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Spains press西班牙报业的压力A shrinking order一个持续紧缩的制度Sacked editors are a sign more of financial than political pressures不断失业的编辑们背后意味的经济压力远大于政治压力Two of the remaining ers剩余读者中的两位。JOURNALISTS are supposed to check their facts, but when editors are sacked rumours will do. Some see dark political forces behind the ousting of editors at Spains three big dailies,El Pais, El Mundo and La Vanguardia. But the upheaval also reflects a deeper business crisis.原本应该是记者们去调查事件的真相,但是当编辑们不断被解雇,谣言开始出现了。实际上一些人已经透过西班牙三大日报—国家报(El Pais);西班牙世界报(El Mundo)和先锋报(La Vanguardia.)不断解雇编辑这一事件的表面,看到了藏在幕后操作的政治黑手。但是这种剧变更加折射出来的是一次更严重的商业危机。Until last month, Pedro Ramirez had edited El Mundo from its birth 25 years ago. Famed for investigations, sharp-tongued columnists and conspiracy theories, it ruffled many feathers. Mr Ramirez blames Mariano Rajoys ruling Popular Party (PP) for his sacking. The new editor, Casimiro Garcia-Abadillo, points to poor sales, which have halved in five years, and says Mr Ramirez alienated ers loyal to Mr Rajoy who found a feud over PP corruption too personal.到上个月为止,Pedro Ramirez 已经在世界报做了25年的主编了。这份报纸一向以深查事件真相,尖酸刻薄的专栏作家和充满阴谋论的言论而闻名于世,当然它也得罪了不少人。Ramirez谴责马里亚诺·拉霍伊为了一己私欲在毁灭人民党。新任主编CasimiroGarcia-Abadillo 则指出近五年来报纸的销量下滑了一半多,并且说Ramirez对于拉霍伊的指责太个人化,让那些原本忠于这位发现人民党贪污现象的党魁的读者们开始变得生疏。El Paiss editor, Javier Moreno, also pursued corruption. But he has overseen a fall in circulation and last year sacked almost a third of the staff, damaging morale even as he cut operating losses. El Pais aims to be “the global newspaper” in Spanish; its next editor, Antonio Cano, ran its Latin American website. Mr Cano denies that El Pais will shed its centre-left identity, though he is clearly more conservative than Mr Moreno.至于国家报的前主编,Javier Moreno,同样在追查贪污的事。但是他全然忽视了销量的暴跌,而且去年他们报社差不多解雇了三分之一的雇员,在他降低运营亏损的同时也严重地打击了员工的士气。国家报的目标直指“世界级的”西语报纸;它的下一任主编,Antonio Cano 已经开始运营它的拉丁语美国网站。Cano否认国家报要推翻自己左倾的立场,尽管他明显要比Moreno要保守。El Mundo vies with El Pais for domination of the Hispanic worlds online news audience, but turning that into money is an uphill task, admits a senior executive at El Mundo. La Vanguardias local Catalan subscription base has kept it mostly profitable. There the choice of Marius Carol as the next editor is being interpreted as a shift from the Catalan nationalist flag-waving of his predecessor, Jose Antich.世界报和国家报一直在网络上竞争西语读者的占有率,但是事实上要将这种占有率转化为盈利是一件很艰巨的任务,对此世界报的高级执行官也不得不承认。反观先锋报,它本身的西语读者订阅量就足以让它维持盈利。但是对于新任主编马吕思·卡罗尔来说却有很多选择,他解释说这对先锋报来说是从加泰罗尼亚语主义的旗帜中转型的一次机会,这将于他前任Jose Antich.大不相同。If newspapers are not bending to political pressures, might they bow to more commercial ones? Some journalists admit to self-censorship for fear of annoying big advertisers. El Mundo accused Telefanica of cutting advertising after it reported a 2002 insider-trading probe against the firms chairman, Cesar Alierta, a charge Telefanica denied. Although Telefanica accounts for only a small fraction of advertising—the biggest general advertisers are non-Spanish multinationals like Procter amp; Gamble and LOreal—other channels of influence also exist. Loss-making Prisa, the owner of El Pais, has been repairing its balance-sheet and has won a reprieve from its bankers. But after conversion of a convertible bond, Prisas banks will own 16% of the shares, more than the founding Polanco family. Telefanica will also have a stake, and hedge funds claim another 17%.如果报纸行业不对政治压力屈,他们是否会对更加商业化的因素弯腰?一些记者在自我审视时承认,他们会害怕让那些大的广告客户感到厌烦。世界报指控Telefanica在2002年报纸刊登了他与公司董事长(Cesar Alierta)的内部交易之后减少了报纸的广告刊登量。但是Telefanica否认了这一指控。尽管Telefanica解释说,只有一小部分的广告业受到了影响—传统的大额广告发布商依然是那些非西语系的跨国公司,诸如宝洁和欧莱雅。—但是对于其它的渠道的影响肯定也是存在的。而国家报的控股人—总是亏损的Prisa,已经开始修复它的收平衡并且从债主那获得了一定的延期。但是在债券转换完成之后,将持有公司16%的股份,这甚至超过了创始家族—Polanco的持股量。Telefanica同样执有一部分股票,还有17%的股权在放亏损基金会手中。The biggest challenge is more fundamental. Dailies reach just a third of Spaniards. Print-advertising income has fallen by 56% since 2008; digital advertising has not made up for this. Owners want higher paper sales, more advertising and fancy websites, all done with smaller budgets and fewer staff. Battling political pressure is the least of their worries.其实最大的挑战是来自更基层的方面。这些日报在西班牙人中只有三分之一的覆盖率。2008年之后印刷业的广告收入下降了56%;而数字广告带来盈利并不足以填补这一空缺。老板们都想要更高的报纸销量,更多的广告和完美的线上网站,少而精的预算以及更少的雇员。相比之下,与政治压力的对抗对他们来说实在不值一提。译者:曾擎禹 校对:王童 译文属译生译世 /201510/403901

Housing住房Nimble opposition灵活的反对A new study confirms suspicions about what drives planning decisions一项新的研究实了对规划决定的推动力的质疑ON A road called Glyders, in Benfleet, east of London, it looks as though every house is on the market. But the crucial words “for sale” are missing from the estate agentssigns, and have been replaced with “RE:Residents Against Glyders Expansion”. The locals are protesting against plans to build 35 new homes on farmland at the end of their road. “Look how narrow this road is,” says Susan Baillie, whose husband, Robert, runs the campaign. “It will never cope with the additional traffic.” The Baillies organised the signs, which are sponsored by the estate agent. The irony seems lost on the residents.在Glyders,这个位于伦敦东部本弗利特的一条大街上,每一间房屋似乎都在等待它的买主。但是房屋中介的招牌上却偏偏缺少重要字眼“待售”,取而代之的是“暴怒:当地居民拒绝Glyders的扩大。”当地人抗议在这条街道末端的农田上建造35栋新屋的计划。“请看看这条街有多窄,”苏珊贝利如是说,而她的丈夫罗伯特正是这次抗议行动发起人。“它负担不起额外的交通了。”贝利想到利用招牌,这一举措得到了房屋中介的大力持。讽刺的是此举会导致住户的流失。Local opposition to new housing developments is common across Britain. It has long been argued that such opposition—NIMBYism to its critics—is linked to home ownership. Homeowners, unlike distant landlords, vote in local elections and receive planning consultations in their postboxes. They lose out from development in multiple ways. Loss of green space reduces their quality of life and increased supply of housing suppresses prices. Landlords managing diversified portfolios are less exposed to the value of one property. The idea that planning decisions are driven by the desire of homeowners to maximise house prices is known as the “home-voter hypothesis”.当地反对新的房屋开发政策在英国是很常见的。一直以来都认为这种反对—批评家称之为邻避主义—都与房屋所有权息息相关。与过去的地主不同,房主参与当地选举和规划咨询。在开发过程中他们在多方面有所亏损。绿地的损耗降低了他们的生活质量,而且增加的房屋供应压制了房屋价格。管理多样投资的房东对于一栋房屋的价格会有所疏忽。房主们意欲提高房屋价格从而驱使决策产生,这种想法被称之为“房屋投票假说”。On October 24th the Institute for Government, a think-tank, released a study supporting this theory with data. It looked at English local planning authorities (LAs) between 2001 and 2011 and found that for every additional ten percentage points in the proportion of homes that are owner-occupied, 1.2 percentage points were knocked off growth in the housing stock. Average growth was 8.8%, so the effect was marked. The authors are cautious about making a causal claim, but the correlation was observed after controlling for the number of planning applications and the amount of available land. A rough calculation suggests that, without the NIMBY effect, one million more homes would have been built during the period.在10月24日,智库政府研究所(IFG)公布了一项佐以数据撑此次理论的研究。通过2001到2011年对英国地方规划局的观察发现,屋主自用的房屋占所有房屋比例中每增加10个百分点,住房存量的增长就会下跌1.2个百分点。平均增长是8.8%,所以此种现象的影响是显而易见的。至于是否可以得出两者存在因果关系的结论,作者持保留态度。但是在控制了规划申请和可用土地的数量后,相关效果还是很容易看到的。若不考虑邻避效应,一项粗略计算表明,在2001至2011年间大约有逾一百万栋房屋建成。That would have helped alleviate an acute shortage of British housing. In 2004, a government report by Kate Barker, an economist, found that 240,000 new homes were needed every year. Only 138,000 homes were built in 2013. Due to the shortfall, houses are eye-wateringly expensive and, since 1952, home ownership has become a more distant prospect for almost every new generation (see chart).这将有助于缓和英国紧张的住房短缺问题。在2004年,经济学家凯特巴克做出了一份政府报告,发现每年所需住房数为24万。而仅有13.8万栋房屋在2013年建成。由于房屋稀缺,房屋的价格也是极其昂贵的,自1952年以来,房屋所有权已经变成了每个新一代人更加遥远的追求。In a book released in September, Ms Barker argues that Englands planning system is fragmented and slow. LAs are required to have a medium-term plan which meets targets for development agreed with central government. But both the overall plan and individual developments can be held up. LAs find it difficult to work together on proposals which cross boundaries, and vacillate on whether to build on brownfield land, which has old buildings on it, or greenfield sites, which developers prefer. The green belt around many towns constrains development. And locals see few of the fiscal benefits from new homes, so there is little incentive for them to build.在9月份发表的书中,巴克表示,英国的规划系统如今零散又低效。各个当地规划局(LAs)都要求一个能符合中央政府批准的发展目标的中期计划。但总体规划和个体发展都会被阻断。LAs发现那些跨界的提案很难兼并施行,所以踌躇着是要在棕色地带推到旧宅筑新房还是在那些开发商钟爱的市郊绿区盖房子。许多城镇城市绿化带的存在约束着发展。当地人也在新房屋建设中看不到些许财政利益,因此,他们根本没有建造房屋的动力。Thankfully, public attitudes are shifting. Rising house prices used to be celebrated as a sign of economic strength; now, most see expensive homes as bad for Britain. Politicians are responding: both big parties have promised more building.庆幸的是,公众的态度正在转变。房屋价格看涨在过去被看作是经济实力的一种标志。而如今,大部分人认为房价高对英国是不利的。政治家们如是回答:两大政党已承诺会有更多的住房建筑。This shift is not on display in Benfleet, which is part of a local authority—Castle Point—with the joint highest rate of home ownership in the country. Admiring the view from one residents garden, it is hard not to sympathise with the local campaign. But every home was a newbuild once, and the costs of the housing shortage are not visible from an Essex garden.此种转变并未出现在本弗利特, 它是卡斯尔波恩特 (英国国会选区)的一部分,而且在乡下有着房屋所有权的高联合率。从一居民的花园外眺风景,你会感觉很难不同情当地抗议运动。但若是这里的每一处房屋都是一次建成,那么从埃克斯花园向外环望,很难看出住房短缺的损失。译者:张娣 校对:朱大素译文属译生译世 /201411/340836

Apple苹果公司iThrone霸业已成Apple reigns supreme when it comes to making money, but now faces even greater expectations说到企业的赚钱能力方面,苹果公司无疑是全球的霸主,但现在他们却面临着更高的期望NEVER before has so much money been made by a single firm in such a short period of time. On January 27th Tim Cook, the boss of Apple, announced that it had made billion in its latest fiscal quarter, which ran almost to the end of December 2014. That beats the previous record of .9 billion reported by ExxonMobil, an oil company, in 2012, according to Samp;P Dow Jones Indices.单单一家公司,在这么短的时间内赚了这么多钱,历史上从未有过。1月27日当天,苹果公司CEO蒂姆·库克(Tim Cook)宣布,在最新的财务季度当中(接近于2014年12月底结束)公司获得了180亿美元的净利润。而根据标普道琼斯指数公司(Samp;P Dow Jones Indices)的资料显示,这一数据打破了先前由石油公司埃克森美孚(ExxonMobil)于2012年所创下单季度159亿美元的记录。Apples telephone-number-sized profit stemmed largely from sales of its hugely popular iPhone, which accounted for over two-thirds of its .6 billion revenue. Chief executives rarely admit to being dumbfounded by their companies performance, but Mr Cook said it was “hard to comprehend” the extent of the interest in Apples products. He noted that, on average, 34,000 iPhones were bought every hour of every day during the latest quarter. That added up to 74.5m phones, way more than market-watchers had expected.苹果的巨额利润中很大部分来源于它旗下十分受欢迎的产品iPhone,在公司746亿美元的季度营业收入,iPhone占了三分之二。一般而言,首席执行官很少承认自己会被公司的表现吓呆,但库克先生却表示“难以理解”市场对苹果产品的着迷程度。他还提到,在最新的财务季度期间内,平均每天的每小时都要售出34000台iPhone手机,而最终的季度总销量则为7450万台,远超市场分析师预期。Apple is the worlds largest company by market capitalisation as well as its most profitable. Strikingly, it has risen to greatness using a rather old-fashioned business model: selling highly desirable objects at fat gross margins, which hit almost 40% in the latest quarter. The tech industry has spawned numerous software-based firms, such as Google and Facebook, that dont have to worry about shifting goods around, yet they make much less than the Colossus of Cupertino. Amazon handles lots of physical goods, but loses money.无论是从总市值还是从盈利能力方面来看,苹果都是全球最大的公司。然而,令人惊讶的地方却是苹果取得这一成绩的方法。它所用的是一个相当传统的商业模型:在高毛利率的情况下(最新一季中约为40%),大卖抢手货。科技产业育出了无数以软件为基础的公司,如谷歌(Google)和脸谱(Facebook),他们也不需要进行真实的货物流通,但他们赚的钱较“库比蒂诺的巨无霸”(Cupertino,苹果公司总部,位于美国旧金山)要少得多。亚马逊公司(Amazon)的主营业务为处理大量的实体商品,但该公司却处于亏损状态。Another thing that sets Apple apart from the tech pack is its success in conquering China. While rivals have been frustrated there, Apple has just become the largest force in Chinas smartphone market measured by units shipped, according to Canalys, a market-research firm. Apples revenue from the Greater China region, which includes Taiwan and Hong Kong, soared 70%, to just over billion.另一个使得苹果公司在同行中脱颖而出的因素,在于其对中国市场的成功占领。它的对手们纷纷在中国折戟沉沙之时,苹果公司却成为了中国智能手机市场的霸主。根据市场研究机构易观国际(Canalys)所提供的资料显示,苹果手机的出货量为中国第一。苹果在大中华区(包括台湾和香港)的产品销售收入增长了70%,其数额略高于160亿美元。Any setback in China could hurt Apple. The companys overall dependence on the iPhone is another risk. But these are early days for the iPhone 6, Apples latest device, whose bigger screen takes the firm into the “phablet” category of larger phones that are wildly popular with customers. Some iBulls also point out that Apples share of the smartphone market is small compared with devices using Googles Android operating system (see chart). So it has plenty of room to grow.在中国市场的任何挫折,都可能使苹果公司遭受沉重打击。而苹果对旗下产品iPhone的全面依赖性,无疑是另一个风险。但这部分担忧对于iPhone 6来说还言之尚早。作为苹果公司的最新产品,iPhone 6拥有比以往更大的屏幕,引领公司进入到了“平板手机”的竞争领域,而目前消费者们正是对大屏幕手机青睐有加。一部分“资深果粉”还指出,与谷歌的安卓操作系统相比,苹果的智能手机市场占有率还是算小的(如上图所示)。因此,苹果手机还有充足的增长空间。If it is still to reduce its dependence on iPhones, Apple will need new money-spinning gizmos. Mr Cook said this week that its much-ballyhooed smartwatch will go on sale in April. Tim Bajarin of Creative Strategies, a consulting firm, thinks Apple could sell 22m-24m in the first 12 months after the launch, producing billions of dollars of new revenue. Sanford C. Bernstein, a research firm, reckons the watches will have a higher-than-average gross margin, which bodes well for profits.如果苹果公司仍旧要降低其对iPhone系列的依赖性,那么就需要有新的盈利产品。本周,库克先生表示万众期待的智能手表将会在4月正式发售。创意策略咨询公司(Creative Strategies)顾问蒂姆·巴加林(Tim Bajarin)认为,苹果能够在该产品首发的12个月内卖出2200万至2400万个,获得数十亿的新营收。斯坦福·伯恩斯坦公司(Sanford C. Bernstein)则估计,苹果手表能够拥有高于平均水平的销售毛利率,而这便预示着可观的利润。Apple should be able to make more money from software and services, too. The firms online store of software apps had its busiest-ever day on January 1st and the introduction of a smart watch will lead to another app feeding frenzy. Apple profits by taking a chunk of the money developers make from app sales and in-app purchases. By binding customers into its “ecosystem” of hardware and software plus services such as Apple Pay, a contactless-payment system, the firm also makes it more likely they will stay with it when they upgrade their gadgets.与此同时,苹果公司也应该能在软件和务方面赚取更多的钱。本年的1月1日,苹果的线上应用商城迎来了有史以来业务最繁忙的一天,而智能手表的推广也会引发另一场应用抢购狂潮。苹果公司的盈利点在于,从软件开发者的应用软件销售额和应用内的产品务销售额两部分当中,抽取大量的提成。通过将消费者与苹果的硬件、软件和务(如非接触式付系统 Apple Pay)三者紧密结合的方式,苹果公司构建出了自己的“生态系统”,这也令消费者们在对自己的设备更新换代之时,更有可能继续购买苹果的产品。This still leaves the company with a headache other firms would die to have: its Croesus-like mountain of cash, which now stands at 8 billion—a figure that is greater than the market capitalisations of information-technology giants such as Intel and IBM. Apple, which has aly spent billions of dollars on share buy-backs, will revisit its plans to return money to shareholders and discuss them in April. Mr Cook can expect plenty of calls from activist investors before then, no doubt from their shiny new iPhones.苹果公司所头疼的问题,正是其他公司拼了命都想得到东西:堆积如山的现金。目前,苹果所拥有的现金为1780亿美元,这个数字比信息技术巨头英特尔(Intel)和IBM公司的市值还要高。苹果公司早已花费了数十亿美金用以股份回购,而它将会重新制定其对股东们现金返还计划,并将在今年4月对此进行商讨。在那之前,库克先生就可以预想到大量活跃市场人士的来电。毫无疑问,这些人当然是用他们纤薄的新版iPhone打过来的。译者:颜士竣 校对:周鼎烨 译文属译生译世 /201502/358606

The entire life of living,you know.As the first family,in the White House你们全家的生活 作为第一家庭 入住白宫的这种生活They were,how old,7 and 10? 7 and 10 when we moved into the white house两个女儿那时多大 7岁 10岁 是 刚进白宫的时候她们一个7岁一个10岁And now they are 10 and 13? 10 and 13,wow,yes,they came big现在10岁 13岁,10岁 13岁 长大了So what is,I konw the worst part,youve said before,what is the best part for them你之前说过糟糕的方面 好的方面是什么You know,there are so many wonderful parts.I mean,we are really blessed精的事情很多 我们真的很幸运You know,they get to travel,they get to see the world in ways that most kids dont get to see他们四处旅行 以其他孩子看不到的方式看世界I mean,life in our house is normal.I mean,once they get up in that elevator,the我们的生活很普通 一旦进到电梯里You know,the rules and the values of who we are and who we always have been take over我到底是谁 这种理念就会占上风So you know the fact that weve been able to maintain that in the White House is just been所以我们住在白宫也可以继续过那种普通的生活You know,just a wonderful surprise.But you know,they,every day they are blessed and we remind them you are some lucky kids这让人惊喜 但她们真的很幸运 我们也每天提醒她们是多么幸运的孩子Yeah,yeah,they really are.And to see different things in the world.Do they like,do they make their own bed?确实很幸运 见世上不同的东西 她们喜欢 她们自己铺床吗Yeah,they have rules,they have to make their own bed.but they have to clean their rooms,clean their bathrooms是 她们有自己的规矩 得自己铺床 打扫房间 打扫浴室They have to take Ball out.So,they have to take him out when theyre home from school带Ball出去玩 她们放学后得带Ball出去Sasha is doing laundry,which she is into now.well see how long that lastsSasha刚开始洗衣 她现在非常喜欢洗衣 我们看着她能坚持多久She washes her jeans.Washing and dry and folding,is she a good folder.Yeah,she folds她自己洗牛仔裤 清洗 晒干 折叠 她会叠衣吗 会的Thats the most important thing,you can do laundry,but if you are not a good folder,you might as well wash it again.Its over,its over,yeah这才是最重要的 或许会洗衣 但如果叠不好 可能还要重洗 前功尽弃But she,she and her grandma,they do their laundry together她和她祖母一起洗衣 /201609/466399


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