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南昌大学第一附属医院激光祛斑多少钱

2017年10月24日 19:09:12
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抚州去痘坑多少钱新余市渝水区分宜县鼻头鼻翼缩小多少钱Business商业报道Semiconductors半导体Chipping in芯片技术集资A deal to keep Moores law alive一场交易使得尔定律劫后余生THE arrival of a new generation of semiconductors has come a little closer.新一代半导体诞生的日子离我们又近了一些。On July 9th ASML, a Dutch company that dominates the market for the lithographic equipment that etches circuits onto silicon, struck a deal with Intel, the worlds largest chipmaker.7月9号,荷兰公司阿斯麦与全球最大的芯片制造商英特尔签订了一份协议。阿斯麦因拥有光刻设备将电路刻蚀在硅片上的技术而控制着大多数市场。Intel has agreed to pay about 2.5 billion for 15% of ASML.因特尔同意以25亿欧元收购阿斯麦15%的股份。It will provide 829m for ASMLs research-and-development efforts and will buy the resulting tools, due in a few years.Intel将为阿斯麦的研发活动投资8.29亿欧元,并在未来几年购买其研发产品。ASML has also been talking to its two other biggest customers, Samsung and Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation. It is willing to sell 25% of itself in all.阿斯麦也正在和其他两个最大的客户三星、台湾积体电路制造股份有限公司进行洽谈商议。阿斯麦愿意出售自身所有股份的25%。Of Intels Ramp;D money, 553m will go on technology to make chips on silicon wafers 450mm in diameter.英特尔公司的研发经费中有5.53亿欧元将用于研发用直径450毫米的硅晶圆制作芯片的技术。Twice as many chips could be cut from these as from todays biggest, which are 300mm across.与目前利用直径最大的300毫米硅晶圆相比,这种技术切割出来的芯片数大一倍。The rest of the cash is for extreme ultraviolet technology, which the industry hopes will push the width of circuits below todays frontier of 20 nanometres.其余的资金将用于远紫外线光刻技术的研发,业内希望这项技术能令电路打破目前20纳米宽的下限。This will enable more circuitry to be packed onto smaller chips—and allow the life of Moores law, which says that the number of transistors on a chip doubles every 18 months or so, to be extended yet again.这将使更小的芯片上能封装更多线路—并使得尔定律的寿命再次得到延长,尔定律即集成电路芯片上所集成的电路的数目,大约每隔18个月就翻一番。With customers taking equity, putting up research money and making advance orders, ASML will be surer of having a market for products that take a lot of time and money to create.因为客户购买其股票、投入更多研发经费以及提前下订,ASML那些需要大量时间和金钱才能制造的产品肯定会有市场。It reckons that EUV will cost it and its suppliers 3.4 billion.阿斯麦估计远紫外线光刻技术的研发将花费公司和公司供应方 34亿欧元。Moving to 450mm will require new machines and the reconfiguration of factories.推动其研发到直径450毫米晶圆需要新机器和工厂的重新配置。A report in 2005 by VLSI, a research firm, estimated that the shift from 200mm to 300mm wafers a decade ago cost the industry .6 billion.2005年,研究公司VLSI发布了一份报告,称十年前,从200mm至300 mm晶圆的转变估计令该行业花掉了116亿美元。Until Intel promised to pay, ASML had been reluctant to press on with 450mm technology.直到英特尔承诺付其经费,阿斯麦才愿意推进450毫米晶圆技术的研发。The development of EUV, in contrast, was likely anyway.相比之下,远紫外线光刻技术的研发势在必行。EUV has been very important, says Richard Windsor of Nomura, an investment bank. Most semiconductor companies consider it critical to taking them beyond 20 nanometres.投资野村券的理查德·温莎称:远紫外线光刻技术一直都非常重要,大多数半导体公司认为,要制造小于20纳米的电路,这项技术是关键。Deals like this weeks should help to get the market going—and cement ASMLs lead in the lithographic race.像这周这样的交易应该会帮助市场得以运转,同时巩固了阿斯麦在半导体光刻工艺技术领域的领先地位。 /201307/248975Science and technology科学技术Inflatable spacecraft充气式宇宙飞船Blown up in orbit在轨道上运行时充气膨胀A plan to use enormous balloons to build space stations一个大量使用气球构建空间站的计划THE International Space Station is mankinds holiday house in the sky.国际空间站是人类的空中度假小屋。Like all such houses, it is a luxury item.它与其他所有类似小屋一样,都是奢侈品。And like many similar projects on Earth, the owners cannot resist tinkering with it.它的所有者会忍不住地想去改进它,就像改进地球上很多类似项目一样。It was in this spirit that, on January 16th, NASA announced that the ISS is to get an extension.本着这样的精神,美国航天航空局在1月16日宣布将扩展国际空间站的空间。This will not, as might have been the case on Earth, be a conservatory or loft conversion.这并不会像地球上那样是一个温室或者改装后的阁楼居室,Instead, it will be a BEAM, or Bigelow Expandable Activity Module.而是一个毕格罗可充气活动太空舱。Robert Bigelow, an American hotel entrepreneur and space enthusiast, has for years been pushing the idea that space stations should be made not of metal but of fabric.美国酒店企业家罗伯特·毕格罗是一位太空爱好者,多年来一直在劝人们接受这样的想法—构建空间站应该用织物而不是金属。That would mean they could be folded up for launch and inflated in orbit.这将意味着,空间站在发射时可以折叠,在轨道上运行时可以充气膨胀。An inflatable space station may sound like the proverbial chocolate teapot,可充气的空间站听起来可能像大家所熟悉的巧克力茶壶。but if you are going to have space stations at all, then inflation is not a bad way of making them.但如果真要建空间站,那么采用膨胀法是个不错的选择。There have been many proposals in the past.过去也曾提出过很多方案。Wernher von Braun, the patriotically flexible developer of the V2 military rocket and the Saturn V moon rocket, sketched plans in the 1950s.20世界50年代,沃纳·冯·布劳恩草拟了初步计划。他热爱祖国,灵活变通,为德国开发了V2军用火箭,为美国开发了土星五号卫星火箭。The Goodyear Aircraft Corporation produced mock-ups in the early 1960s.20世纪60年代早期,固特异航空公司生产出了这样的实体模型。In the 1980s the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory came up with a detailed space-exploration plan which relied on inflatable craft, thus quickly attracting the nickname brilliant condoms.20世纪80年代,劳伦斯利物莫国家实验室提出了一个空间探索的详细方案,由于以充气式宇宙飞船为载体,因而很快获得了非凡的安全套的昵称。And in the 1990s NASA proposed sending astronauts to Mars in an inflatable craft called TransHab.20世纪90年代,美国航空航天局提议用充气式宇宙飞船TransHab把航天员送上火星。Despite the branding possibilities offered by the Livermore version of the idea, Mr Bigelow and NASA prefer the less evocative term expandable module in their literature.尽管劳伦斯利物莫国家实验室关于充气式宇宙飞船的说法已经提供了品牌价值,但毕格罗和美国航空航天局在资料中更倾向使用可膨胀的太空舱,这个术语比较不会让人产生联想。Regardless of the name, however, making spacecraft and space stations out of fabric offers several advantages over the tin-can approach.但不管取什么名字,比起用锡罐建造宇宙飞船和空间站,用织物建造有几大好处。The most important is weight. Inflatable space stations are lighter than metal ones, and even small savings in weight make a big difference to launch costs.最关键的是重量。充气式空间站比金属材质的空间站更轻,即使是减轻一点重量也会大大降低发射成本。Expandable modules may be safer, too.膨胀式太空舱可能也更加安全。Ground tests by Bigelow Aerospace, Mr Bigelows vehicle for his orbital ambitions, suggest that the modules walls—thick sandwiches of exotic fabrics such as Vectran and Nomex —offer better protection than metal ones against impacts from micrometeors and the increasing amount of artificial debris that is in orbit around Earth.毕格罗航天公司对毕格罗实现轨道飞行梦的工具进行了地面测试,结果表明:太空舱壁面的厚夹层是由独特的织物制成,如聚芳酯纤维和诺梅克斯。比起金属制造的壁面,织物壁面能提供更好的保护,免受微流星和越来越多绕地球轨道飞行的人造碎片的影响。They are also less likely than metals to generate dangerous secondary radiation when bombarded with things like cosmic rays.在撞击如宇宙射线等东西时,比起金属材质的太空舱,膨胀式太空舱产生二次辐射的可能性更小。That is one reason why NASA was interested in using inflatable craft for the months-long journey to Mars.这也是美国航空航天局对使用充气式宇宙飞船进行长达数月的火星之旅感兴趣的一大原因。Nor is the idea untested.充气式太空舱已经有过测试。In 2006 and 2007 Bigelow launched two unmanned versions, Genesis 1 and Genesis 2.毕格罗分别在2006年和2007年发射了创世纪1号和创世纪2号两架无人驾驶宇宙飞船。BEAM, which will be bolted onto the space station in 2015, if all goes well, will be the last test of the technology before the launch of the firms intended commercial product, the BA-330.毕格罗可充气活动太空舱将于2015年装在空间站上。如果一切进展顺利,毕格罗可充气活动太空舱将是该公司发射预期商业产品BA-330太空舱之前的最后一次技术测试。This will offer 330 cubic metres of internal space.充气式太空舱将提供330立方米的舱内空间。At the moment the ISS has a volume of 916 cubic metres.目前国际太空站的体积为916立方米。The firm plans to launch two BA-330s in 2016, link them together in orbit, and thus create a station with 70% of the pressurised volume of the ISS for a fraction of the cost.毕格罗航天公司计划将于2016年发射两个BA-330太空舱,并在轨道上相互连接,从而能用国际空间站增压体积的70%建造一个空间站,费用也是之前建造的一小部分。This first station, dubbed the Alpha Station, will be equipped with laboratory equipment, workbenches and the like.第一个这样的空间站也叫A空间站,将配备实验室仪器和工作台等诸如此类的设备。Bigelow hopes to offer 60 days aboard it for around 26m, assuming that its guests make the trip into orbit on one of the cheap rockets provided by SpaceX, another private space company.毕格罗希望能够提供费用约为2,600万美元在空间站呆60天的务,假设旅客到轨道乘坐的是由私人太空公司SpaceX提供的廉价火箭。Bigelow hopes in particular to win business from governments without big space programmes of their own.比格罗特别希望能从没有大型空间项目的政府手中赢得业务。To that end it has memoranda of understanding with several, including those of Britain, Japan and the Netherlands.为此,毕格罗航天公司与几国政府签署了谅解备忘录,其中包括英国、日本和荷兰。It is also wooing the private sector, though that may prove tricky.该公司也在寻求私营部门的持,尽管这可能需要技巧。There has long been talk of the advantages of zero gravity for manufacturing specialised materials whose components are of very different densities, and for growing specialised protein crystals for examination by pharmaceutical companies.长久以来,大家一直都在谈论在失重的情况下,制造组件密度差异很大的特殊材料和培育特殊蛋白质晶体用于制药公司检查的好处。This was, indeed, one of the sales pitches for the ISS. Unfortunately, the private sector stayed away in droves, and the scientific output of the ISS has been pitiful.这实际上是国际空间站的推销说辞。大批私营部门都不参与,而国际空间站的研究成果也是少得可怜。If renting the Alpha Station out as a laboratory does not work, there is always the option of turning it into a holiday house.如果不能把A空间站租出用作实验室,那么可以选择把它改成度假屋。Given Mr Bigelows background, it is often assumed that this is the plan anyway.考虑到毕格罗的背景资料,人们常常会认为,这至少也是个方案。The firm insists that it is not, at least for now.毕格罗航天公司却不赞同,认为至少现在不是。But who will really be interested in paying 26m to go into orbit remains to be seen.但究竟谁会对花2,600万美元进入轨道感兴趣,目前还不得而知。Inflated space stations are fine, as long as they do not lead to inflated expectations.只要充气式空间站能与预期效果相符,那充气式空间站还是很不错的。 /201310/260490南昌大学第二附属医院冰点脱毛多少钱

宜春治疗狐臭多少钱南昌大学第四附属医院脱毛手术多少钱南昌手术去除生长纹Books and Arts;Leonardo in London;Deciphering the da Vinci code;文艺;李奥纳多在伦敦;解密达芬奇密码;A new show offers a rare opportunity to compare Leonardo da Vincis paintings;一个新展览为比较李奥纳多达芬奇的画作提供了一个难能可贵的机会;Scientist, engineer, musician and great artist, Leonardo da Vinci is the archetypal Renaissance man. This undisputed genius, who lived to be 67, was also one of historys most accomplished underachievers. He started many projects he did not finish; he accepted commissions he never began; his many planned treatises remained just notes. Only 18 of his paintings survive. Half of them are included in a show that opened on November 9th at Londons National Gallery, making this the most important da Vinci display ever.集科学家,工程师,音乐家和伟大的艺术家于一身的李奥纳多达芬奇就是文艺复兴时期人类的原型。毫无疑问,达芬奇是个天才,他活到了67岁,虽然有很多成就,但是这位天才也是历史上没有充分发挥真实水平的艺术家之一。他启动的很多工程都没有收尾,他接受了任务却从来没开始做,他计划的很多论文却仅仅停留在几条注释上。达芬奇的画作只有18幅流传了下来。11月9日在伦敦国家美术馆举办了一次画展,达芬奇9幅作品也在其中展出,这是迄今为止最隆重的达芬奇画展。The artist was born near Florence in 1452 and went to Milan at the age of 30. Luke Syson, the shows curator, has come to believe that the freedom da Vinci enjoyed there as court painter to Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, was the key that unlocked his genius.达芬奇1452年生于佛罗伦萨附近,三十岁的时候他去了米兰。该展馆馆长卢克塞森相信,宫廷画师达芬奇在为米兰公爵Ludovico Sforza创作时,享受了充分的自由,这是激发达芬奇绘画天赋的关键Mr Sysons contention that Leonardos great breakthrough came in Milan and not later in Florence, as has generally been accepted until now, has captivated curators, collectors and museum directors who have been generous in loaning works to the show; from the Vatican, Prague, Cracow, Paris and the Royal Collection.塞森认为,李奥纳多取得的重大突破在米兰,而不是在后来的佛罗伦萨,一直到今天这一看法都被普遍接受。而塞森的这一主张也吸引了许多展馆馆长,收藏家和物馆负责人,他们都慷慨的将作品借给这次画展,这些画作有的来自梵蒂冈,有的来自布拉格,有的来自克拉科夫,有的来自巴黎,还有的来自皇家珍藏。All the pictures on show were painted during da Vincis 18 years in Milan. Never has it been possible to see so many of da Vincis paintings together. There are also some 50 drawings, including the monumental “Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and Saint John the Baptist” (sometimes called “The Burlington House Cartoon”).展出的所有画作都是达芬奇在米兰18年间创作的。以前要同时见到那么多幅达芬奇作品是不可能的。画展还展出了50幅炭笔素描,具有里程碑意义的《圣母圣婴和圣安妮及施洗约翰》(有时也称《柏林顿宫的漫画》)也包括在其中。The one picture missing from this period is “The Last Supper”, which is painted on a wall. This work, which is badly damaged, is represented here by a large photograph and a near-contemporary (though far inferior) copy. In pages from a notebook da Vincis slanted “mirror” writing describes the guests at a dinner. With a novelists interest in detail, he carefully observed the shrug of one mans shoulders, the position of anothers hands, the scowl on one face and the frown on yet one more.在这一时期,绘制在墙上的画作《最后的晚餐》已经遗失了,这幅作品损坏严重,只能用一张大照片和一幅近现代仿品代替(尽管这幅仿品远远比不上真作).达芬奇在一本笔记本里用倾斜的镜像书写描绘了晚餐中的客人。他带着一个小说家对细节的兴趣。细致入微地观察谁耸了一下肩膀,谁的手怎么放,谁的脸上有怒容,或者谁皱了眉。The exhibition is arranged thematically; in addition to “Beauty and Love”, there is also “Character and Emotion” and “Body and Soul”. The visitor quickly comes face to face with the portrait of Cecilia Gallerani, also known as “The Lady with an Ermine” (pictured above). Although the image is familiar from reproductions, the radiance of the painting is surprising. Further along is an unfinished, yet searing, “Saint Jerome”. For the first time, both versions of “The Virgin of the Rocks”, one the National Gallerys own and the other belonging to the Louvre, are shown together.这是一次主题展览。除了“美与爱”的主题外,还有“个性于情感”,“身体与灵魂”两个主题。参观者一进美术馆立即就能与《西西莉亚·加莱拉尼的画像》,也叫《抱貂的女人》打个照面。尽管各种仿制品已经让我们对这幅画很熟悉了,但是真作所散发出来的光辉仍让人惊叹。往前走能看到一幅未完成但却饱含的《圣杰罗姆》。首次,《岩间的圣母》的两个版本同时展出,一幅属于国家美术馆本馆,另一幅来自卢浮宫。The two versions hang at opposite ends of the long exhibition space. The more one looks at the two pictures, the more visible are the differences between them; the strangely formed rocks in the Louvres version create a protective atmosphere, whereas in the National Gallerys painting the rocks seem quite eerie, contributing to the overall sepulchral feel of the work.这两幅画分别挂在长长的展览区两个相对的尽头,遥遥相望。而且你看得越仔细,就会发现它们的区别也更明显。卢浮宫的版本中,岩石奇特的形状营造出一种保护性的氛围,然而在国家美术馆的版本中。岩石似乎十分可怖,给整幅画蒙上了一层阴森森的感觉。As a philosopher and scientist, da Vinci strove to understand what he observed in his close studies of nature. Art was an expression of his thoughts. “The Lady with an Ermine” shows the Duke of Milans teenage mistress in a fashionable red gown, its slit sleeves revealing a pale underdress. Da Vinci, always fascinated by knots, carefully details the way the black ribbons are tied on Cecilias left sleeve. Her right arm is in shadow. The ties on that sleeve are sketchy. The artist has taken into account his observation that visual acuity declines in the dark. The brain fills in necessary information. The sketchiness of the right sleeve helps bring the portrait to life, creating what Walter Pater, a 19th-century British essayist and art critic, described as a “reality which almost amounts to illusion”.做为一个哲学家和科学家,达芬奇总是在努力的理解他在对自然深入研究中所观察到的一切。艺术曾是他用来表达自己想法的一种形式。《抱貂的女人》画的是米兰公爵年轻的情妇,她身着时髦的红袍,从袖子侧缝中透出她浅色的内衣。打好的结,,还有系在西西莉亚左侧袖子上的黑缎带的精心处理过的细节深深吸引着达芬奇。她的右臂处在阴影之中,所以右侧袖子上的缎带只是粗略的几笔。这位艺术家观察到在阴暗处视觉敏锐度会下降,并把这种观察结果应用到绘画中。达芬奇的大脑总是装满了各种必要的信息。正是右侧袖子的模糊轮廓将这幅肖像变得栩栩如生,正如19世界英国家和艺术批评家沃特帕特所描述的那样,创造出了“几乎等同于幻想的现实”Da Vinci would sometimes spend years thinking about a single painting. Mr Syson hopes visitors to the National Gallery will, in turn, look long and hard at these works. Advance tickets for entry to the end of the year had sold out by the opening day. The show does not close until February 5th 2012, but advance tickets for its final weeks are going fast. Meanwhile, the only way to get in now is to queue for one of the 500 tickets being held back for sale each morning. The security checks are elaborate, but the wait is well worth it.达芬奇有时候会花上几年的时间思索一幅画。所以塞森希望来国家美术馆参观的人们反过来也能仔细的欣赏这些作品。到年末的预售票在开馆当天就已经抢购一空。展览将一直持续到2012年2月5日,展览最后一周的预售票正在大卖。现在要进去参观的唯一方式就是去排队买票,每天早上美术馆只出售500张票。而且安全检查十分复杂,不过这种等待是绝对值得的。 /201305/240203江西人民医院做双眼皮开眼角手术多少钱

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