时间:2018年04月25日 01:54:46

Don: Nice telescope, Yael, what are you looking at?唐:不错的望远镜,雅艾尔,你在看什么?Yale: Bacteria.雅艾尔:细菌。Don: In space?唐:在太空吗?Yale: Not that far out, Don. Scientists recently collected three brand new species of bacteria from the Stratosphere. When I heard about it, I couldnt believe it. Researchers have been using balloon lifted cryosamplers to collect bacteria and fungi from the stratosphere for years.雅艾尔:没那么远,唐。最近科学家们从平流层收集到三种新的细菌品种。当我听说时,我不太相信。多年来,研究人员一直在利用气球举起低温采样器来收集大气中的细菌和真菌。Don: I didnt think that anything can live that high in the amosphere.唐:我不认为在那么高的大气中会有生命存在。Yale: Neither did I. The stratosphere extends from ten to thirty miles above the surface. Thats above the clouds where temperatures can get as cold as minus 76 degrees Fahrenheit, and theres lots of ultra violet radiation.雅艾尔:我以前也是。平流层位于距地表10英里至30英里的高度。那里在云端之上,温度可低至零下76摄氏度,并且有大量的紫外线辐射。Don: So How do they think bacteria got up there?唐:那他们认为细菌是如何到达那里的?Yale: Some scientists think they ride up on particles ejected from volcanoes. Others think bacteria might be sucked through updrafts caused by a special kind of lightning that travels upwards from cloud tops. Forest fires can also cause thunderstorms that toss immense plumes of smoke into the stratosphere. Bacteria could ride on the soot.雅艾尔:有些科学家认为细菌是由火山喷射出的粒子带上去的。还有人则认为,细菌也许是卷入了一种自云层顶端向上运行的特殊闪电造成的上升气流。森林火灾会引起雷暴,将大量浓烟掷入平流层。细菌可能会驾尘而上。Don: And they are the same kind Of bacteria that live here on the surface?唐:那么它们与生活在地表的细菌是同一种类吗?Yale: Some are known species. They have found rod-shaped Bacillus that are very common here as well as Staphylococcus species related to disease causing bacteria. Others are completely new, including two new Bacillus species. Theres also a third group of bacteria found in clumps that cant be cultured in normal bacterial nutrients. So far, they are a puzzle.雅艾尔:有些种类是一样的。已经找到的有非常普遍的杆状杆菌,还有致病细菌——葡萄球菌。 其他的则是完全未知的,包括两个新的杆菌品种。还有第三种细菌,它们成群生长,不能在平常的细菌培养液中培养。到目前为止它仍是个谜。Don: Thats really out of this world, Yael. But you really are trying to see bacteria with your telescope, are you?唐:那真是不可思议,雅艾尔。但你真的在用望眼镜观察细菌,是吗?Yale: No, Don. They are away too small. Im just out enjoying the stars.雅艾尔:不,唐。它们太远,并且太小。我只是在观赏星星。原文译文属!201302/227680

ON MARCH 15th the former governor of Illinois, Rod Blagojevich, will start to serve a 14-year sentence for corruption in a federal low-security prison. In this part of America, he is ting a well-worn path. Over four decades, four governors (out of seven) have been convicted of corruption.伊利诺斯州前州长罗德bull;布拉格耶维奇因在联邦低安全级别监狱中工作腐败,于3月15日开始为期14年的刑罚。在美国的这个地区,他走过了一条曲折的道路。在过去的四十年中,4个州长(共有7个)都因腐败而被定罪。A new report, by Dick Simpson and his colleagues at the University of Chicago, documents the extent to which the state of Illinois and the city of Chicago have been hotbeds of corruption. Chicago, they conclude, has the dubious distinction of being the federal district with the most convictions since 1976.在芝加哥大学迪克bull;辛普森和他的同事们一份新的报告中,他们描绘了作为滋生腐败的温床伊利诺斯州和芝加哥已经到了何种程度。他们宣称,从1976年开始芝加哥就很可能是美联邦中高犯罪率地区,而它也因此显著区别与其他地区。Since then, 1,828 elected officials, appointees, government employees and a few private individuals have been convicted of corruption in Illinois, and 84% of these were in its Northern District;a judicial zone which contains the entire Chicago metropolitan area. During this time around one-third of the cityrsquo;s aldermen have been convicted of corruption. No mayors have been convicted or indicted;not even Bill Thompson, who was backed by Al Capone.从那之后,1828名选举官员、指派官员、政府雇员和一小部分私人个体都因在伊利诺斯州实施腐败而被治罪。他们中的84%都来自于州北部地区;;这是一块包含芝加哥所有繁华区域的司法区。如今整个城市已经有1/3的商人都被定为腐败罪。没有一个市长因腐败被定罪或起诉,甚至在阿尔bull;卡彭持下的比尔bull;汤普森也不例外。Although Chicago is the capital of corruption, the state of Illinois as a whole ranks only third in the country;after the much more populous states of New York and California. But the report documents a pattern of crime that has become synonymous with the Chicago or Illinois ;way; of doing things. All the corrupt governors and 26 of the aldermen had tried to extract bribes from builders, developers, business owners and those seeking to do business with the city or the state. Those who paid bribes either assumed, or were told, that payment was necessary for zoning changes, building permits or any other government action.虽然芝加哥身为腐败之都,但是伊利诺斯州在全国的腐败排名位居第三;;纽约州和加利福尼亚州在这点上更为众望所归。不过报告中描述了一种犯罪方式,这种方式与芝加哥和伊利诺斯州行事方式有相似之处。所有行为腐败的市长和市参议员(市议会长老议员)都曾向建筑商、发展商、大商人以及意欲与城市或者州进行生意交易的人索取过贿赂。这些被索取贿赂的人认为,也有其他人告诉他们,那些作为贿赂的钱财都是为地区改变、建筑许可或是其他任何政府行为所必须的。Mr Blagojevich, notoriously, sought money in exchange for an appointment to a seat in the Senate. Other convictions may have been less spectacular, but the pattern of pay-offs for political favours has prevailed in these parts for 150 years.布拉格耶维奇寻找钱财为了在议会中享有一席之地的事情已经臭名昭著。他的其他罪名没有这么严重,但是通过金钱来交换政治这种方式已经在这个地区盛行了150年了。A project under way by the State Integrity Investigation, due out on March 19th, notes that some changes have been made in the light of past scandals. Mr Simpson thinks the ultimate solution lies in ending the culture of corruption, which would include prohibiting patronage (something he says is on the decline anyway), nepotism and the holding of two government jobs at the same time.国家正义调查局正进行一个于3月19号结束的项目,他们发现在过去的丑闻影响下,一些变化悄然兴起。辛普森先生认为禁止任命职务(他说这个已经在不断减少)、任人唯亲以及同时就职于政府两个职位,这才是断绝腐败问题的最终解决方案。Corruption has cost taxpayers hundreds of millions of dollars and sapped faith in government. Both the new governor of Illinois, Pat Quinn, and the new mayor of Chicago, Rahm Emanuel, have shown a willingness to reform. Many of Mr Emanuelrsquo;s early executive orders are designed to improve transparency and accountability. But Mr Simpson says too many loopholes remain. The devil, as ever, is in the detail.腐败问题以纳税人数以百万计的金钱作为代价,并且使得公众丧失了对政府的信任。伊利诺斯州的新州长奎恩和芝加哥的新市长拉姆bull;伊曼纽尔都表示了改革的决心。伊曼纽尔先生早期的行政命令也意在提高政府行政的透明度和信任感。但是辛普森先生说这个体制还是有太多的漏洞,而最终的魔鬼,仍然是在细节上。201203/173109

Obituary;Seve Ballesteros;讣告;塞弗·巴耶斯特罗斯;Severiano Ballesteros, Europes greatest golfer, died on May 7th, aged 54.欧洲高尔夫名将Severiano Ballesteros,5月7日辞世,享年54岁。As he struck the ball, Seve Ballesteros feared he had overdone it. After a good 3-wood tee shot and a decent sand-wedge to the 18th green at St Andrews in 1984, the ball was only 15 feet below the hole. Now, in his sheer eagerness to win, he had hit it too hard. But no. The ball rolled sweetly towards the hole, improbably curving round, hovered on the edge of the cup, then tumbled in. It seemed to go in slow motion as he willed it and willed it forward. And with that he had won the Open.当把球推出时,塞弗·巴耶斯特罗斯还在担心自己用力过大。1984年圣安德鲁斯赛第十八洞果岭,在挥动一3号木杆漂亮开球和沙坑杆后,球距洞口仅15英呎之遥。由于求胜心切,他似乎用力过猛。但是球慢慢滚向球洞,令人难以置信地绕着弯,在洞口停了一下,然后滚了进去。小白球好像是随着巴耶斯特罗斯的意愿慢慢...慢慢滚进去的。就这样,他赢了比赛。His joy then, as he punched the air, raised his arms to the crowd, laughed and almost danced, was perhaps the most ecstatic moment ever seen in golf. Later he made that image his logo. Bags, shirts, caps and putter-covers proclaimed him to be the best. And for more than a decade, from 1979 to 1991, he was. He won three British Open championships and two Masters, and over his whole career bore off 87 titles. He was in the European Ryder Cup team that in 1985 overturned 28 years of American domination, and later led a team to Ryder victory himself.巴耶斯特罗斯在空中挥舞拳头,向观众高举双臂,大笑雀跃——也许这是高尔夫赛史上最狂喜的瞬间了。后来,他把自己此时的形象用作商标。背包、T恤、帽子和推杆套上的商标都宣扬着他是最棒的高尔夫球手。而从1979到1991年的十多年中,他确实是最棒的。英国公开赛中他曾三次勇夺桂冠,大师赛上他也两次夺冠,在整个比赛生涯中他包揽了87项赛事冠军。1985年莱德杯欧洲队一举打破了美国队28年来一统天下的局面,那时,巴耶斯特罗斯也在队中。后来,他又亲自率领欧洲队勇夺莱德杯冠军。 It was also beautifully done, inspiring a whole generation of European golfers. He had strength for the long game, finesse and subtlety for the short game, but also a daring that bordered on recklessness. Pure passion made him drive his tee shots into car parks, gorse and bunkers, but this was a man who could pitch a ball over an eight-foot wall, or hook a 5-iron shot round a tree, or chip-and-run through a tiny gap between two yawning bunkers, and sink the putt for an improbable birdie. He was always in trouble, yet he never was.巴耶斯特罗斯打得如此漂亮,他鼓舞了整整一代欧洲高尔夫球选手。他有着长距离球所需的力量,短距离球所需的技巧和敏锐,但是他太大胆,几近鲁莽。全凭感情行事的他有时会把球打到停车场、荆豆灌木丛和沙坑障碍中区。但同时他又能把球打过八英尺的高墙或者用5号铁杆击出可以绕过树的曲线球,或者是一个切滚球把球打过两个沙坑之间窄窄的间隔,再就是推进杆打出一个几乎不可能的小鸟。他似乎总是有麻烦,但又从来没有过任何麻烦。Luck, said some. Miraculous, said others, as they sighed at his soft blasts out of bunkers on to the green, or the fluid grace of his swing. Commentators talked of natural genius, as though he was still a seven-year-old whacking a pebble with a home-made club on a beach in Cantabria. His impoverished family put it down to destino. Such talk annoyed him. It was all hard graft and iron discipline: hitting a ball, alone, for hours. It started in boyhood, putting into tomato cans on a bumpy two-hole piece of field on his parents farm, or driving into a fishing net hung in the barn. He reckoned he had hit 1,000 balls a day. Because he had only one club, a 3-iron, he learned how to do everything with it: low, powerful shots, high, soft-landing shots and impossible recovery shots out of long, tangled grass. He could improvise his way out of anything.有人说他全凭运气。还有一些人,看着他把球从沙坑到果岭和他流畅优雅的挥杆,叹口气然后说不可思议。解说员他时总是说“天赋”,好像他还是那个在坎塔布里亚沙滩上用自制球棒玩卵石的七岁小孩。他家境贫寒,家里人说命该如此。这种话惹恼了他。自己一个人练习击球,一练就几个小时——他成功是全凭自己刻苦努力和坚强毅力。当还是小孩时,他就开始用番茄酱罐在一块有两个洞的坑坑洼洼的地上练习,或者是把球打进挂在谷仓墙上的渔网里。他估计那时自己每天要打1000个球。因为只有一三号铁杆,他不得不用这球杆学会所有动作:強力的低飞球,软着陆的高球,以及从长草区难以置信的就出險球脫困。Admirers asked where the passion came from. He found it hard to explain. The joy of impact, finding the sweet spot on the club-face and feeling the ball obey, visualizing the perfect shot and sensing that he could achieve it, was a large part of it. But pride fired him more. Man and boy, he was consumed by the need to prove himself. First against his three brothers, who also became professional golfers; against the old guard at the Royal Golf Club at Pedrea, who treated him like dirt when he caddied there; against the Americans, whose players, he assumed, had been formally instructed on world-class courses, and who thought the Masters and the Ryder Cup belonged to them; against anyone who thought he was inferior, or tried to control him with senseless regulations. Though the European Tour owed so much to him, he fell out badly with its officials in the 1980s—even being left out of the 1981 Ryder Cup team, when he was ranked number one in both Europe and the world.球迷问他从何而来。他觉得这个问题很难说清。很大一部分来自自己控制球的喜悦——来自在杆面上找到最佳击球点并感觉球顺着自己的愿望走,来自目估出最佳击球方式并指导自己能做到。但让他满怀的更多的是自尊。从小到大,他都感觉需要向他人明自己:先是向他三个同样成为职业高尔夫选手的兄弟;再是向皇家佩德尼亚高尔夫俱乐部的老警卫——他在那里当球童时警卫从没把他当回事;然后向美国队——他觉得美国队选手受的是世界级球场的正式训练,而且他们把大师赛和莱德杯冠军看做是他们理所应得的;还有向那些看不起他,向用毫无道理的规定控制他的人。虽然欧洲巡回赛让他声名大增,80年代那几年他还是和大赛官员大吵不断。结果,1981年莱德杯欧洲队他被排除在外。而那时候,不管是在欧洲还是全世界,他都堪称第一。Rising, falling起起落落He started every game to win it, and sometimes wept when he failed. About three weeks before each big tournament he would enter a bubble of concentration that muffled even the crowds applause. He was aware only of his body, the club, the ball, and the winning interaction between them. Hence the expression, serious even to mournful, that shadowed his film-star-handsome face on the course. But he was not above a little psychological warfare—the odd cough, the innocent remark—to put his rivals off their stroke. And as he politely shook their hands, he would be thinking: “I am going to bury you.”每场比赛他都抱着必胜的心态开始,有时候输了甚至会默默流泪。从每场重大赛事前大概三个星期开始,他会进入一个极其专注的自我世界中去,此时观众甚至都不敢大声鼓掌。他脑中只有自己的身体、球杆、球,以及怎样让这三者配合来赢得比赛。所以,他表情严肃,甚至略带悲伤,这让球场上他那张原本影星般英俊的脸不那么英俊了。不过他深谙于赛场心理战——怎样用怪声怪调的咳嗽、毫无恶意的话语来让对手犹豫迟疑。当他礼貌地和对手握手时,他心里想的是:我会让你死得很惨。He had made his name on the professional golfing scene at 19, still a gawky lad continually hitching up his trousers, throwing away a lead with sublime impatience at Royal Birkdale in 1976. He left the scene early, too. At Augusta in 1986, when he lost the Masters with a clumsy 4-iron shot into water at the 15th, he felt his touch was fading. Increasingly through the 1990s he missed the cut for tournaments and slid down the rankings of players. Back pain crippled him. His marriage broke up, leaving him alone in the huge new house he had built at Pedrea with display cases full of silver cups and an 18-hole course in the garden, and in 2008 he was diagnosed with the brain cancer that killed him.早在19岁,巴耶斯德罗斯就在一场职业高尔夫球赛中一举成名。那是1976年皇家伯克戴尔赛,还是个笨手笨脚的毛头小伙子的他,时不时提提自己的裤子,毫无耐心让他失去领先优势。1986年美国奥古斯塔大师赛,第十五洞时他用四号铁杆一个极烂的开球把球打入水障,因而痛失冠军,那时候那感觉自己的技术一日不如一日了。90年代,他渐渐在各种赛事中失去优势,排名也逐渐下滑。背痛让他几乎残疾。婚姻破裂后,他自己孤单一人生活在佩德尼亚的豪宅中,家里橱窗中摆满了银质奖杯,花园里是18洞的高尔夫球场。2008年他被诊断为患有脑癌,并最终因此去世。Golf, he often said, was a mysterious thing. Despite all his practice, some days he played well and others badly. A good swing would come, then disappear. On that fantastic day at St Andrews in 1984 he had “dressed for the kill” at the 15th, pulling on his dark-blue Slazenger sweater in which he had won at Lytham five years earlier as if it was a matadors suit of lights. On other occasions he watched ruefully as the shot, like the bull, avoided the target. The ball rose, travelled and fell; you were born, you did your best, you died. The arc of golf was perhaps no more biddable than the sad trajectory of his life.他说,高尔夫是一种很神秘的运动。虽然他刻苦训练,但表现仍起起落落。漂亮的挥杆说来就来,说走就走。1984年圣安德鲁斯赛,那个激动人心的日子,第十五洞时他“盛装上阵”,穿上五年前莱瑟姆比赛夺冠时的那件深蓝色斯莱辛格运动衫,好像斗牛士轻装上阵一样。也有时候他看着别人击球不中时满是遗憾。球起,球飞,球落;出生,巅峰,死亡。也许,高尔夫球的弧线并不比他悲哀一生的轨迹更温顺吧!201206/186758

Business.商业。Aviation.航空业。Ghost at the feast.盛宴上的幽灵。Airlines stand to lose heavily should the euro collapse.一旦欧元崩溃,航空公司必遭致重大损失。MEETINGS of airline bosses are rarely cheerful events, profits being tighter than leg room in economy. But this years annual gathering of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) should have been different. For a start, the airlines umbrella group picked the most promising market to host the pow-wow, which was held in Beijing. Not only is air travel booming within and from China, but the countrys airlines also made half of all global profits last year.通常在利润空间比经济舱的放脚空间还要拮据时,航空公司老板们才会碰头——这鲜有好事 。但今年的国际航空运输协会(IATA)年会本应不同于以往。首先,航空业这一伞状组织选择了最具潜力的市场——北京,来举办这次年会。中国蓬勃发展的空中旅行带动了世界航空业的振兴,并且中国航空公司利润占到世界航空公司利润的一半。But as IATA delegates assembled for their gala dinner on June 11th at the Great Hall of the People in Tiananmen Square, there was a ghost at the feast. The topic on most peoples minds was not the dozens of airports to be opened this decade in China, nor the quarter of a trillion dollars the host country is spending to become an aviation and aerospace superpower. On the contrary, all eyes were focused on the spectre of financial chaos in Europe.6月11日在天安门人民大会堂举办的晚宴上,除了汇聚一堂的国际航协代表们,还有一个令人扫兴的幽灵。人们最为关心的话题并不是这个十年里中国将投入运营的几十个新机场,也不是中国为了将自身建设成航空航天超级大国而投入的2500亿美元资金。相反,欧元区金融混乱这个幽灵成为所有人关注的焦点。The euro zones troubles have aly pushed many European carriers into the red. IATA predicts that there is a ;serious risk; of bankruptcies. Indeed, Malev and Spainair, two fair-sized European airlines, have aly gone bust. Several big airline groups, notably Air France-KLM, are trying to make deep cuts. The global industrys after-tax profits are forecast to fall from .9 billion in 2011 to billion this year; that is just 0.5% of revenue (see chart). And if the euro collapses? ;It would be worse than 9/11,; says Willie Walsh, the boss of I, which owns British Airways and Iberia.欧元区的问题已经使许多欧洲航空公司陷入亏损。国际航协预测(这些公司)存在;极高的;破产的风险,事实上,已经有两家规模不小的航空公司——匈牙利航空和西班牙航空面临破产。数个大型航空集团,尤其是法航荷航集团正在努力大幅削减开。据预测,全球航空产业税后利润额从2011年的79亿美元降至今年的30亿美元,净利润率仅为0.5%。那么,如果欧元崩溃又会怎样?;那将会比911时还要糟糕;国际航空集团(I,控股British Airways and Iberia)总裁Willie Walsh回答道。Things feel all the worse because 2012 might otherwise have been a good year. Oil prices have moderated of late. Global passenger traffic has risen by 6%, faster than the long-term trend. Freight contracted in 2011, but is reviving in many markets (though not Asia). Asset utilisation is 79%, up from 74% in . Planes are relatively full, especially in America.让事情感觉更糟的是——2012本来应该是更为美好的一年。最近国际油价已经回落。全球客运量上涨6%,增速快于长期水平。尽管2011年航空货运市场萎缩,但是很多市场正在复苏(亚洲市场不在此列)。资产利用率从年的74%上升到79%。飞机空座率也相当低,尤其是在美国。That said, the industry faces three risks besides a European meltdown. First, an oil-supply shock-resulting from an Iranian crisis, say-would send fuel prices sharply up again and wipe out profits. Some airlines, including KLM, are investing in biofuels, but full commercialisation looks a decade away. Others use financial hedges, but these are pricey and can backfire if oil prices drop. Delta is even now finalising a deal to buy an oil refinery.这意味着,除了欧洲危机外航空业还面临着三大风险。第一,伊朗危机引发的石油供给紧张可能很快将油价再次推高,带走航空业利润。包括KLM在内的一些航空公司正在投资于生物燃料(的研发),但生物燃料的完全商业化看来要等到十年以后。其他公司则采用金融对冲工具,但这过于昂贵,如果油价下跌,结果还会适得其反。Delta甚至正在敲定一桩购买炼油厂的交易。The second risk arises from the flood of new planes due to be delivered shortly. Production snags at both Airbus and Boeing have kept capacity tighter than planned. If everyone uses their new planes to expand capacity, rather than to replace clunkers, there could be a lot of empty seats.第二大风险则源于短期内将有大批新飞机交付使用。由于存在生产障碍,空客和波音的客舱容量都低于原有计划。如果各航空公司都利用新飞机增加载客量,而不是用以替换旧飞机,那将产生许多空座。The final threat pits ghost against host. The European Commissions inclusion of greenhouse gases from aviation in its emissions-trading scheme (ETS) is opposed by over 30 countries, of which China is the most defiant. If a compromise is not found, European countries must levy hefty fines on offenders and may seize aircraft-which could set off a trade war. On June 12th the China Air Transport Association, which represents Chinese carriers, said that China would retaliate with similar measures.最后一项威胁是:这个幽灵将与东道国——中国对抗。欧洲委员会针对航空业温室气体排放制定的排放交易计划(ETS)遭到到30多个国家的反对,其中来自中国的抗议最为强烈。如果不做出让步,欧洲国家将会对违反ETS的企业征收巨额罚款,并可能面临禁飞——这会引发贸易战。6月22日,代表中国航空公司的中国航空运输协会表示中国将会采取相应的报复手段。The Chinese government has forbidden its airlines from participating in the ETS. It has even threatened to cancel orders placed by its airlines with Airbus. No coincidence, then, that this weeks banquet was paid for by the European aircraftmaker. The Chinese appear unbowed.中国政府禁止中国航空公司参与欧盟排放交易体系,甚至以取消国内航空公司与空客签下的订单作为威胁。那么,本周的宴会是由欧洲飞机制造商买单也并非巧合——看来中国并不打算妥协。 /201209/199822

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