蚌埠洗纹身多少钱首都专栏
时间:2018年02月25日 19:26:00

Lexington莱克星顿Ranchers v bison-huggers农场主对战北美野牛极端保护者What the ceaseless rows over Yellowstone National Park reveal about America有关黄石国家公园无休止的争论,为我们揭示出美国的哪些?THE most original political book of early 2015 is not formally about politics at all. Instead “The Battle for Yellowstone” by Justin Farrell, a young scholar at Yale University, ponders venomous rows that have shaken Yellowstone National Park in recent decades, and why they are so intractable. The rows turn on such questions as wolf re-introduction, bison roaming-rights and snowmobile access to that lovely corner of the Rocky Mountains.2015年初第一本政治性书籍形式上并不和政治相关,而是一本“为黄石公园而战”的书,作者是耶鲁大学的一名年轻的学者贾斯丁·法雷尔,他在该文中对最近几十年撼动了黄石国家公园的恶毒争吵进行了思考,以及它们为何如此棘手的原因。这些争吵引发了许多问题,如狼群的再引进,野牛的漫步权力,以及雪地托车对落基山脉中这个景色优美的角落的接近。It is nearly half a century since biologists first asked Congress to re-introduce wolves into Yellowstone, so that they might usefully eat some of the elk then lumbering about in over-large herds. Getting to the point of releasing wolves in the mid-1990s involved executive actions and directives from six presidents, debates in dozens of congressional committees, 120 public hearings, more than 160,000 public submissions to federal wildlife bosses and at least m-worth of scientific research. Pro- and anti-wolf types drew up competing technical reports about the value of wolves as “apex predators”, economic costs to cattle ranchers, tourism benefits and elk ecology. This techno-rationalist arms race bought no peace: the wolf-wars blaze as fiercely as ever.近半个世纪以前,生物学家首次要求国会再次为黄石公园引进狼群,让它们吃掉马鹿,以有效减少这个过于庞大的群体。在20世纪90年代中期,释放狼群这个决定牵扯了行政措施以及六名总统的指令,国会委员会进行了多次争辩,召开了120场公众听会,野生生物官员们收到了超过160,000篇公众意见书,政府投入了至少一亿两千万去进行科学研究。持引入狼群和反对者们竞相起草各种科技报告,如关于狼群作为“顶端捕食者”的价值,养牛场场主的经济成本,旅游收益以及马鹿生态。这种技术武装的理论者竞争闹得没有宁日:狼群之争一如既往地激烈。Yellowstones wild bison trigger ferocious rows, too, each time they amble outside the national park. Let them roam, cry fans of these last genetically pure survivors of the vast herds that once filled the West. Stop them, bellow ranchers who fear the bison will infect their cattle with brucellosis, a nasty disease. Tottering stacks of brucellosis research have not resolved the dispute. Since 1997 more than 5,000 volunteers—many of them young, affluent outsiders, some adopting such “forest names” as Chipmunk, Grumble or Frog—have catalogued countless allegations of bison-bullying outside park boundaries, but changed few minds about the rights and wrongs of it.每当黄石公园的野牛在国家公园漫步时,它们都会引发激烈的争辩。这个庞大的群体一度遍布西方世界,而如今只剩下了这些最后的纯种幸存者,让它们尽情漫步吧!野牛群体的粉丝们大声呼喊。阻止它们!农场主们怒吼,因为他们害怕野牛们会向家牛传染讨厌的布鲁菌病。而那些大堆关于布鲁菌病的研究也未解决这场争辩。自1997年起就有超过五千名志愿者—大多数都是年轻人和富裕的外来者,也有一些采用了 “森林之名”,如花栗鼠、咕哝或者青蛙,他们将无数关于北美野牛在公园边界横行霸道的指控进行了编目,但只改变了一小批人的是非观念。As for snowmobilers and their right to roar along Yellowstone trails when winter descends, millions of dollars have been spent on lawsuits in Wyoming and Washington, DC since the late 1990s, backed by studies of engine-noise, exhaust-pollution and wildlife behaviour. Some wrangling continues.关于冬天来临时驾雪车者以及他们在黄石山径呼啸而过的事情,自20世纪90年代后期,怀俄明州和华盛顿已经有数百万美元的法律诉讼了,这些诉讼由发动机噪音研究、废气污染研究以及野生生物行为研究持。有些争辩如今仍在继续。All this puzzled Mr Farrell, a sociologist at Yales school of forestry and environmental studies, whose book is due out this summer, under the full title “The Battle for Yellowstone: Morality and the Sacred Roots of Environmental Conflict”. He spent two years asking folk in and around Yellowstone why they are so cross. Beneath debates about science and economics he found arguments about morality and the proper relations between humans and nature—though those involved often do not, or will not acknowledge this. In short, all sides purport to be weighing what is true and false, while really arguing about right and wrong.所有这些都使法雷尔先生很困惑,他是一名来自耶鲁大学林学与环境研究院的社会学家,他的著作将于今年夏天出炉,全称是“为黄石公园而战:道德与环境冲突的神圣根源”。他花了两年时间询问黄石公园之中以及周边的居民他们如此生气的原因。在关于科学和经济的争辩之下他发现了关于道德和人类与自然之间合适关系的论—尽管那些参与争论的人经常意识不到,或者不承认这点。总之,各方都声称在他们争辩对错时确实仔细考虑了是非对错。Pro-wolf biologists and officials call themselves dispassionate custodians of a unique place. But they give themselves away with quasi-spiritual talk of wolves restoring “wholeness” to a landscape damaged by man. Indeed, when the first Yellowstone wolves were released in 1995, the then-interior secretary, Bruce Babbit, called it “a day of redemption”. While living with pro-bison activists, a startled Mr Farrell heard them telling various furry specimens “We love you,” or “We are here to protect you, you big sacred boy,” and spouting bowdlerised Native-American teachings about the animals ancient souls (while simultaneously insisting, in many cases, that they distrusted religion and its works).赞成引进狼群的生物学家和官员们自称为独特地方的冷静管理员。但他们类似精神的谈话暴露了自己的狐狸尾巴,称狼群可以将被人类破坏的风景“完全”恢复。确实,当黄石公园在1995年第一次放出狼群时,当时的内政部长布鲁斯·巴比特把这天叫做“救赎日”。而在与赞成保护野牛的活动家们一起居住时,法雷尔先生听到了一些令他震惊的话:他们对着各种毛绒绒的标本说“我们爱你们”,或“神圣的孩子们,我们来保护你们了”,并唾弃有所删节的美国本土关于动物古老灵魂的学说(同时在许多情况下,他们也坚持不信任宗教和其作品)。As for anti-wolf types, when offered financial compensation for wolf-attacks on their livestock, some turn it down—suggesting that more than economics is at stake. Dig a bit, and a culture war is raging between the “old West” of rugged ranchers and hunters, who once earned respect and status by taming nature, but who now find themselves called environmental menaces by “new West” incomers with big-city ideas about animal rights and natural ecosystems. Behind that local clash—pitting folk with gun racks on their trucks against those with bike racks, as Mr Farrell puts it—there lurks a still larger suspicion of the federal government. Many “old West” types see a plot to drive ranchers from the land. They talk of “federal wolves” undermining their property rights, and challenging the God-ordained duty of humans to protect their own families, and exercise dominion over Creation.对于反对引入狼群的人来说,当向他们提供狼群袭击家畜的财政补贴时,有些人拒绝了,并建议说处于险境的并不只是他们的经济。更深入一点,在“老西部”的坚毅农场主与猎人中正在发生着一场激烈的文化战争,他们曾经因为驯化制自然而获得尊敬与地位,但如今却发现自己被持有动物权利与自然生态等大都市思想的“新西部”移民们叫做环境威胁。在当地的冲突中,武装居民把架在卡车上,与另一队把架在自行车上的居民对峙,正如法雷尔提出的那样,那里隐藏着对联邦政府更大的猜疑。许多“老西部”居民都能看出一场要把农场主赶出这片土地的阴谋。他们说“联邦狼”暗中破坏了他们的财产权,挑战了上帝规定的人类要保护自己家庭的责任,而且滥用了上帝的造物权。Crying wolf嚎叫的狼Yellowstones hidden moral disputes offer wider lessons to America, a country that is increasingly divided and unusually keen on tackling complex ethical questions in judicial and quasi-judicial settings. Lots of other countries debate such issues as the death penalty, abortion, gun control or global warming in parliament, allowing partisans to admit when they are advancing emotional or religious arguments. From its earliest days American law courts and congressional hearings have rung to the noise of impassioned partisans, hurling facts (and, all too often, confected para-facts) at one another in a bid to prove the other side wrong.黄石公园中隐藏的道德之争为美国提供了更广泛的教训,这个国家分歧日渐增多,经常热衷于处理司法与准司法背景的复杂道德问题。许多其他国家都在国会上争辩如死刑、堕胎、管理或全球变暖之类的问题,当党派人员推动情感或宗教争辩时,就允许他们加入。早期美国法院与国会听会会收到充满的党派人员们的争论电话,互相用事实(并且常常是特意寻出的侧面事实)攻击对方以明另一方是错误的。Mr Farrell is not the only scholar testing the thesis that this approach has its limits. Earlier this winter the Faith Angle Forum—a twice-yearly conference bringing together theologians, scientists and political journalists—heard from academics working to bridge divides between science and Americans of deep religious faith. Many partisans subscribe to the post-Enlightenment idea that giving people lots of facts ought to be enough to convince them, noted Jeff Hardin of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, a zoologist and devout Christian. But “most of us hold our beliefs in a tangled ball of yarn”, especially in a religious, polarised place such as America. Tug at one th, and people fear that their very identity is under attack.法雷尔并不是测试这种方法具有限制性这个论题的唯一学者。今年冬天早期信仰天使座谈会—一个两年一次的会议,聚集了大量神学家、科学家和政治新闻记者—听说学术界正在致力于沟通科学与美国居民根深蒂固的宗教信仰之间的分歧。威斯康星大学的动物学家以及虔诚的基督徒杰夫·哈丁表明,许多党派人员们都认同了后启蒙思想,认为后启蒙思想为人们带来的大量事实足以使人们信。但“大部分人的信仰都是一团乱麻”,特别是在美国这样宗教化、极端化的地区。这是悬在人们头上的一柄达克利斯之剑,人们都担忧自己的身份会遭受攻击。This is not a call to abandon rationality or to scorn facts. It is a call for more empathy in American political debate, and more honesty about the tangled agendas that lurk in every breast. That would not end every conflict: just look at Yellowstone and its unending rows. But even agreeing to disagree would be a start.这并不是号召放弃理性或嘲笑事实。这是号召美国政治辩论对于潜藏在每个人心中的混乱议题应该更同情,更诚实。这不会终结所有冲突:去看看黄石公园和它那无休止争吵你就知道了。但即使是求同存异,也将会是个开始。翻译:靳方方 校对:萧毛毛 译文属译生译世 /201501/353453

Urban planning城市规划Rail ambition铁路大设想Cities used to think modern art could save them. Now its railway stations城市的救命稻草由过去的现代艺术转为地铁车站IN JANUARY commuters voted Birmingham New Street one of Britains worst railway stations. Each day nearly 150,000 people move through a structure built for half as many. But by next year it will be transformed, with 400 tonnes of undulating steel cladding and a vaguely eyeball appearance. The station will have “the wow factor”, boasts Sir Albert Bore, the leader of Birmingham city council. It will also show how much attitudes to railway stations have changed.今年1月,英国上班族的投票结果显示伯明翰新街火车站是全英最差的火车站。每天都有15万人都要去挤这个容量只有人流量一半的车站上下班。但明年,情况将有所改善—车站将使用400顿的包钢材料,带给人们一种模糊的视觉体验。伯明翰市长Albert Bore夸耀说,这个车站将会使走过路过的人情不自禁的叫出声来,使乘客对火车站的态度实现360度大转弯。Railway stations are the chief exception to the rule that Britain invests too little in infrastructure. Of the 17 big termini managed by Network Rail, the owner of Britains tracks, 11 are being redeveloped or have recently been completed. Five other stations, including Reading and Northampton, are being spruced up by local councils and Network Rail.英国向来对基础设施的投资就少,但火车站则是一个例外。英国铁道所有者铁路网管理的17个火车站中,有11个使乘客对火车站的态度实现360度大转弯,还有5个(包括雷丁火车站和北安普顿火车站)由当地政府和铁路局负责翻新修理。Some simply need to be expanded: the number of train journeys has risen by 35% since 2005. But the design of New Street suggests aspirations well beyond more easeful travel. The building would not look out of place in Dubai and is striking, if slightly incongruous, in the grey West Midlands. City planners wanted something monumental, like Grand Central station in New York, says Sir Bernard Zissman, chairman of the independent design panel.有一些则只需要扩建:自2005年起,搭乘火车旅行的人次上升了35%。但是新街火车站的设计表明,改良的初衷不仅仅是为了实现提供“更舒适的旅行”这一基本目的。这种独特亮眼的建筑出现在迪拜很合适,但是在灰蒙蒙的西米德兰兹郡,就有那么点不合时宜了。城市规划者、独立设计小组主席Bernard Zissman解释说想建一些地标性的建筑物,就像纽约的中央车站一样。“Twenty or thirty years ago business people were more likely to arrive in a city by car,” explains Jon Neale of Jones Lang LaSalle, a property specialist. Town planners duly carved out motorways and roundabouts to entice them. In 1962 a local politician claimed that a new design for Birmingham, involving an inner ring road, would make it “one of the finest city centres in Europe”.仲量联行的房地产专家Jon Neale说,二三十年以前,商人们大多数情况下都会坐车,因为城市规划者不失时宜地开发了很多高速公路和环状交叉路口诱惑他们。1962年,一位当地政客称会在伯明翰开始新的城市规划,包括建设一条内环路,使其成为“欧洲最好的市中心之一”。Cities now measure their appeal by their stations. Businesses cluster around them: at Kings Cross, a once-grimy part of north London, a postcode has been created for all the new buildings around the station, which was redeveloped in 2013. John Lewis, an upmarket department store, will open in the mall above New Street (which is indeed called “Grand Central”) along with 60 other shops. The council hopes it will pull in visitors to the city.当今很多城市都用他们的火车站衡量城市魅力。车站附近也建起了商业圈:英国王十字车站曾是北伦敦一个污秽不堪的地方,2013年重建后,所有车站周围的新建筑都被赋予了一个新的邮编。高档百货公司John Lewis将会在新街车站上面开一家商城(命名为“中央车站”)以及60家商店。市政当局希望这会吸引更多游客。Such ambition recalls the stations of the 19th century. Those structures “spoke to the corporate sensibility of a city,” says Tristram Hunt, an MP and historian, by combining commerce with the sheen of civic pride. The first New Street station, built in 1851, had the largest single-span roof in the country at the time. It was torn down by enthusiastic 1960s town planners. Now some of its original lustre may return.这样宏大的构想让人想起了19世纪的车站。历史学家兼国会议员Tristram Hunt说,那些建筑结合了商业贸易和公民自豪感,向企业家们诉说着城市的点滴与沉淀。1851年修建的第一个新街火车站有那个时代最大的单拱桥屋顶。20世纪60年代,狂热的城市规划者将它拆掉。而现在,那些原先的光辉可能重返。译者:张丹 校对:徐珍 译文属译生译世 /201511/407513

The clutch of turtle eggs has been incubating under the sand for two months.海龟的一窝蛋在已经孵化了,它们在沙滩下已经两个月了。At the right moment, the hatchlings all emerge together.与此同时,所有小海龟已经聚集到一起。They must reach the water in the shortest possible time.它们必须以尽可能短的时间到达水里。Baby turtles are food for baby herons,so the heron parents have timed the peak of their nesting to coincide with this mass emergence.小海龟是小苍鹭的食物,所以苍鹭把筑巢的高峰,与海龟孵化的高峰保持一致。Even ripples in the sand slow the hatchlings headlong rush to the sea.甚至沙滩上的起伏,也会减慢它们前往大海里的速度。It could mean the difference between life and death.这意味着生与死的区别。 译文属201512/415252

North Sea oil and the budget北海油气和预算Priming the pumps采取措施For the oil and gas industry, tax reductions were overdue油气工业减税政策已过期Sunset industry?夕阳工业?AMONG the tax cuts announced in his budget on March 18th, the chancellor of the exchequer, George Osborne, laid out big reductions for oil and gas companies operating in the North Sea. The previous tax rates for companies operating in the older fields sometimes amounted to a punitive 80%. Now the petroleum revenue tax will be reduced from 50% to 35%, and a supplementary corporation tax will come down from 30% to 20%. The government will also invest in new seismic surveys in the more remote areas of the North Sea. Altogether, Mr Osborne hopes that these measures will boost production there by 15% by the end of the decade.在3月18号预算案公布的税务减免中,英国财政大臣乔治·奥斯本提议为北海的油气公司提供大幅税务减免。之前在老油田进行开采的公司有时竟会缴纳总计达到80%的重税。如今石油收益税率将从50%降到35%,企业所得附加税将从30%降到20%。政府也将在北海远海域的新地震测量方面投入资金。总而言之,奥斯本希望这些方法能促使该地区十年后的产量飙升15%。Oil and gas companies lobbied furiously for these changes, and they will certainly be welcomed, not least around the industrys capital of Aberdeen, where some 160,000 people rely on the sector. Mr Osborne should not expect much gratitude, though. Some firms have yet to forgive him for raising taxes in the first place.油气公司为这些达成改变而大力游说,他们当然会受到欢迎,尤其是在该产业的中心亚伯丁地区,这里约160,000名居民依赖着这一产业。但是奥斯本不应该期望会得到太多感激。有些公司还没原谅他一开始提升税率的行为。In 2011 the chancellor surprised everyone by increasing the supplementary tax by 12 points to 32% (afterwards lowered to 30%). This might have netted the hard-up chancellor a windfall of about 2 billion (3 billion) but, so argue many in the industry, the tax rise also deterred companies from sinking any more money into an ageing basin where it had aly become very expensive to operate. With margins wafer thin, North Sea oil and gas production, which had been falling steadily since its peak in 1999, plummeted between 2011 and 2013, before recovering slightly last year. Just as importantly, new exploration has crawled almost to a halt. This year it is expected that as few as eight new exploratory wells might be drilled. One consequence is that the once mighty North Sea oil and gas sector has become increasingly marginal to the overall British economy. In 2011-12 North Sea tax revenues totalled 10.9 billion, but in 2013-14 they had shrunk to just 4.7 billion.2011年,这位大臣将附加税率提升了12个百分点,达到了32%(后来又降到了30%),这令所有人大吃一惊。经济拮据的大臣也许能借此获得一笔约20亿英镑(30亿美元)的意外款项,但是该产业的许多公司也辩称税率上涨阻止了公司将更多的钱扔进这经营昂贵、日趋衰落的领域打水漂。北海的油气生产利润微薄,自1999年达到顶峰后一直保持逐年下降,在2011年和2013年之间骤跌,去年才微弱回升。另一个重要的原因是,新油田的探测也步步维艰到达瓶颈期。今年预计只有八块新油田将会得到开采。一个结果就是曾叱咤风云的北海油气产业会在整体英国经济中越来越边缘化。2011年到2012年间,北海税收总计109亿英镑,但在2013年到2014年,缩减到了47亿。Furthermore, although there might have been a case for a windfall tax in 2011 when the oil price was high, averaging 111 for a barrel of Brent crude over the year, since last June the price has tumbled. It is now down to about 55 a barrel. This has put even more pressure on margins and profits, so much so that, over the past six months, companies have been cutting wages and laying off hundreds of workers in a rushed attempt to cut costs. Overall, according to Oil and Gas UK, an industry lobby group, the sector lost 5.3 billion last year, the worst performance since the 1970s, when the colossal investment in new platforms and other infrastructure preceded the flow of oil and gas.此外,尽管2011年油价高昂,平均一桶布伦特原油约111美元,当时很可能出台一项暴利税,但自去年六月价格已大跌。如今已降至约55美元每桶。这使获取利润越来越难,形势严峻到在过去六个月间,公司一直在削减工资和裁员,慌忙减少开。据工业游说团体英国石油天然气协会所说,总体上该行业去年损失了53亿英镑,这是自上世纪七十年代以来的最糟表现,那时大量的投资涌入了新平台和其他基础建设中,带领了油气行业发展的风潮。With the price of oil expected to stay at its current level for some time, both employers and employees know that only by drastically reducing operating costs in the North Sea over the long term can the basin remain profitable enough to attract investment, let alone compete with less costly deep-water basins in the Gulf of Mexico and off the west coast of Africa. With oil over 100 a barrel, the industry got used to living high on the hog, but those days are gone. In this respect, the tax cuts are helpful, but hardly crucial. Cutting costs will prove far more important.预计油价暂时会保持现在水平,雇主和雇员都知道只有在北海长期大幅削减运作开,产业才能有足够多的利润来吸引投资,更不要说与成本更低的墨西哥湾和非洲西海岸的深水实验池竞争了。在每桶原油超过100美元的情况下,石油产业习惯了养尊处优,但好景不再。在这方面,减税能起到帮助,但不能解决根本问题。减少成本将更为重要。译者:王颖 校对:陈思思 译文属译生译世 /201503/366790


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