蚌埠川字纹去除专注知乎

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 蚌埠川字纹去除
Four years ago, I took my kids to Amsterdam. After a long day of touring museums and canals, they started to whine. Then I hit upon the perfect bribe: look, there’s the Apple store. After half an hour of playing with iPads, iMacs and iPhones, they were all smiles as we walked back to the hotel.四年前,我带几个孩子去阿姆斯特丹。在参观了一整天物馆、运河之后,他们开始叫苦。在那时,我突然发现了一个可以讨好他们的完美地点:看,那有一家苹果(Apple)商店。孩子们在那里玩了半小时ipad、iMac和iPhone,当我们步行回酒店时,他们满脸笑容。Their enthusiasm helps illustrate why Apple stores are generally considered the world’s most successful. Their glass walls and wooden tables full of gadgets generate far more sales per square foot than any big retail competitor.他们的热情有助于解释,为什么苹果商店通常被认为是全球最成功的商店。玻璃幕墙和木质桌子上满是各种电子小玩意儿,这里每平方英尺产生的销售额远超任何大型零售业竞争对手。This brings us to Thursday’s launch of Angela Ahrendts’ new vision for the company’s retail outlets. The former Burberry chief executive, who was given a stock grant worth up to m on her arrival at the tech group, has spent the past two years rethinking its offering as its product range changes. The result, unveiled in San Francisco on the 15th anniversary of the first Apple store opening, will be rolled out across many of the group’s 400 stores in 18 countries.上周四,安杰拉#8226;阿伦茨(Angela Ahrendts)推出了自己为苹果零售店所做的新设计。曾担任柏利(Burberry)首席执行官的阿伦茨被挖到苹果时,获得了这家科技集团提供的价值最高达6800万美元的赠股。过去两年,随着苹果产品线的变化,她一直在思考如何改造苹果商店的呈现方式。在首家苹果商店开业15周年之际,全新设计的苹果商店在旧金山揭幕,该集团位于全球18个国家的400家商店中,许多都将应用这一全新设计。Mostly, her vision seems to involve even bigger glass doors and lots of plants. Every flagship store will have outdoor space — in San Francisco, the greenery-lined square will feature free WiFi and acoustic musicians on weekends. The Genius Bar, where customers go for help with technical issues, has been replaced by a Genius Grove stocked with trees and more space for people to sit while they wait. Tart commentators suggested the tree money might have been better spent on more staff to keep delays down.总体看来,她的设计似乎包括了比以前还要大的玻璃门以及大量的植物。每家旗舰店都将拥有室外空间——在旧金山店,绿树成荫的广场将覆盖免费WiFi,每逢周末还有音乐家现场演奏。帮助顾客解决技术问题的“天才吧”(Genius Bar)被树木成排的“天才林”(Genius Grove)取代,为等待的顾客提供更多坐下休息的空间。但刻薄的人士称,植树花费的钱或许还不如用于增加人手,以减少各种延误。On the more practical side, Apple staff will include “creative pros” who can advise customers on how to use its technology for photography and making music. And it plans to woo small businesses with a dedicated area called the boardroom. The jargon is a bit sickening, but this probably reflects a sensible effort by the company to broaden its offerings with revenue from iPhones falling.更实用的举措是,苹果商店将纳入“创意专业人士”为自己的员工,他们能为顾客提供如何利用苹果技术拍照和制作音乐的建议。苹果还计划利用所谓“董事会议室”的专门区域吸引小型企业。这样做有点招人反感,但在iPhone销售收入下滑之际,该公司此举或许不失为扩大业务的明智之举。Apple says that it is responding to the fact that customers now go online for simple transactions and expect something more unique from actual stores. “It is kind of our fault that retail is changing,” said Ms Ahrendts. “Therefore, we realised that we needed to do something different with our physical space.”苹果表示,它是在回应这一现实,即:简单的交易,顾客如今都在线上进行;在实体店里,他们期待能有更独特的体验。“零售业正在转变,我们负有几分责任。”阿伦茨说,“因此,我们意识到,需要让我们的实体空间变得稍微与众不同一些。”This is not the first time Ms Ahrendts has sought to transform the shopping experience. Back in 2012 she reopened Burberry’s flagship London store, telling reporters it was designed to be the physical manifestation of the company’s “Burberry World Live” website. The media swooned, saying that the shop, which swapped out tills for roving sales staff with swipe machines, was a manifestation of the luxury group’s revolutionary digital-first approach.这并非阿伦茨首次试图改变购物体验。她在2012年就重新打造了柏利的伦敦旗舰店,并对记者表示,设计理念是,让该店以实体形式呈现公司的“柏利世界直播”(Burberry World Live)网站。媒体对此大加赞赏,称该店(店里手持刷卡机走来走去的销售人员取代了收银台)是这家奢侈品集团数字化革命的标志。Burberry, which was coming off a profit warning, then saw its sales soar, and its share price nearly doubled. Apple came calling and wooed Ms Ahrendts away.随后,原本遭遇盈利预警的柏利出现了销售额飙升,股价几乎翻了一番。后来苹果主动找上门,将阿伦茨挖走。Since then, the news has not been so good. Burberry has been hit hard by a fall in Chinese sales. Shares have dropped 35 per cent in the past 12 months, despite a £25m cost-cutting drive. The company is now considering bringing in a senior manager to shore up Christopher Bailey, who has held both the top design position and the chief executive role since Ms Ahrendts’ departure.自那时起,形势发展一直不顺。中国区销售额下滑重创了柏利。过去12个月,该公司股价下跌了35%,尽管推出了削减成本2500万英镑的计划。如今,柏利正在考虑聘请一名高级经理来辅佐克里斯托弗#8226;贝利(Christopher Bailey),自阿伦茨离开后,贝利一直既担任创意总监、又担任首席执行官。Burberry’s current woes may have nothing to do with Ms Ahrendts. But perhaps her highly vaunted effort to reimagine luxury shopping was more about hype than real transformation. Apple is about to find out.柏利当前的困境可能与阿伦茨并无关联。但或许,她在重新定义奢侈品购物体验方面被过度吹嘘的努力更多的只是炒作,而非真正的变革。苹果即将发现。 /201605/446109Do cellphones cause cancer? Most health authorities do not think so, but a new federal study could reignite the controversy over this issue.手机致癌吗?大部分健康专家不这么认为,但是美国联邦政府的一项新研究可能重新引发关于这个问题的争论。The preliminary study, released Friday, found that radiation from cellphones appears to have increased the risks that male rats developed tumors in their brains and hearts. But there are many caveats and some experts are debunking the study.周五公布的这项初步研究发现,手机辐射似乎增加了雄鼠患上脑部和心脏肿瘤的风险。但有很多需要解释的地方,而且有些专家并不认同这项研究。 Who conducted the study? Are they credible?谁进行了这项研究?他们可信吗?The study is from the National Toxicology Program, an interagency group in the Department of Health and Human Services whose job it is to assess the possible risks of chemicals.这项研究是美国国家毒物(National Toxicology Program)做的,它是美国卫生与公众务部(Department of Health and Human Services)的一个跨部门机构,其职责是评估化学物质的潜在风险。 How was the study done?研究是如何进行的?Rats lived in special chambers where they were exposed to different levels of radiation of the type emitted by cellphones for nine hours a day, every day. The exposure started before they were born and continued until they were about 2 years old.大鼠住在特殊的房间里,每天接受九小时不同强度的辐射,辐射类型与手机辐射相同。从出生前一直持续到约2岁大。 What did they find?他们发现了什么?About 2 to 3 percent of the male rats exposed to the radiation developed malignant gliomas, a brain cancer, compared with none in a control group that was not exposed to radiation.约2%至3%受到辐射的雄鼠患上了恶性胶质瘤——它是一种脑部癌症——而没有受到辐射的对照组没有此类病例。About 5 to 7 percent of the male rats exposed to the highest level of radiation developed schwannomas in their hearts, compared with none in the control group. Schwannomas are tumors that occur in cells that line the nerves. The authors concluded the brain and heart tumors were “likely caused’’ by the radiation.受到最高强度辐射的雄鼠有大约5%至7%患上了心脏神经鞘瘤,而对照组中没有此类病例。神经鞘瘤是由周围神经的神经鞘所形成的肿瘤。作者们认为,脑部和心脏肿瘤“可能”是辐射“造成的”。 What about female rats?那雌鼠呢?Oddly enough, the incidence of tumors in females was minimal, barely different from the control group. It is not clear why the results would vary between the sexes, which is one reason some experts are questioning the findings.奇怪的是,雌鼠的肿瘤发病率极低,与对照组几乎没有差别。不同性别出现不同结果的原因不明,这一点也令有些专家对研究结果产生质疑。 What are other caveats?还有什么需要我们知道的?Even for males, the differences between particular groups of rats and the control group were not statistically significant. Another anomaly was that the rats exposed to the radiation lived longer on the whole than animals in the control group. And schwannomas can occur all over the body, not just the heart, but the study did not find increased rates in other organs.即便就雄鼠而言,某些组与对照组之间的差别从统计学角度讲也不是很明显。还有一个反常现象,受到辐射的大鼠的寿命,总体而言长于对照组。而且,神经鞘瘤可能在全身各处发作,不只是心脏,但是这项研究没有发现其他器官的神经鞘瘤发生比例升高。Also it was unusual that the control group had zero tumors. In previous studies at the National Toxicology Program, an average of 2 percent of rats in control groups developed gliomas. Had that happened in this study, there would have been virtually no difference between the exposed rats and the controls.另一个反常情况是,对照组完全没有肿瘤病例。在国家毒物之前的研究中,对照组平均会出现2%的神经胶质瘤。如果同样的情况出现在这项研究中,那受到辐射的大鼠与对照组之间实际上没有差别。“I am unable to accept the authors’ conclusions,” said one reviewer of the study, Dr. Michael S. Lauer, deputy director for extramural research at the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Lauer, whose comments were in an appendix to the report, said it was likely that the findings represented false positives.“我无法接受作者们的结论,”这项研究的一位评议人迈克尔·S·劳尔士(Michael S. Lauer)说。他是国家卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)的院外研究副主任。劳尔的评审意见出现在这份报告的附录里。他说,这些发现可能是错误判断。The amounts of radiation that rats were exposed to might be higher than what cellphone users typically experience, though toxicology studies often use higher doses to make sure to detect any effect that might exist.这些大鼠受到的辐射强度可能高于手机用户通常受到的辐射,不过毒物学研究一般都是使用更高剂量,以确保检测到任何可能存在的影响。 So we can just dismiss this study and go on using our phones?所以,我们可以不理会这项研究,继续使用手机吗?Not totally. As the authors of the report write: “Given the extremely large number of people who use wireless communication devices, even a very small increase in the incidence of disease resulting from exposure to the RFR generated by those devices would have broad implications for public health.” RFR refers to radio-frequency radiation.并不完全是这样。就像那份报告的作者们写的:“使用无线通讯设备的人数量众多,那些设备产生的射频辐射就算只是轻微提高发病率,也会对公共健康造成广泛影响。”Dr. Otis Brawley, chief medical officer of the American Cancer Society, issued a statement on Friday that called this study “good science,” and called for further research because the animal research used very high signal strengths.周五,美国癌症学会(American Cancer Society)的首席医疗官奥蒂斯·布劳利士(Otis Brawley)发表了一项声明,称这项研究是“优秀科学成果”,倡议进行进一步研究,因为动物研究所用的信号强度很高。But he said, “The NTP report linking radiofrequency radiation (RFR) to two types of cancer marks a paradigm shift in our understanding of radiation and cancer risk.”但是他说,“国家毒物的报告将射频辐射与两种癌症联系起来,标志着我们在理解辐射和癌症风险方面出现思考模式的转变。”Dr. David O. Carpenter, director of the Institute for Health and Environment at the University at Albany, said he thought the study provided backing for the human epidemiological studies that suggested cellphone use was associated with an increased risk of gliomas and acoustic neuromas, a type of schwannoma. “I think this is real,’’ he said, suggesting people used wired earpieces to talk on cellphones.大卫·O·卡彭特士(David O. Carpenter)是纽约州立大学奥尔巴尼分校(Albany)健康和环境学院(Institute for Health and Environment)的院长。他说,他认为这项研究为人类流行病学的研究提供了持,表明使用手机与神经胶质瘤及听神经瘤(神经鞘瘤的一种)的风险增加有关。“我觉得这是真的,”他说。他建议人们在接打电话时使用有线耳机。 What have other studies found?其他研究发现了什么?Dr. Carpenter’s view is not the prevailing one. Many studies have been conducted, including some very large ones like the Million Women Study in Britain, and a Danish study of more than 350,000 cellphone users. There also were studies examining the effects of these radio waves in animals and cells growing in petri dishes. The results are reassuring. There is no convincing evidence of any link between cellphone use and cancer or any other disease.卡彭特的观点不是主流观点。之前有过很多研究,包括一些很大规模的研究,比如英国的百万女性研究(Million Women Study),以及丹麦对逾35万手机用户进行的研究。还有些研究是检验这些无线电波对动物以及在皮氏培养皿中生长的细胞的影响。这些研究的结果令人宽慰。没有令人信的据表明,使用手机与癌症或其他疾病之间存在联系。Also, the incidence of brain cancer in the ed States has remained steady since 1992, despite the stark increase in cellphone use.另外,从1992年至今,美国的脑部癌症发病率始终很稳定,尽管这期间手机使用量急剧上升。The International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organization, rates cellphone radiation a “possible’’ human carcinogen, based on limited evidence in both people and animals. It gives the same rating to coffee and pickled vegetables.世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)的国际癌症研究机构(International Agency for Research on Cancer)基于人和动物身上的有限据,将手机辐射列为“可能”对人类有致癌作用的物质,与咖啡和咸菜属于同一级别。 But don’t we know that radiation causes cancer?但是,难道我们不知道辐射致癌吗?Ionizing radiation, the powerful type from nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and X-ray machines, is strong enough to knock electrons off atoms and damage DNA. That can cause cancer. But the radiation from cellphones, called radio-frequency radiation, is nonionizing and not known to damage DNA.核武器、核电站和X光机产生的强烈的电离辐射足以把电子从原子中释放出来,损害DNA。那会致癌。但手机辐射是射频辐射,不是电离辐射,不会损害DNA。 So what happens now?接下来会怎样?The findings released Friday are preliminary and part of a larger study, so more data will be coming out, probably next year. The existing report will also be reviewed further by more experts.周五公布的发现是初步试验,是一项更大规模研究的一部分,所以会出现更多数据,很可能明年公布。现有的报告也将由更多专家进一步评审。 /201606/446879Yahoo has confirmed that it is the victim of a cyber security breach affecting at least 500m accounts, perhaps the largest in history. 雅虎(Yahoo)实,该公司遭遇也许是史上最大规模的的网络安全侵入,至少影响5亿账户。Data breaches of email and social media accounts, retail stores, health insurance companies and even governments are now routine. 如今,电子邮件、社交媒体账户、零售店、医疗保险公司、甚至政府的数据被窃已成家常便饭。The lesson to be learnt from the Yahoo breach may be that, when it comes to cyber security, we are not learning the right lessons.雅虎事件的教训或许是,在网络安全方面,我们没有汲取正确的教训。Following major breaches, companies often deflect responsibility by pointing the finger at state-sponsored actors, as Yahoo did. 在遭遇重大侵入后,企业往往将矛头指向国家持的黑客来躲避责任,雅虎正是这么做的。Certainly, states do engage in this kind of activity and in some cases leave enough of a trail to be blamed.政府肯定在从事这类活动,在某些情况下还留下了足够的痕迹,难以推脱责任。But there is also reason to be sceptical of Yahoo’s claim. 但人们也有理由怀疑雅虎的说法。Presenting breaches as nation-state attacks suggests that there was nothing the company could have done to defend its users. 将黑客侵入事件形容为国家发动的攻击,字里行间等于在说雅虎没办法捍卫用户隐私。It is better PR to blame a foreign intelligence service than for a company to admit it lacked basic security features. 企业指责外国情报机构,而不是承认自己缺乏基本的安全措施,显然是更好的公关战略。It also puts companies on a stronger legal footing against users who may seek to sue them.这也使企业面对可能起诉自己的用户在法律上处在更有力的地位。The trouble is that most cyber security breaches — including those by nations — exploit known vulnerabilities, such as where a patch was either not developed or deployed. 问题是,多数网络安全侵入——包括国家发动的侵入——利用的是已知的漏洞,比如针对漏洞的补丁尚未开发或应用。Most breaches are preventable yet attacks continue to increase in number and scale. 多数侵入都是可阻止的,然而攻击的次数和规模继续升级。The woeful state of cyber security is, simply, a market failure.简单地说,网络安全的糟糕状态是市场失灵的表现。The reasons are numerous and complex. 原因有很多,而且较为复杂。Consumers are unable to make informed judgments about security when choosing where to entrust their information. 当选择把信息委托给哪一方时,消费者无法对安全作出明智的判断。Companies hesitate to share cyber threat information with industry competitors. 企业不愿与业内竞争对手分享网络威胁信息。Threats are distributed such that the relative probability that any one company will be the victim of a breach remains low. 威胁的分布方式意味着任何一家企业遭遇侵入的相对几率仍然较低。The bottom line is that companies do not have adequate economic incentive to invest in security infrastructure.归根结底,企业没有足够的经济动机去投资网络安全基础设施。Governments must find ways to encourage companies to undertake more responsible practices. 政府必须找到方法鼓励企业采取更负责任的做法。One way will be by developing liability mechanisms to impose costs on organisations that fail to protect customers’ data. 一个方法是建立赔偿责任机制,对没能保护客户数据的组织施加惩罚。And where the consequences of cyber security breaches are especially dire — networked medical devices or autonomous vehicles, for example — governments will need to enact robust regulatory standards to ensure safety.同时,在网络安全侵入后果尤其可怕的领域——比如联网的医疗装置或自动驾驶汽车——政府需要实行健全的监管标准以确保安全。But companies are not the only problem. 但是企业并非唯一的问题。Consumers are largely unwilling to accept even minor inconveniences for better security. 消费者大多不愿为了提高安全而接受轻微的不便。Systems remain unpatched because individuals cannot be bothered to install updates. 系统一直没有装上补丁,因为用户懒得安装更新。Users chafe against imposed security measures like the rejection of weak passwords. 用户对拒绝脆弱密码的安全措施感到烦躁。Conscientious companies walk a fine line between encouraging customers to be safe and imposing burdens that individuals will circumvent with even more vulnerable workarounds, or running the risk of driving users to more convenient and less secure platforms.有责任心的企业在两大风险之间艰难把握平衡:一是鼓励客户保安全,加大安全负担,而人们会以更加脆弱的变通方法躲避这些负担,二是把用户赶到比较便利、但不那么安全的平台。Until we address failures at corporate and collective levels, the lesson of the Yahoo breach for the individual is that cyber security is every man for himself. 在我们解决企业和集体层面的问题之前,雅虎数据被窃事件对个人的教训是:网络安全是每个人自己的事。When people cannot rely on large companies to protect personal information, the only responsible approach is to presume breaches are inevitable and try to mitigate the damage. 当人们无法依靠大企业来保护个人信息时,唯一负责任的办法是假设数据被窃是不可避免的,然后尝试缓解损害。Not reusing passwords prevents a single attack from compromising multiple accounts. 不重复使用同一密码可以阻止单次攻击影响多个账户。Adopting two-factor authentication features reduces individual risk. 采用双重身份认可以降低个体风险。And users should consider what information to store and share online.同时,用户应该考虑在网上储存和分享什么信息。But ultimately self-help will fall short. 但是,自救终究不够。We have limited choice about what data about us are produced and stored and participating in modern society necessitates volunteering a great deal more. 对于有关我们的哪些数据被生成和存储,我们的选择有限,而参与现代社会意味着有必要自愿提供多得多的信息。Preventing large-scale data breaches is similar to countering disease epidemics — individual practices can protect us only so much and, where we are unable to wall ourselves off, large-scale institutional responses are required.阻止大规模数据泄露事件类似于抗击传染病——个体行为只能在一定程度上保护我们,当我们无法隔离自己时,便需要采取大规模的制度性回应了。 /201609/468912

女性调查:你是企业管理层中的一员吗?Poll: Women hold senior positionsAre you holding senior management positions?Ninety-one percent of companies on the Chinese mainland have women holding senior management positions, ranking second in the world, after the Philippines, according to the results of a survey released yesterday.The poll, conducted by Grant Thornton, an accounting firm based in Hong Kong, covered 32 economies.Hong Kong and Taiwan also rank high on the list, with 83 percent and 80 percent of their firms having women in senior positions.In the Philippines, 97 percent companies have women holding senior positions."The findings suggest that China businesses focus on capability and performance when appointing senior management, and not on gender," said Alison Wong, partner of specialist advisory services at Grant Thornton.On average 65 percent of the companies in the world have women in senior management positions, the survey shows. China is ahead of many Western countries, including the US, Canada and Britain."Despite some people's perception about traditional gender bias in Chinese society, it is positive to note that todaythree places across two shoresachieve such a high proportion of business with senior females," Wong said.Almost all Asian countries have more businesses with women at senior levels than the global average, except Japan, whose rate is only 25 percent."Obviously Japan is unique in the cultural perception about women in business and women's role in the family as compared with other parts of Asia, " Wong said.The survey reflects an upward trend in the percentage of women in management roles in most economies, but only the Philippines has achieved true parity in male/female management. 据昨天公布的一项调查显示,中国内地有91%的企业聘用女性担任高级管理层的重要职位,这一比例仅次于菲律宾,位居世界第二。总部位于香港的格兰特·桑顿会计师事务所共在32个国家开展了此项民意调查。香港和台湾地区也高居榜首,分别有83%和80%的公司聘女性任高级职位。这一比例在菲律宾为97%。格兰特·桑顿公司的专家咨询务合伙人Alison Wong 说:“调查结果表明,中国的企业在聘用高级管理人员时,注重的是个人的能力和工作表现,而不是性别。”调查显示,全世界平均有65%的公司聘用女性担任高级管理职位。中国的这一比例超过美国、加拿大和英国等很多西方国家。她说:“尽管有人认为中国社会存在男女不平等的传统观念,但如今,两岸三地聘用女性任要职的企业比例达到很高水平,这是不容置疑的。”除日本只有25%外,几乎所有亚洲国家的这一比例都要高于世界平均水平。Alison Wong说:“很显然,与亚洲其它国家相比,日本对女性在职场以及家庭中的角色这一问题上抱有不同的文化观念。”调查发现,在大多数国家,女性在企业管理层中所占的比例呈上升趋势,但只有菲律宾在企业管理层中的男女比例问题上做到了真正的平等。Vocabulary: three places across two shores : 两岸三地 /200803/31794

Music 美国人的音乐爱好James Fenimore Cooper, an early American writer, once said, "The Americans are almost ignorant of the art of music." If that was once true, you would never know it today. Most Americans--even those without a musical bone in their bodies--have a favorite style of music. Many people enjoy classical and folk music from around the world. But other popular music styles in America were "made in the U.S.A." 一位美国早期的作家柯柏(James Fenimore Cooper)曾说:「美国人对音乐艺术几乎可以说是相当的无知。」如果这话曾经是事实,今日你绝不会这么认为了。大部份的美国人,甚至包括那些没有音乐细胞的人,都有自己喜爱的音乐型态。许多人喜欢世界各国的古典音乐和民俗音乐,然而美国其它的流行音乐则是「在美国制造」的。 Country and western music lies close to the heart of many Americans. This style originated among country folks in the southern and western ed States. Country music tells down-to-earth stories about love and life's hardships. Guitars, banjos and violins--also known as fiddles--give country music its characteristic sound. The home of country music is Nashville, Tennessee--Music City U.S.A. Country music even has its own theme park called "Opryland" where you can enjoy music shows and fun rides. "The Grand Ole Opry," the oldest radio show in the ed States, broadcasts country music live from Opryland every weekend. 乡村和西部音乐深得很多美国人的人心,这种型态的音乐起源于美国南部和西部的乡村小民们。乡村音乐传述着真实不加渲染的爱情故事和生活中的艰难。吉他、五弦琴和小提琴(violin又名fiddle)可弹奏出乡村音乐的特殊音色。乡村音乐的发源地是田纳西州的纳许维尔市--美国的音乐城市。而乡村音乐甚至还有它自己的主题乐园--Opryland呢!在那儿你可以享受音乐表演以及好玩的游乐设施。美国最老牌的广播节目「The Grand Ole Opry」每个周末都实况播放Opryland的音乐。 Jazz music, developed by African-Americans in the late 1800s, allows performers to freely express their emotions and musical skill. Instead of just playing the melody, jazz musicians improvise different tunes using the same chords. The peak of jazz music came in the 1920s, known as "The Jazz Era." This period produced musicians like Louis Armstrong, Benny Goodman and Duke Ellington. These musicians later created the "big band" sounds of the 1930s. Different styles of jazz developed in different cities, such as New Orleans, Chicago, New York and Kansas City. Composer George Gershwin brought jazz into the world of classical music with pieces like "Rhapsody in Blue." 爵士乐是十九世纪末期由非裔的美国人发展出来的。它让表演者自由地表现他们的情感和音乐技巧。不仅演奏旋律,爵士音乐大师用同样的和弦即兴演奏出不同的曲调。爵士乐的高峰期出现于二○年代,该时期被称为「爵士年代」。这个时期创造出来的乐手有阿姆斯特朗(Louise Armstrong),古德曼(Benny goodman)和埃林顿(Duke Ellington)。这些乐手稍后都创造了三○年代的「大乐团」之音。在不同的城市也育出不同的爵士风格,像是纽奥尔良、芝加哥、纽约和坎萨斯市。作曲家盖希文(George Gershwin)更以像「蓝色狂想曲」这样的作品,将爵士乐带入古典音乐的世界里。 The 1950s saw the development of an explosive new music style: rock 'n' roll. Performers like Elvis Presley and songs like Bill Haley's "Rock Around the Clock" made rock music widely popular. This powerful music style addresses issues like love, sex, drugs, politics and death. Often it rebels against the accepted values of society. Rock concerts, featuring loud music and sometimes weird stage acts, have become a major part of American youth culture. Music s on television have sp the message of rock to the far corners of the globe. 五○年代见了一种爆炸性新乐风的开展:摇滚乐。像猫王这样的歌手以及像哈利(Bill Haley)的Rock Around the Clock这样的歌,使摇滚音乐普遍地受到欢迎。这种具震撼力的音乐型态探讨了爱情、性、吸毒、政治及死亡等的主题。它常常叛离社会所接受的价值标准。标榜大声的音乐、甚至怪异的舞台表演的摇滚音乐会,已成为美国年轻人文化主要的一部份。而MTV已将这股摇滚的风潮传到世界最远的角落了。 And the beat goes on. Pop music represents popular styles--like the music of Karen Carpenter--that have wide appeal. "Golden oldies" from the past bring back pleasant memories for many. Rap music, which burst onto the music scene in the 1970s, is actually more like a rhyming chant. Rappers give a strong--sometimes vulgar--message about life in the streets. 音乐的节奏继续延伸下去。通俗乐代表了受大众喜爱的音乐风格,像木匠兄的音乐即吸引广大的群众。这些过去岁月中的遗留下来的「黄金老歌」,为许多人带来愉快的回忆。饶舌音乐在七○年代快速跃上音乐的舞台,它事实上很像是具节奏性的唱话。饶舌歌手传达出强烈、有时是低俗的街头生活信息。Americans have always been a religious people, and music has long been a part of their religious experience, as well. From colonial days, hymns and praise songs have enhanced worship. Negro spirituals, such as "Nobody Knows the Trouble I've Seen," reflect hope in God in the midst of suffering. Today's Christian styles fit all musical tastes--from country to jazz to pop to rock to rap. 美国人一向是相当宗教性的民族,而音乐长期以来也是他们宗教经验中的一部份。自殖民时期开始,诗歌和赞美诗都提升了敬拜的层次。像「无人知道我的困难」这样的黑人灵歌,反映出苦难中对上帝的盼望。今天的基督教音乐包含了各式的乐风--从乡村、到爵士、到通俗、到摇滚、再到饶舌歌。 In America, music is a shared experience. People grow up with piano lessons, chorus classes and marching band practices. They can talk about their tastes in music when there isn't anything else to talk about. If James Fenimore Cooper were here today, he would surely have to change his tune. 在美国,音乐是一种大家共有的经验。人们在钢琴课、合唱课程和参与游行乐队的演练经验中成长。当无话可谈的时候,他们就可以谈谈自己对音乐的喜好。如果今天柯柏还在世的话,他就得改变他的论调了。 /200804/33376

A teenager has invented a phone charger which uses energy from the human body to charge your phone.日前,一名青少年发明了一个手机充电器,可以使用来自人体的能量给你的手机充电。HandEnergy, the brainchild of 19-year-old inventor Michael Vaga, allows you to charge your phone simply by rotating your hand, which activates the device#39;s gyroscope to produce energy that can then either be stored or used to immediately charge a mobile.HandEnergy是19岁的发明家迈克尔·瓦加的创意发明,你可以只通过甩甩手就能充电,这样可以激活设备的磁转子发电机来产生能量,然后可以存储电量或立即为移动设备充电。Now, the inventor from Minsk, Belarus, is y to make and send out the innovative portable chargers.现在,这位来自白俄罗斯明斯克的发明家正准备制造和发布创新的便携式充电器。He said: ;With each rotation of your hand, the rotor speed increases significantly and generates more power. The average speed of the rotor is 5,000rpm.;他说:“你的手每转一圈,转子的转速就会显著增加,产生更大的功率。转子的平均速度为5000rpm。”;We translate the mechanical energy you put in into electrical energy and this means you can charge your device.;“我们将你人力产生的机械能转化为电能,这意味着你可以为你的设备充电。”The invention took over a year to develop, and Mr Vaga has said it is ideal for people who spend a long time away from a power source.这一发明花了一年多的时间开发,瓦加表示,对于长时间找不到电源的人来说,这是一项理想发明。It takes between 40 minutes and one hour to fully charge the batteries of the HandEnergy device. HandEnergy will be available from March 2017 with an expected retail price of 99 euros (84 pounds).使用HandEnergy设备为电池充满电需要40分钟至1小时。HandEnergy将于2017年3月起发布,预计零售价为99欧元(84英镑)。 /201701/489285

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