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来源:光明咨询    发布时间:2018年02月25日 23:58:18    编辑:admin         

However, to me, the 500 is但是对我来说这500个(遗产)really just the first 500.只是一个开始In order to sustain our work into the future,为了在将来把我们的工作持续下去we use technology centers我们通过与技术中心where we partner with和当地高校local universities and colleges合作to take the technology to them,授权他们使用我们的技术whereby they then can help us帮助我们with digital preservation of their heritage sites,进行遗产数字化保存的工作and at the same time, it gives them同时这也给了他们the technology to benefit from in the future.可以长远获益的技术Let me close with another short story.让我以另一个小故事结尾Two years ago, we were approached两年前by a partner of ours to digitally preserve一个遗产数字化保存工程的合作伙伴an important heritage site,为一个重要的遗迹找到我们a UNESCO heritage site in Uganda,这是一个位于乌干达的联合国教科文组织认的遗迹the Royal Kasubi Tombs.卡苏比皇陵The work was done successfully in the field,保存工作很成功and the data was archived所有的数据都收集归档and publicly disseminated并通过CyArk网站through the CyArk website.对外发布并开放Last March,去年三月we received very sad news.我们听到一个不幸的消息The Royal Tombs had been destroyed卡苏比皇陵已经被纵火嫌疑犯by suspected arson.毁掉了A few days later, we received a call:几天后,我们接到一个电话:;Is the data available“收集的数据and can it be used for reconstruction?;能用于重建吗?”Our answer, of course, was yes.我们的当然是肯定的Let me leave you with a final thought.最后留给各位一个想法Our heritage is much more than我们的遗产our collective memory --不仅是我们的共同记忆-its our collective treasure.更是我们共同的珍宝We owe it to our children,我们要留给我们的our grandchildren and the generations子孙还有we will never meet永远见不到的后代to keep it safe我们要保护好它们and to pass it along.使它们代代相传Thank you.谢谢(Applause)(掌声)Thank you.谢谢Thank you.谢谢Thank you.谢谢Well, Im staying here because我还在台上we wanted to demonstrate to you是因为要向各位展示一下the power of this technology这项技术的力量and so, while Ive been speaking,在我刚才说话的时候you have been scanned.你们已经被扫描了(Laughter)(笑声)The two wizards that I have我的两名正在幕后的that are behind the curtain助手will help me bring将在屏幕上the results on the screen.把结果呈现给我们(Applause)(掌声)This is all in 3D and of course这些都是三维的you can fly through the cloud of points.你可以用自由视角观察这些数据点集合You can look at it from on top,你能从天花板的角度from the ceiling.俯瞰它You can look from different vantage points,也可以从不同的高度看but Im going to ask Doug to zoom in我可以让道格拉近画面on an individual in the crowd,看看人群里的某一个人just to show the amount of detail让你们看到我们能达到的that we can create.细节程度So you have been digitally preserved你们在四分钟的时间内in about four minutes.全部被数字化保存了(Laughter)(笑声)Id like to thank the wizards here.我要谢谢我的助手We were very lucky to have我们很幸运two of our partners participate in this:有两个合作伙伴参与:the Historic Scotland,苏格兰文物局and the Glasgow School of Art.和格拉斯哥艺术学院Id like to also thank personally我个人想向the efforts of David Mitchell,大卫·米切尔致谢who is the Director of Conservation他是苏格兰文物局的at Historic Scotland.文物修复主管David. 大卫(Applause)(掌声)And Doug Pritchard, whos the Head of还有道格·普里查德Visualization at the Glasgow School of Art.他是格拉斯哥艺术学院视觉艺术的主任Lets give them a hand.让我们致以掌声(Applause)(鼓掌)Thank you.谢谢201409/329620。

And so, I actually made a kind of curious decision. After the success of Titanic, I said, ;Okay, you know, Im going to park my day job as a Hollywood movie maker, and Im going to go be a full time explorer for a while.; And so, you know, we started planning these expeditions. And we wound up going to the Bismark, and exploring it with robotic vehicles. We went back to the Titanic wreck. We took little bots that we had created that spooled a fiber optic. And the idea was to go in and do an interior survey of that ship, which had never been done. Nobody had ever looked inside the wreck. They didnt have the means to do it, so we created technology to do it.所以,我做了一个奇怪的决定。在《泰坦尼克号》成功后,我说:“好吧,我要暂停我的主业——好莱坞电影制作人,做一段时间全职探险家。”于是,你知道,我们开始计划那些冒险。我们紧张而又兴奋地去俾斯麦,用机器开发探险。我们又回到了泰坦尼克号的残骸处。我们带了一些自制的装着光纤眼的机器人。我们想的是到船里做一个以前从没有做过的内部调查。没有人看过残骸里面。人们没有方法这么做,而我们发明了这么做的技术。So, you know, here I am now, on the deck of Titanic, sitting in a submersible, and looking out at planks that look much like this, where I knew the band had played. And Im flying a little robotic vehicle through the corridor of the ship. You know when I say, you know, Im operating it, but my mind is in the vehicle. I felt like I was physically present inside the shipwreck of Titanic. And it was the most surreal kind of deja vu experience Ive ever had, because I would know before I turned a corner what was going to be there before the lights of the vehicle actually revealed it, because I had walked the set for months when we were making the movie. And the set was based as an exact replica on the blueprints of the ship.所以我当时就站在泰坦尼克号的甲板上,坐在潜艇里,看着那些跟这个很像的木板,也就是乐团最后在甲板上演奏的地方。然后我操纵着一台遥控载具通过走道。在船上虽然我只是操纵,但意志却在这载具中。我觉得我仿佛整个人走入泰坦尼克号的残骸中,这是我这辈子最超现实的似曾相识感。因为我知道,在转过转角之前,甚至是在灯光照射到之前,我就知道后面的景象。因为我在拍电影时,就在布景上走过好几个月,而我们的布景则是完全复制船的蓝图。So, it was this absolutely remarkable experience. And it really made me realize that, you know, the telepresense experience you actually can have these robotic avatars, then your consciousness is injected into the vehicle, into this other form of existence. It was really really quite profound. And may be a little bit of a glimpse to what might be happening, you know, some decades out as we start to have cyborg bodies for exploration or for other means in many sort of post-human futures that I can imagine, as a science fiction fan.这真是不同寻常的经历。让我真正意识到,你知道,遥距体验的可能。你可以用这些机械代理人,把意识灌注到这载体上或是其他形式的存在物中。这真的让人非常着迷。让我们看看可能发生的事情,你知道,几十年后可能发生的情景,我们可以使用电子人进行探险或是别的工作。这是我作为一个科幻迷可以想象到的后人类时代的未来。 /201311/263345。

The second type of deep computing is what we call data mining -- some people call it business intelligence, the ability to extract inside from mountains of information, and see relationships and trends that previously were not available or invisible. 第二种深入计算我们称之为数据分析处理 -- 有些人称之为商业情报处理,即从大量信息中提炼出有用情报,并分析出以前得不到或看不见的各种关系和发展趋势。Banks are looking at spending patterns and other demographic data to see which customers are more profitable over the long haul. Health-care companies are analyzing millions of patient records to find hidden indicators of disease. 在分析消费模式和其它统计数据,以弄清哪些客户长期的收益状况较好。医疗企业在分析成百万的病例以从中发现隐藏的疾病迹象。These tools are also helping slash the staggering cost of insurance fraud in the health-care industry, which is a hundred-billion-dollar problem in the ed States alone. Insurance companies can now spot every billion practices. One company in the ed States has saved 38 million dollars, having invested only 400 thousand in this technology. 这些工具还有助于削减 health-care 产业中惊人的保险欺骗损失,仅在美国这个损失就高达上千亿美元。保险公司现在能够发现任何欺诈行为。有一家美国公司仅在这种技术上投资 40 万美元就减少了 3800 万美元的损失。In one instance they found a doctor, who was sending it a bill once a week for a procedure that particular - usually was done once or twice in a life time. At some times the patterns and relationships that are uncovered are truly baffling. One retail chain discovered the following correlation -- for whatever reason, new fathers buy disposable baby diapers and beer on the same shopping trip. This led to many, many thoughtful ideas not at least which was they never discount diapers and beer on the same day. 有一次他们发现一个医生每周都要送来一份医疗检查帐单,而其中的一些项目一生也只会做一次或两次。有时发现的一些情况和关系着实令人难以理解。有一家零售连锁店发现了如下的相关联系:不管出于什么原因,新爸爸们总是在一次购物中同时购买一次性婴儿尿片和啤酒。这一点引发了很多很多很有思想的想法,例如他们从不同时对尿片和啤酒打折。201312/267725。

Effectively the international (financial) system has a tow-tier structure:Countries that can borrow in their own currency constitute the center, and those, whose borrowings are denominated in one of the hard currencies, constitute the periphery. If individual countries get into difficulties they receive assistance but only on strict conditions. That holds true whether they are from the center or from the periphery. But if tie center itself becomes endangered, then, preserving the system take precedence over all other considerations.事实上国际金融体系拥有双层结构:能用本国货币进行借贷的国家构成了该体系的中心,而只能通过硬通货进行借贷的国家则构成了这个体系的。如果有成员国陷入困境,不论它们是处于该体系的中心或外沿,它们均可得到援助,但条件很苛刻。但是如果中心本身遇到了威胁,那么金融体系的维护就成了优先考虑的问题。That happened for the first time in the international banking crisis of 1982. If the debtor countries had been allowed to default, the banking system would have collapsed. Therefore the international financial authorities banded together and introduced what I called at the time ;the collective system of lending;. The lenders were induced to roll over their loans and the debtor countries were lent enough additional money to service their debts. The net effect was that debtor countries fell into severe recession —Latin America lost a decade of growth —but the banking system was allowed to earn its way out of a hole. When the banks built up sufficient reserves the loans were restructured into so-called Brady bonds and the banks wrote off their remaining losses.这一点在1982年的国际金融危机中第一次得到验。当时如果允许债务国拖欠还款,系统就会崩溃。于是,国际金融权威机构联合起来,并采取了当时被我称作“集体出借体制”的方法,即借贷国将贷款延期,借给债务国足够的额外资金偿还债务。实际的结果是,债务国陷入严重的经济衰退期——拉丁美洲的经济增长被阻滞了 10年——而系统得以贏利而侥幸摆脱困境。当各积累了足够的储备,债款就被重组为所谓的“布雷迪债券;,其余的损失均由自负。201409/327235。

So Im here to explain我来解释一下why Im wearing these ninja pajamas.为什么我穿着这样一套忍者睡衣And to do that, Id like to talk first我想首先谈谈我们体内含有的about environmental toxins in our bodies.对环境有害的毒素So some of you may know你们可能有人知道about the chemical Bisphenol A, BPA.一种叫双酚A或BPA的化学物质Its a material hardener and synthetic estrogen这是一种存在于罐装食品保护膜thats found in the lining of canned foods和某些塑料制品中的and some plastics.材料硬化剂和合成雌性激素So BPA mimics the bodys own hormonesBPA模仿人体内激素and causes neurological and reproductive problems.造成神经和生育方面的问题And its everywhere.到处都是这种物质A recent study found BPA近期一项研究表明in 93 percent of people six and older.在6岁和6岁以上的人群有93%体内都含有BPABut its just one chemical.这还只是一种化学物质The Center for Disease Control in the U.S.美国疾病控制中心公布says we have 219 toxic pollutants in our bodies,人们体内存在219种有毒物质and this includes preservatives, pesticides其中包括防腐剂,杀虫剂and heavy metals like lead and mercury.以及铅和汞等重金属To me, this says three things.在我看来,这说明了三点First, dont become a cannibal.第一,千万别吃人肉Second, we are both responsible for and the victims of第二,我们既是污染制造者our own pollution.又是污染的受害者And third,第三our bodies are filters and storehouses我们的身体成为了环境毒素的for environmental toxins.过滤器和储藏室So what happens to all these toxins when we die?那么我们死后,这些毒素怎么办呢The short answer is:简单地说They return to the environment in one way or another,这些毒素会通过各种途径回到环境continuing the cycle of toxicity.持续循环But our current funeral practices然而,我们所进行的丧礼仪式make the situation much worse.却加剧了形势的恶化If youre cremated,如果你被火化all those toxins I mentioned are released into the atmosphere.我所提到的所有有毒物质都会被释放到大气中And this includes 5,000 pounds of mercury其中包括每年用于补牙的from our dental fillings alone every year.5000磅的汞And in a traditional American funeral,传统的美国葬礼上a dead body is covered with fillers and cosmetics人们往往会给遗体化妆打蜡to make it look alive.让遗体看起来有栩栩如生Its then pumped with toxic formaldehyde接着遗体被浸泡在有毒的福尔马林中to slow decomposition --以防止腐败a practice which causes respiratory problems and cancer这一做法会使殡仪人员的呼吸系统出现问题in funeral personnel.并导致癌症So by trying to preserve our dead bodies,我们为保存遗体做了重重工作we deny death, poison the living结果只是粉饰死亡,毒害生灵and further harm the environment.进而破坏了环境Green or natural burials, which dont use embalming,无遗体防腐处理的绿色自然埋葬are a step in the right direction,方向是对的but they dont address the existing toxins in our bodies.但是这种方法并不能解决我们体内毒素的问题I think theres a better solution.我想到了一个更好的方法Im an artist,我是一个艺术家so Id like to offer a modest proposal我把艺术,科学,文化结合在一起at the intersection提出一个of art, science and culture.谦卑的建议The Infinity Burial Project,无极入葬计划an alternative burial system这是一种采用蘑菇that uses mushrooms来分解并清除to decompose and clean toxins in bodies.遗体内有毒物质的入葬方法The Infinity Burial Project无限入葬计划began a few years ago with a fantasy始于几年前to create the Infinity Mushroom --创造无极蘑菇的设想a new hybrid mushroom这是一种新型杂交蘑菇that would decompose bodies, clean the toxins它能够分解尸体,清除毒素and deliver nutrients to plant roots,并将养分输送给植物的根系leaving clean compost.只留下无害的降解物But I learned its nearly impossible可惜,我后来知道to create a new hybrid mushroom.创造这样的蘑菇几乎是不可能的I also learned我还得知that some of our tastiest mushrooms一些最可口的蘑菇can clean environmental toxins in soil.能够清洁土壤中的毒素So I thought maybe I could train an army于是我想,或许我能够训练of toxin-cleaning edible mushrooms一清除毒素的食用蘑菇军团to eat my body.来吃掉我的遗体So today, Im collecting what I shed or slough off --现在,我把身上褪掉的物质收集起来my hair, skin and nails --比如我的毛发,皮,指甲and Im feeding these to edible mushrooms.喂给我这些食用蘑菇As the mushrooms grow,等它们长大了I pick the best feeders我会挑出最能吃的蘑菇to become Infinity Mushrooms.来做我的无极蘑菇Its a kind of imprinting and selective breeding process这是一种为来生所做的for the afterlife.胚教和选择性培育过程So when I die,我死后the Infinity Mushrooms will recognize my body无极蘑菇能够识别我的身体and be able to eat it.并把它吃掉All right, so for some of you,对于大家有些人this may be really, really out there.这可能非常骇人听闻Just a little.有一点吧201507/385248。

18 minutes is an absolutely brutal time limit,十八分钟是一个非常紧的时间限制,so Im going to dive straight in, right at the point因此我直入主题,讲重点的,where I get this thing to work.我将马上开始。Here we go. Im going to talk about five different things.好,我要谈五个不同的事情。Im going to talk about why defeating aging is desirable.一,我要谈谈为什么抗老化是可行的。Im going to talk about why we have to get our shit together,二,我要谈谈为什么我们必须打起精神,and actually talk about this a bit more than we do.多讨论这个课题,并且发觉我们应该指望战胜老化。Im going to talk about feasibility as well, of course.当然,三,我也会谈谈战胜老化的可行性。Im going to talk about why we are so fatalistic四,我要谈谈为什么我们在人类抗老化上采取的行动这么的认命,about doing anything about aging.以为都是注定的。And then Im going spend perhaps the second half of the talk然后,第五,我也许在这个节目的下半段的时间谈谈talking about, you know, how we might actually be able to prove that fatalism is wrong,我们如何明这个对战胜老化漠不关心以及以为是注定的心态是错误的,namely, by actually doing something about it.并且实际上做点什么事来纠正这个错误。Im going to do that in two steps.这第五点,我会用两个步骤来谈论。The first one Im going to talk about is第一个步骤是how to get from a relatively modest amount of life extension --如何从一个相对适中的延长寿命治疗科技 -which Im going to define as 30 years, applied to people我这就把它定义为可延长三十年寿命,who are aly in middle-age when you start --并且在已经是中年年龄的人开始应用 –to a point which can genuinely be called defeating aging.直到一个能真正被称为战胜老化问题的程度。Namely, essentially an elimination of the relationship between也就是说,实质上消除了你多大年纪,how old you are and how likely you are to die in the next year --以及你在下一年死去或or indeed, to get sick in the first place.生病的可能性之间的关系。And of course, the last thing Im going to talk about最后一件事第五件事情,is how to reach that intermediate step,第二个步骤我要谈的是如何实现过度步骤,that point of maybe 30 years life extension.那个能给我们每一个人延长三十年寿命的治疗科技。So Im going to start with why we should.好,我就从为什么要延长人类的寿命开始。Now, I want to ask a question.现在,我想问一个问题。Hands up: anyone in the audience who is in favor of malaria?观众席里有谁赞成疟疾是有利的?请举手。That was easy. OK.好,这很简单。OK. Hands up: anyone in the audience行。行。请不知道疟疾whos not sure whether malaria is a good thing or a bad thing?是好事还是坏事的人举手?OK. So we all think malaria is a bad thing.好。所以,我们都认为,疟疾是一件坏事。Thats very good news, because I thought that was what the answer would be.这是一个非常好的消息,因为我原以为这就是。Now the thing is, I would like to put it to you现在我希望你们想一想that the main reason why we think that malaria is a bad thing我们认为疟疾是一件坏事主要的原因,is because of a characteristic of malaria that it shares with aging.是因为疟疾和老化有着共同的特征。And here is that characteristic.那个特征就是两者都杀死人。The only real difference is that aging kills considerably more people than malaria does.唯一真正的区别是,老龄化杀死的人数比疟疾杀死的多许多。Now, I like in an audience, in Britain especially,现在,我喜欢观众,尤其是在英国的观众,to talk about the comparison with foxhunting,比较一下老化和打猎狐狸。which is something that was banned after a long struggle,打猎狐狸是是经过长期斗争by the government not very many months ago.不久前被政府禁止的活动。I mean, I know Im with a sympathetic audience here,我的意思是,虽然我知道富有同情心的观众应该大多数都反对打猎狐狸,but, as we know, a lot of people are not entirely persuaded by this logic.但我们知道,很多人并不是完全被这个逻辑说。And this is actually a rather good comparison, it seems to me.在我看来,这其实和老化是一个不错的比较。You know, a lot of people said, ;Well, you know,你知道,很多郊外的人说:“你们这些city boys have no business telling us rural types what to do with our time.住在城市的人没有权利告诉我们什么活动可以做什么东西不能做。Its a traditional part of the way of life,这是我们住在郊外的人的传统生活方式的一部分,and we should be allowed to carry on doing it.我们应该有权力继续做它。Its ecologically sound; it stops the population explosion of foxes.;这是促进生态健全的,它控制了狐狸数量爆涨。”But ultimately, the government prevailed in the end,但是,政府最终占了上风,because the majority of the British public,因为大多数的英国公众,and certainly the majority of members of Parliament,还有国会多数成员,came to the conclusion that it was really something得出的结论,就是这打猎狐狸that should not be tolerated in a civilized society.是一个文明社会所不能容忍的活动。And I think that human aging shares我认为,人类衰老也有这些特点,all of these characteristics in spades.它是一个不能容忍的活动。What part of this do people not understand?这有什么难明白的?Its not just about life, of course --这当然不只是生命,its about healthy life, you know --这也是有关可以健康的生活下去。getting frail and miserable and dependent is no fun,因为无论人们觉得死亡是否好玩是否应该容忍,whether or not dying may be fun.身体越来越衰弱,悲惨地依赖别人一点都不好玩。So really, this is how I would like to describe it.因此,其实这就是我想要对它的人类衰老描述。Its a global trance.这是一个全球性恍惚。These are the sorts of unbelievable excuses这是人们对老龄化作出了that people give for aging.种种令人难以置信的借口。And, I mean, OK, Im not actually saying而且,我的意思是,好吧,我不是在说that these excuses are completely valueless.这些借口是完全没有价值。There are some good points to be made here,这些借口也有一些好的积极方面。things that we ought to be thinking about, forward planning比如说我们应该思考的种种问题,有规划些,so that nothing goes too -- well, so that we minimize来尽量减少我们在战胜老化路途上the turbulence when we actually figure out how to fix aging.的不必要的动荡。But these are completely crazy, when you actually但只要如果你真正衡量它们,remember your sense of proportion.这些借口都是完全疯了!You know, these are arguments; these are things that你知道,这些借口的论点would be legitimate to be concerned about.是合理的,值得去关注。But the question is, are they so dangerous --但问题是,这些论点有没有那么危险?these risks of doing something about aging --战胜老化的风险that they outweigh the downside of doing the opposite,有没有高过namely, leaving aging as it is?不理会人类老化的代价?Are these so bad that they outweigh难道这些修复老化的风险如此糟糕,condemning 100,000 people a day to an unnecessarily early death?比每天超过十万人面对早死的命运还糟糕?201508/391651。