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来源:网易助手    发布时间:2017年12月14日 02:30:24    编辑:admin         

【新闻精讲】As sugar shifted from being a “precious product” in the 11th century to a cheap staple in the 19th century, the food industry proceeded to binge on it, with unheeded consequences. The biggest consumers today are Chilean (see chart). The Dutch, Hungarians, Belgians and Israelis are not far behind. Saudi Arabians also have a sweet tooth. In only ten countries do people eat fewer than 25 grams of sugar a day.Sugar lurks in peanut butter, sauces, ketchup, salad dressings, bs and more. Breakfast cereal, originally a wholegrain health food, evolved into “breakfast candy”—sugar-coated flakes and puffs hawked to children by cartoon pitchmen like Tony the Tiger and Sugar Bear. A 340ml (12-ounce) fizzy drink contains about ten teaspoons of sugar. Even cigarettes are laced with it. Bathing tobacco leaves in a sugar solution produces less irritating smoke; it is easier and more pleasant to inhale.【精讲文本】As sugar shifted from being a “precious product” in the 11th century to a cheap staple in the 19th century, the food industry proceeded to binge on it, with unheeded consequences. The biggest consumers today are Chilean (see chart). The Dutch, Hungarians, Belgians and Israelis are not far behind. Saudi Arabians also have a sweet tooth. In only ten countries do people eat fewer than 25 grams of sugar a day.糖在11世纪是“珍贵的产物”,到19世纪则转变为廉价的基本原料。随着这一变化的发生,食品工业开始不计后果地大肆用糖。今天,摄入糖分最多的是智利人(见图),荷兰人、匈牙利人、比利时人和以色列人紧随其后,沙特阿拉伯人也很嗜甜。只有十个国家的人均日摄糖量低于25克。shift v.转变precious adj.珍贵的staple n.原材料 (raw material)proceed v.开始进行binge v.放纵 (do too much in a short period of time)- go on a binge- We should educate the kids about the dangers of bingeing.unheeded adj.被疏忽的- heed v.留意consequence n.后果- The lightest error can have serious consequences.sweet tooth 对甜食的喜爱gram n.克Sugar lurks in peanut butter, sauces, ketchup, salad dressings, bs and more. Breakfast cereal, originally a wholegrain health food, evolved into “breakfast candy”—sugar-coated flakes and puffs hawked to children by cartoon pitchmen like Tony the Tiger and Sugar Bear.糖还潜藏在花生酱、调味汁、番茄酱、沙拉酱、面包等食品中。早餐谷物原本是一种健康的全麦食品,如今却演变成“早餐糖果”(包了糖衣的麦片和酥球),由托尼虎和糖糖熊之类的卡通“推销员”兜售给孩子们。lurk v.潜伏- She could tell there was someone out there lurking in the shadows.peanut butter 花生酱sauce 调味汁ketchup 番茄酱salad dressing 沙拉酱cereal 谷物wholgrain adj.全麦的flake n.片puff n.酥求hawk v.兜售 (sell)- hawking newspaperspitchmen n.代言人 (someone persuades people to buy)- A former star now works as a pitchman on TV.A 340ml (12-ounce) fizzy drink contains about ten teaspoons of sugar. Even cigarettes are laced with it. Bathing tobacco leaves in a sugar solution produces less irritating smoke; it is easier and more pleasant to inhale.一瓶340毫升(12盎司)的碳酸饮料中约含有十茶匙的糖。就连香烟里都掺了糖。在糖液中浸泡烟叶可令其减少刺激性烟气,让烟更易吸入且吸入时更舒。fizzy adj.泡腾的- fizz v.- Soda pop is fizzing in the glass.lace v.掺着 (add something to...)- a sauce laced with garlic.bath v.浸泡solution n.溶液irritating adj.刺激性的- irritate v.刺激- The product irritates the skin.inhale v.吸入 (breathe in)- She inhaled the fresh country air.201704/504123。

So the first lesson is don’t kill motivation.第一课是不要扼杀积极性You know businesses are often not about just increasing it, it is by stop decreasing it.企业通常不是增加积极性而是不要阻止积极性下降I’ll tell you a story I gave a talk at a company in Seattle a few years ago.我来讲个故事 几年前我给一家西雅图的公司做演讲It’s a big software company and I was giving a talk and I was in this room with 200 really depressed engineers talking to them.它是一家规模很大的软件公司 在那个房间听我演讲的是两百名很沮丧的工程师It turns out they were working on whatever the next version of the they were working on something really important and big for that company原来 他们之前正在致力研发新一代的(软件)那是个大项目 对公司非常重要and the week before I showed up the CEO of the company came to them and canceled the project.然而在我去的前一周公司的CEO将项目取消了And they were incredibly devastated.他们为此深受打击This was a group that worked for two years on something that they felt would be the next great thing for that company and the week before he just canceled it.那个团队致力于研究那个项目已经有两年的时间了 而且他们认为那对于公司来说将是下一个伟大的奇迹 就在一周之前他将项目取消了And they did not show up on time. They were just devastated.(演讲的时候)他们没有准时到场 他们只是太沮丧了They were just morally devastated and by the way after that many of them just left the company.而且信念受到了打击 那之后他们中的很多人选择离开公司They were very good people. They were just so demoralized.他们都是很优秀的人 只是受到的打击太大了And I asked them I said okay, let’s just assume the CEO had to cancel the project.然后我就问他们 我说好吧 让我们就当他必须取消这个项目Let’s assume he had to cancel for whatever reason. Let’s not question that.让我们假设他因为某些原因必须这样做 我们先不要质疑这个What could the CEO have done not to get you to be so depressed?那么CEO怎样做才能让你们不这么失望?And they came up with all kinds of ideas.然后他们提出了各种想法They said what if he allowed them to make a few working prototypes and distribute them within the company for a few years.他们说如果CEO允许他们去做一些雏形 然后在公司内部分配使用几年Just kind of see what people do with them.只是看看人们会用它们做些什么They say what if he allowed them to take parts of this new technology that we’re developing他么说如果CEO允许他们拿正在开发的新技术and see which parts will be useful in other parts of the organization, right, have some kind of leftovers from the project.去试看看新技术的哪部分在系统里的其它地方可以充分利用即项目剩下来的部分给他们测试看看They said what if you would allow them to do a workshop for the whole company to show them the journey of the last two years.他们说如果允许他们去做一个面向整个公司的研讨会去展示他们过去两年的历程What they’ve accomplished, what they’ve learned, what they struggled with, what they figured out.展示他们两年来的成就 他们学到的东西 他们克的困难 他们发现的东西And the thing about all of those suggestions, all of them would have needed some time, money and effort,然而所有的这些建议 都需要时间 金钱以及努力才能完成Right. And if the CEO thinks that those people are just like rats in a cage he said oh, I told you to go this way, you went this way.而且如果CEO认为这些人只是像笼子里的老鼠 他说我让你走这边 你就走这边Now I want to go somewhere else. I’ll close that gate.现在 我想去其他的地方 我要把这边的门关上I’ll tell you to go somewhere else. Then you don’t need to worry about motivation.我会告诉你去其他的地方 这样你就不需要担心积极性But if you understand that motivation is incredibly important then you say how do we get these people who have invested a lot in this and how we don’t just crush their spirits.但是如果你知道积极性非常重要 你会问要怎样做这些人为这个项目已经投入很多 我们怎样做才能不摧毁他们的信念But what he did was to crush their spirits.而这个CEO干的就是摧毁人信念的事So lesson number one is stop crushing people’s spirit.所以第一课就是 停止摧毁人们的信念And, you know, it might seem like a ridiculous obvious thing to do but if you look at lots of companies you’ll see lots of places好吧 你可能会觉得 这是谁都知道的事但是 如果你看得多where not because people intend to do harm but just because we don’t truly appreciate where meaning comes to life.你会看到有很多时候人们并不是有意去伤害只是因为我们无法领会到那些行为的意义We do lots of those things. We get people to start projects and we cut it in the middle.我们做很多这样的事情 我们让人们开始一个项目 然后中途又停止We get people to prepare presentations and they never get delivered.我们让人去准备发布会 然后永远不给人机会发布We do all kinds of things that eliminate motivation.我们做各种各样的扼杀积极性的事情Imagine we were doing this little segment and we knew all along there’s a good chance it will never see the light of day.想象我们正在做一个小视频 我们知道很可能它没有机会让人们看到It will just never be posted or anything like it.永远不会被发布或公开A black hole where it’s being posted and nobody, nobody, nobody will see it.它像是被放在一个黑洞 永远 永远 永远没人能看见How exciting would that be. You know lots of people are working in an environment like that.这难道会令人激动 你知道很多人都是在这样的环境下工作Now Now the more important question is how do we get people to be, you know, get more motivation,现在更重要的问题是 我们怎样做才能 你知道的 使人有更多的积极性not just stop decreasing motivation but increasing the sense of meaning.不只是停止降低积极性 还有要增加工作的意义Lots of ways to do it and maybe the best example is to think about the open source community.有很多方式可以做到 可能最好的例子就是像开源社区一样思考One of the things that happened in the open source community is that在开源社区 有一个前提规定there was a legal advance where they basically agreed that everybody who writes a piece of code their name would always be connected to it.社员们基本上认同 即每当一个人写一段代码他的名字就与这段代码关联起来Now you can say who cares. People care.现在你可能说 谁会关心 创作者会关心If your name is connected to a piece of code you’re going to maintain that piece of code forever.如果你的名字和一段代码联系在一起 你就会去维护它直到永远There was a period in time where people were worried about getting open source software.有一段时间 人们不敢使用开源软件They said who’s going to maintain it?他们担心没人维护它If your name is connected to it you’re going to maintain it.可是如果你的名字与代码关联 你就会去维护它And indeed people maintain all kinds of software in all kinds of unlikely events.而且人们也确实在各种看似不可能的情况下 维护着各种软件And people invest in it and knowing that if I create something and人们在上面投入时间精力金钱 知道如果我创造一些东西 其他人会在此基础上继续建造other people build on it, it would always have my name and my connection and my sense of contribution is incredibly motivating.它将一直带着我的名字 和我相关 是我奉献的意义所在这就是最不可思议的动力So just think about that simple idea of where do we put people’s names.所以只要解决一个简单的小问题 我们要怎么把人的名字On every piece of software.放到每一个软件上Like why on the hood of the car all the people who are involved could sign their name in a very small print.像所有相关的人都可以在汽车引擎盖上签下自己的名字用非常小的字迹And then of course there’s other things, right.当然 还有其它需要注意的It’s not just about name association.那并不只是一个名字大集合It’s about the feeling of contribution and the feeling that you have a say, autonomy right.它事关人们的奉献感 以及 你可以说是 自主感是吧That you’re not just told what you’re going to do, it’s that you are doing it.不再是你被告知要做什么 而是你自己选择去做There’s a very cute experiment in which they take kids.他们用孩子做了一个非常有趣的实验They come with their mother to a lab and they go into a separate room with the research assistants.他们跟他们的妈妈一起走进实验室 然后孩子们跟助理一起走进和妈妈不同的房间And they do a drawing together and one time the research assistant does the drawing and the kid tells them what to do.孩子和助理一起合作画画 第一次是助理画画 孩子告诉助理怎么画画So the kids give the instructions and the research assistant does the mechanical work.所以孩子给出指示 研究助理只是机械地画画Another condition the research assistant gives the instruction and the kids, the kid does the mechanical work.另一种情况是助理给出指示 孩子机械地画画And then as they finish it the research assistant takes the drawing in their hand,当他们完成后 助手把画拿在手里go out of the room first before the kid, shows it to the mother and says look what I did.在孩子之前走了出去 并且把画展示给母亲们看 说“看 这是我做的”And the question is when will the kid be more upset, right.问题是哪种条件下 孩子们会更加不安So the research assistant takes credit for the kid’s job.助理把孩子占据了孩子的作品然后得到了赞扬When will the kid be more upset?哪种情况下孩子们会更沮丧When the kid did the drawing but the idea was somebody else’s or when the idea was the kid’s and somebody else did the mechanical thing?当孩子执笔但想法来自其他人的时候 还是想法是孩子的别人只是照着画的时候And the kids get more upset when it was their idea, which was their idea.当作品是出自孩子的想法时孩子更沮丧Think about how much we don’t give credit in this world to other people’s ideas.想一下我们多少时刻没有给人们的想法给予赞扬How many people feel that their ideas were taken, somebody else is using it and they don’t get credit.多少人感觉他们的想法被别人拿去使用 而他们自己却得不到赞扬Credit is free, right. Credit is great. Give everybody credit, right.赞扬是免费的 是吧 赞扬是无价的 赞美每个人 对吧There’s a team of a 100 people, give everybody credit. Why not?团队有100个人 给每一个人赞扬 为什么不呢?Why are we so stingy with giving people credit.为什么我们都那么不喜欢给予别人赞扬Anyway, so there’s lots of other examples like this无论如何有很多像这样的例子where you could just say let’s look at all the things所以让我们着眼于所有可以给予人们意义的事情that give people a sense of meaning and let’s just try to give more of it on an every day basis.让我们努力将每一天都过得更有意义201706/514965。

North Korea is said to have attempted to carry out another ballistic missile test which failed.据称,朝鲜已试图进行另一次弹道导弹试验,但失败了。South Korean military officials say Pyongyang tried to fire a missile from the country’s east coast, but the launch did not work.韩国军方官员称,平壤试图从该国的东海岸发射导弹,但发射并没有成功。The North is banned by the UN from using any ballistic missile technology.联合国禁止朝鲜使用任何弹道导弹技术But in March leader Kim Jong Un ordered further tests of nuclear warheads and missiles.但在3月,金正恩下令对核弹头和导弹进行进一步测试。This South Korea military spokeman said, Today North Korea attempted to launch an unidentified missile in the area of Wonsan, and our military currently presumes that it failed. That’s all I’ll say for now.韩国军方发言人表示,今天朝鲜试图在元山地区发射不明导弹,目前我们军方认为发射失败了。这就是我现在要说的。Pyongyang is believed to have up to 30 missiles which theoretically could reach Japan but whose trials have never been successful.平壤被认为有多达30枚导弹,在理论上可以打到日本,但其试验从未成功。Its fourth nuclear test in January was followed by several missile launches, sparking regional tension.一月进行的第四次核试验是继多次导弹发射之后,引发了地区的紧张。译文属。 /201606/447063。

Its fatter in the middle, where the reeds are thickest.芦苇的间部位是最肥最粗的And then it tapers off here as well.然后由中间向两头逐渐变细You know, and like everything in survival,if you can use natural forms of things,生存下去的诀窍就是 运用大自然的资源its gonna help you so much.这一定会给你帮大忙的A short section of my rope cut into strips will hold the raft together nicely.我切下来一截绳子 用来束紧筏子Then what youve got is this basic shape like this.现在有个雏形了I reckon two or three of these are gonna give me easy enough stability and buoyancy to float me down this river.要想顺流而下 我感觉两三个这样的东西 就足够牢固 保我不沉了Reed rafts are incredibly durable and practical.芦苇筏相当结实 易于制作And once you know how,you can build one in an hour or so.只要掌握了方法 一小时之内就能完工One, two.Then we just finish off this third one.一个 两个 现在来完成第三个Im just trying to accentuate this taper at the end.我正努力让尾巴这端翘起来Pull it up.This is gonna be the bow.Pull those together.And then bind them up here.竖起来 让它做船头 把它们聚拢 然后捆紧This is gonna work great.All I need now is a paddle.这肯定管用 现在我需要一浆See there? Were gonna use this.Okay,were set to go,come on.看 就用它了 好了 准备出发 走Its incredibly heavy, but Im confident it wont sink.它很重 但我相信它不会沉Okay.Were floating and on our way.好了 漂起来了 上路了Just shows how buoyant these reeds are.瞧这些芦苇 浮力真强Its actually quite deep, this water.这里的水其实挺深的Tell you what,its a hell of a lot easier than doing battle with all of those reeds.告诉你吧 这真比在那丛芦苇中 劈荆斩棘要容易多了Okay. Were on our way.好了 上路了The water channel should lead straight to the coast.水道一直通向了海岸But getting a 500-pound raft into open water is gonna be quite a challenge.但要把一个550磅重的筏子拖入水域 绝非易事Come along. We can do this.Were so close now.加把劲 一定能行 没多远了201705/508206。

Only just got out of that in time.千钧一发之际 我逃了出来Got the matter of fact to the water under some little wind,事实上 当水面的风很小时those literally just like a pane of glass.简直更像是块玻璃What I mean you cant judge any hight.我是说 你根本不能以此判断高度You cant tell whether youre 60 foot up,or just 6 foot.无法分辨到底是离地60英尺 还是只有6英尺Man its cold in here.I need to get moving.哦 这水太冷了 我要尽快游上岸才行The body loses heat 25 times faster in water than in air.体热流失在水中比空气中要快25倍But I want to retrieve my chute.但我还想捡回降落伞In a survival situation like this,you cant afford to leave anything behind.在这类荒野求生的境况中 任何有用之物都不可随手弃置Im really just feeling all my muscles tightening up from the cold water.我只觉得自己全身的肌肉 在冷水中变的越来越紧Let me get this up.The water was cold, but so is the air.把这拉上来 水温是很低 气温也好不到哪去Even in early fall,it can drop below 40 degrees Fahrenheit.即便现在才是秋初 气温也会降至40华氏度以下But get to low ground,and the temperature raises significantly.但到低海拔的地区后 温度会明显升高I need to gether anything of use from my paragliding kit,and get off the high ground.我要从伞降包里收集一切可用之物 然后离开这片高地My clothes can dry out as I go.Right, lets go.行进途中我的衣物就能变干 好了 出发Now to find the route off the moutain and fast.当务之急是寻路下山 要快马加鞭As I break out the tree line,Im confronted of with huge creep slope.穿过树林后 我面临的是巨大的流石陡坡This maybe a risky route to take,but with the right technique, its at least fast.走这条路也许比较冒险 但只要把握好诀窍 这便是条捷径201608/458065。

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghais English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。201612/481025。