please comment if you have experienced something similar. 当某些人在预定以及阅读许多个人理财客的时候,我发现许多客里都能看到有一个麻烦大家都很乐意去惹。作为一个努力工作以及努力存钱的人,我已经存了足够退休养老的钱以及每年都交足够的公积金。我现在没有到达可以买得起陀飞轮腕表的工资水平,但是请相信我如果一旦我有能力我一定会买的。我还每月为我的三个孩子在529计划基金里交钱。每年教育慈善基金和我孩子的家庭教师协会也从我那里得到了不小的捐助。这样交了几十年的钱之后,我意识到我喜欢上了攒钱这个想法。我已经为我的抵押贷款存了一笔钱,现在十五年的贷款我把它缩短到了8年付清,现在还有一年我就付清了。我还有一些经受了不稳定经济震荡的永久资产。我很可怜,对吗?令我惊讶的是我第一次发现我可以随心所欲的做我想做的事情,但是我却不知道该做什么。对此我根本没有准备。经过了十五年的努力攒钱,我发现花钱竟然不能带给我原本我认为应该有的快乐。认为我做的不对?车抛锚不用担心或者随心所欲地买套套装都很令我感到满意。因为我的房子即将正真属于我的所以我更加爱我的房子了。我最喜欢的奢侈享受是让别人为我洗衣。取、洗、叠、送整个务按照每磅一美元计算。我知道不值那价,不过我和我的生活不能忍受自己洗衣的日子。所有的“存友”们注意了,你必须搞清楚你攒钱是为了啥。对于我来说就是为了早点退休,我25岁就有这打算了。然而我现在都快40了,我发现我喜欢上了我的工作,而我的日子也不会过得无所事事。所以我开始存钱, 但是当你决定要在攒钱的时候首先应该干嘛呢?以下是首先要考虑的7个问题:1. 一旦你手头的资金稳定下来你打算做什么2. 你下面将要以什么为重心3. 是什么让你开心4. 你的这些钱要怎么用?5. 在哪些方面我的攒钱计划很难做出相应的调整6. 随着时间的推移你的侧重点有哪些改变7. 最后,他们怎么样向好的方向改变我总是想着一旦我有了一定的经济实力我可以摆脱攒钱、节俭以及绞尽脑汁。然而,我越来越有一种感触:当你努力追求某样东西十五年之后,那样东西基本已经变得和你一样。谨慎地决定你到底要追求啥东西。如果你有同样的问题请给我留言。 /200803/30495

  In the 12 years since Mark Zuckerberg launched Facebook, the global media landscape has changed beyond recognition. This is in no small part due to the social media platform that he started as an undergraduate, which is now one of the biggest global distributors of news.在马克.扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)推出Facebook以来的12年里,全球媒体版图发生了天翻地覆的变化。这在很大程度上可归因于他在读本科期间创立的这个社交媒体平台,如今这个平台已是全球最大的新闻分销商之一。Where printed newspapers were traditionally constrained by the cost of physical distribution, Facebook and other social media are, by contrast, equipped with the power to transmit information across borders at limited or no cost. This has brought undoubted benefits to millions of users who can access information more ily than before. It has also brought with it responsibilities.印刷版报纸传统上受到物理分发成本的约束,相比之下,Facebook和其他社交媒体具有以有限成本、甚至无成本方式跨境传播信息的威力。这给数以百万计的用户带来了不容置疑的好处,他们能够空前便利地获取信息。这也带来了责任。Such obligations will become increasingly difficult for Facebook to brush aside in light of the controversy generated by its role in the sp of misinformation.鉴于Facebook在虚假信息传播方面扮演的角色所引发的争议,该公司要回避这种义务将变得越来越困难。Fake news propagated by partisan websites proliferated across social media in an unprecedented fashion ahead of Donald Trump’s victory in US elections. The degree to which this influenced voters is hard to gauge. But given that more than half of Americans source news from social media, 150m of them on Facebook, it is an obvious source of concern.在唐纳德.特朗普(Donald Trump)赢得美国大选之前,党派性网站发送的假消息以前所未有的方式在社交媒体上传播。很难衡量这些假消息影响选民的程度。但鉴于一半以上美国人从社交媒体获取新闻(其中1.5亿从Facebook获取新闻),这明显是一个令人担心的问题。Nor is Facebook alone in feeling the heat. The spotlight shifted to Google on Monday after it gave prominence in its search rankings to a false report claiming that Mr Trump had won the popular vote.也并不只是Facebook感受到压力。聚光灯在周一转向谷歌(Google),因为它在搜索排名中突出了一则虚假报道,称特朗普已经赢得民众选票。Mr Zuckerberg argues that Facebook is a technology company not a media company. Unlike traditional news media, where editors curate content and check accuracy and balance, Facebook deploys engineers to write algorithms that select news according to the historic preferences of users. Mr Zuckerberg is reluctant for his company to assume a role as arbiter of the truth.扎克伯格辩称,Facebook是一家技术公司,而不是一家媒体公司。不像传统的新闻媒体有编辑来策划内容、检查准确性和保持平衡,Facebook让工程师编写算法,根据用户的历史偏好来选择新闻。扎克伯格不愿让他的公司担当真相的仲裁者。One advantage of the network business models adopted at the outset by the likes of Google, Facebook, Twitter, Uber and Airbnb was that they were all capital light. Ethical and financial responsibility for how the networks were precisely used was less than clear. This made some sense: if you are threatened over the phone, you do not blame the phone company.谷歌、Facebook、Twitter、优步(Uber)和Airbnb从一开始就采用的网络商业模式有一大优势,那就是它们都是“轻资本”的。围绕这些网络究竟如何被使用的道德和财务责任不那么清楚。这有一定道理:如果有人打电话威胁你,你不能责怪电话公司。The burden of responsibility is growing for all of these businesses as they expand. Even Facebook employees have found the company’s defence less than convincing. Some of them have formed an unofficial task force to investigate the role of their platform in sping fake news.随着这些企业发展壮大,它们的责任负担也随之加大。就连Facebook员工也发现该公司的辩护缺乏说力。其中一些人成立了一个非官方工作组,调查他们的平台在传播假消息方面起到的作用。Facebook is not only a 21st-century newsagent. It plays a far more sophisticated role in disseminating information and encouraging the sharing of news among people of similar beliefs and opinions.Facebook不只是一个21世纪的报刊亭。它在传播信息、鼓励信念和观点相似的人们在彼此之间分享新闻方面,发挥着复杂得多的作用。There is tacit acknowledgment of the inherent dangers in leaving everything to algorithms. Both Facebook and Google have moved this week to restrict advertising on online platforms carrying fake news. If the two companies are able to discern which websites are sping misinformation they should also be in a better position to filter out blatant falsehood.对于把一切都扔给算法这种做法的固有危险,已经得到了默认。Facebook和谷歌两家本周已采取行动,限制在散布假消息的在线平台上投放广告。如果这两家公司能够分辨哪些网站在传播错误信息,那么它们也应该在屏蔽掉那些公然谎言方面处于比较有利的地位。This is not a one-off election drama. Finding facts is becoming more important as some politicians do whatever it takes to attract support.这不是一次性的选举戏剧。随着某些政界人士不择手段地吸引持,发现事实正变得更加重要。The challenges of adapting technology to play a policing role are great, and companies such as Facebook and Google are understandably wary of drawing accusations of bias by intervening in the nature of content. They must nevertheless shoulder some responsibility for distinguishing fact from fiction.调整技术、使其起到监督作用,这里的挑战是艰巨的,而Facebook和谷歌这样的公司担心干预内容的性质会被指责存在倾向性是可以理解的。然而,它们必须肩负起区分真伪信息的一部分责任。 /201611/478632。


  Now, 22 years later, the MP3 truly is dead, according to the people who invented it.22年后的今天,MP3格式的发明者宣布了它的正式终结。The Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits, a division of the state-funded German research institution that bankrolled the MP3#39;s development in the late #39;80s, recently announced that its ;licensing program for certain MP3 related patents and software of Technicolor and Fraunhofer IIS has been terminated.;MP3诞生于上世纪80年代末,由德国国立研究机构夫琅和费集成电路研究所资助研发。近日,该研究所宣布“特艺集团和夫琅和费集成电路研究所已经终止了某些MP3相关专利的授权”。Bernhard Grill, director of that Fraunhofer division and one of the principals in the development of the MP3, told NPR over email that another audio format, AAC — or ;Advanced Audio Coding,; which his organization also helped create — is now the ;de facto standard for music download and s on mobile phones.; He said AAC is ;more efficient than MP3 and offers a lot more functionality.;夫琅和费集成电路研究所主任伯恩哈德·格里尔和MP3的一位研发负责人,在一封寄给NPR的邮件中表示,研究所发明的另一种音频格式高级音频编码(ACC)已经成为了手机下载音乐和视频等内容的标准,ACC格式拥有更高的效率和更强大的功能。As Stephen Witt illustrates throughout his excellent opening chapters in Witt#39;s How Music Got Free, the MP3, before upending the musical world as we knew it, almost died in the research lab.史蒂芬·维特在《音乐是怎么变得免费的》开篇中写道,早在MP3颠覆整个音乐产业之前,它就已经死在了实验室里。The team of engineers that invented the format was attempting to make it possible to send audio over telephone lines, which could only transmit small amounts of data. Fraunhofer — in competing for the legitimacy it needed to persuade tech companies to actually use MP3s, and so actually make money.研发MP3格式的工程师团队最初试图要让音频格式通过电话线传输--我们知道它的传输速率非常慢--争取到合法性后再将其卖给技术公司,以获得收益。It was repeatedly beleaguered by clever corporate sabotage and later by piracy.可惜这些努力总是被盗版等诸多问题所阻挠。Other failures hinged on the need for the world to catch up with the technology#39;s possibilities: Along the way, one computer engineer on the team had a patent for a music streaming service denied by the German government because it was technologically absurd at the time.另外,MP3格式的开发团队在把握技术态势上也显得无所适从。实验室的一位工程师在当时就提出了音乐流媒体务的构想,却遭到了德国有关部门的驳回,因为这在当时看来就是天方夜谭。In early 1995, the format was on life support, with one licensing deal being the use of the technology by hockey arenas across the U.S. (That spring meeting in which the MP3 was declared dead came months later, after another failed pitch that denied it being standardized and widely adopted.)早在1995年,MP3格式开始了自己的生命周期,它首先被应用在美国的冰球球场上。然而它的生命周期其实只有一年,因为各种各样的错误,研究者们始终未能使MP3格式标准化和广泛接受。A little later, Fraunhofer began giving away the software that consumers needed to turn compact discs into MP3s at home. The rest is recent history.之后,研究所决定向消费者免费赠送软件,鼓励用户将压缩磁盘上的歌曲转存到家用电脑MP3文件中,从此这一格式便得以广泛传播。And it#39;s not just that more efficient and complete ways of storing music have been developed. There was a deeper problem.尽管MP3比其他存储音乐的方式更加高效,但还有一个严重的问题。The engineers who developed the MP3 were working with incomplete information about how our brains process sonic information, and so the MP3 itself was working on false assumptions about how holistically we hear.MP3的开发者们在进行研发的时候,并没有完全把握了大脑处理声音信息的知识。因此,MP3错误地抛弃了许多必要的信息量。As psychoacoustic research has evolved, so has the technology that we use to listen. New audio formats and products, with richer information, are arriving.随着心理声学研究的进步,相关技术也不断完备,新的音频格式和产品层出不穷,它们承载着更丰富的信息量。So is it the end of an era? We may still use MP3s, but AAC is indeed much better — it#39;s the default setting for iTunes now — and other formats are even better than it, though they also take up mountains of space on our hard drives.那么,MP3时代是否结束了?实际上,我们仍然可以使用MP3。然而,作为iTunes默认格式的ACC确实更好一些。虽然其他的一些格式可能比ACC格式更好,但是却可能占用我们大量的硬盘空间。 /201705/510158

  你浪费了多少上班时间?Americans who feel bored and underpaid do work hard -- at surfing the Internet and catching up on gossip, according to a survey that found U.S. workers waste about 20 percent of their working day.An online survey of 2,057 employees by online compensation company Salary.com found about six in every 10 workers admit to wasting time at work with the average employee wasting 1.7 hours of a typical 8.5 hour working day.Personal Internet use topped the list as the leading time-wasting activity according to 34 percent of respondents, with 20.3 percent then listing socializing with co-workers and 17 percent conducting personal business as taking up time.The reasons why people wasted time were varied with nearly 18 percent of respondents questioned by e-mail in June and July said boredom and not having enough to do was the main reason.The second most popular reason for wasting time was having too long hours (13.9 percent), being underpaid (11.8 percent), and a lack of challenging work (11.1 percent).While the amount of time wasted at work seems high, Bill Coleman, chief compensation officer at Salary.com. said the numbers have improved, with the amount of time wasted dropping 19 percent since Salary.com conducted its first annual survey on slacking at work in 2005. Then workers reported wasting 2.09 hours of their working day."I think (the decline) is really a result of the economy and that there's more business, more work available and less time tosit around wondering what you are going to do with your day," Coleman told reporters. 厌倦工作、又觉得薪金太低的美国人把时间都浪费到了上网和闲聊上。一项调查发现,美国人浪费了约20%的上班时间。该项由在线薪酬公司Salary.com网站开展的在线调查共有2057名雇员参与。调查发现,每10名员工中约有6人承认自己在上班时浪费了时间。在一个典型的8.5小时工作日中,一般员工会浪费1.7个小时。上网是第一大浪费上班时间的活动,有34%的受访者利用上班时间上网;20.3%的受访者在上班时与同事闲聊;17%的人处理私人事务。人们在上班时做其它事情的原因各不相同。在6月和7月的电子邮件受访者中,近18%的人称这样做的主要原因是无聊和没事可做。第二大原因是工作时间太长(13.9%);其次是薪资太低(11.8%)和工作缺乏挑战(11.1%)。尽管看起来被浪费的上班时间很多,但Salary.com网站的薪资主管比尔·柯尔曼说,从具体数字 上看,情况还是有所改观。自从2005年Salary.com网站首次开展此项一年一度的调查以来,被浪费的上班时间数下降了19%。当时员工一个工作日 浪费的时间为2.09小时。科尔曼在接受记者采访时说:“我认为这是经济发展的结果。公司业务更多、需要处理的事情更多,员工们已没有多余的时间去考虑如何打发时间了。” /200803/29231

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