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The future of news新闻产业的未来Back to the coffee house重回咖啡屋时代The internet is taking the news industry back to the conversational culture of the era before mass media 互联网正在将新闻产业带回到大众传媒出现前的时代。THREE hundred years ago news travelled by word of mouth or letter, and circulated in taverns and coffee houses in the form of pamphlets, newsletters and broadsides. “The Coffee houses particularly are very commodious for a free Conversation, and for ing at an easie Rate all manner of printed News,” noted one observer. Everything changed in 1833 when the first mass-audience newspaper, the New York Sun, pioneered the use of advertising to reduce the cost of news, thus giving advertisers access to a wider audience. At the time of the launch America’s bestselling paper sold just 4,500 copies a day; the Sun, with its steam press, soon reached 15,000. The penny press, followed by radio and television, turned news from a two-way conversation into a one-way broadcast, with a relatively small number of firms controlling the media.三百年前,新闻以口头或书面形式传播,并且以小册子、简报的形式在小餐馆或咖啡屋中流传。据一名观察员说,咖啡屋是进行自由交谈的不二选择,并且也是休闲阅读的理想场所。但是事情在1883年发生重大转变,第一个面向大众的报纸,纽约太阳报诞生,并且首次引入广告来降低新闻成本,一举两得地为赞助商寻到更多的观众。当纽约报面世时,美国销量最好的杂志每天可以卖4,500份;但是太阳报却很快达到15,000的销量。报纸以及随后而来的广播、电视将新闻传播方式从两方面的交流变为一方面的由少数公司控制的传播。Now, as our special report explains, the news industry is returning to something closer to the coffee house. The internet is making news more participatory, social, diverse and partisan, reviving the discursive ethos of the era before mass media. That will have profound effects on society and politics. 现在,正如我们的特别报道所言,新闻产业正在向之前咖啡屋相近转变。互联网使新闻变得更易参与,更具有社会性,更容易听到不同的声音,让新闻从大众传媒时代重回争鸣的盛况。这对社会及政治将产生重大影响。201107/145012Bikini-clad baristas 1:28Brewing coffee in bikinis has some Washington locals up in arms. KING's Mimi Jung has the details. Sex sells, and here At Cowgirls Espresso in Bonney Lake business has never been better. The baristas here wear bikinis, nothing different they say than what you see at the beach. "You see people, you know, out on the lake in their swimsuits and I don't see how it's any different, right? We are just making coffee."But it is what this mother saw at another Espresso stand that really gave her a jolt. "All of a sudden, my kids that were in the back of the car said: "Mom, there is a naked lady!"Tawnya McLavey says inside Hot Chick-a-Latte was a pasty-clad barista serving coffee. "From her middle, up, nothing but two stickers."That's why McLavey is organizing a protest in Bonney Lake this Memorial Day weekend as a way to send a message. "I just thought there could be a law to say, you know, these are "adults only" facilities, not for children and there is no warning, and… and seeing a barista just in pasties, you know, out in the open, on a busy road, it…it's just terrifying."She even started a clothing drive for the baristas, to which the workers at Cowgirls Espresso say bring 'em here, they'll put those clothes to good use. We are just coming back and say, ok, if you, if you want to drop off your clothes for us and we will take them and we are going to donate them to a local charity.pasties: small round coverings for a woman's nipples worn especially by a stripteaser barista: one who has acquired some level of expertise in the preparation of espresso-based coffee drinks. 200812/59746Australia Cuts Skilled Immigration, as Recession Looms澳大利亚将削减外国技术移民数额  In a bid to protect Australian jobs, the number of skilled migrants allowed into the country is being cut. It is the first time in a decade that the intake has been reduced. The decision to cut the number of immigrants comes as pressure mounts on the Australian government after last week's jump in unemployment to 5.2 percent. 澳大利亚为了保护本国的工作机会,削减了获准进入澳大利亚的外国技术移民数额。这是10年来的第一次。澳大利亚的失业率上星期升至5.2%。澳大利亚政府是在就业压力不断增大的时刻做出削减移民数额的决定的。Australian Immigration Minister Chris Evans says the skilled migration program, under which foreign workers are recruited to fill gaps in the labor market, will be reduced from 133,500 to 115,000 next year - a reduction of 14 percent. 澳大利亚移民部长克里斯.埃文斯说,技术移民数额明年将从13万3千5百减少到11万5千,降幅为14%。根据澳大利亚的技术移民计划,外国工人可以被聘用来填补澳大利亚劳务市场的空缺。Bricklayers, plumbers and carpenters are among the occupations affected, as demand for skilled staff falls in Australia's slowing building and construction sectors. 受到影响的行当包括砖瓦工、水暖工和木匠.由于澳大利亚的建筑行业增长放缓,导致该行业技工需求下降。The government has decided to target immigration after the country's jobless figure recently reached a four-year high. 近期的失业数字达到4年来的最高点后,政府便决定从移民问题入手。Chris Evans says, with the Australian economy slowing, the number of foreigners allowed into the country must be cut 埃文斯说,随着澳大利亚经济放缓,必须削减外来移民人数。"Like most other businesses, things have changed dramatically and so the migration program will be adjusted to reflect the realities of the current economic circumstance," Evans explained. 他说:“和其他部门一样,这里的情况发生了急剧的变化。所以,移民计划将会得以调整,使其和当前的经济环境相吻合。”Government officials have said unemployment in Australia is likely to exceed seven percent, later this year. Some economists have far gloomier outlooks, predicting the jobless rate will reach 11 percent, as the country slides towards recession. 政府官员表示,澳大利亚失业率到今年晚些时候可能会超过7%。一些经济学家看到的前景则更为黯淡。他们预测,当国家陷入衰退,失业率会达到11%。Amid such dismal employment prospects, trade unions in Australia are pushing the government in Canberra to make further reductions to the numbers of skilled migrants allowed to settle in the country. 面对如此黯淡的就业前景,澳大利亚的贸易工会开始敦促堪培拉政府进一步削减技术移民的数量。Dave Noonan, the national secretary of the Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union, says Australia must limit the influx of foreign workers. 建筑、林业、矿产和能源联合会全国事务长戴夫.努南说,澳大利亚必须限制外国工人涌入。"Certainly, in relation to construction, there is no good reason for the importation of people on temporary guest visas," he said. "In a declining construction market and a serious downturn caused by the global financial crisis, there is no reason for temporary workers to be brought into the construction industry." 他说:“当然,有关建筑行业,找不到什么好理由输入人员,给他们发放临时客工签。在下滑中的建筑市场和国际金融危机导致的严重衰退中,没有理由让临时工人进入建筑行业。”The global downturn has brought about a swift reversal of fortunes for Australia's once-mighty economy, which has enjoyed 17 consecutive years of growth, fueled by high demand from China and elsewhere for its mineral exports. 全球衰退使得澳大利亚一度强劲的经济势头逆转。澳大利亚在中国和其他国家对矿产需求的强劲带动下,经济连续17年处于增长状态。Neighboring New Zealand, which has been in recession for the past year, the government says it had no plans to reduce its annual intake of 45,000 skilled migrants. 邻国新西兰过去一年中也陷入衰退。新西兰政府表示,没有打算削减每年吸纳4万5千名技术移民的计划。03/64711Britain's Queen Pays Tribute to British Forces英国女王发表圣诞节讲话In her annual Christmas message, Britain's Queen Elizabeth the Second has paid tribute to those serving in her country's armed forces.英国女王伊丽莎白二世在一年一度的圣诞节讲话中赞扬在英国军队中役的士兵。The Queen, the symbolic head of the British military, spoke of the loss felt by many, in this, the deadliest year to date for British forces in Afghanistan. 伊丽莎白女王作为英国军队的象征性最高统帅,谈到在对英国驻阿富汗部队来说伤亡最惨重的这一年里,许多人都感同身受的损失。"I am sure that we have all been affected by events in Afghanistan and saddened by the casualties suffered by our forces serving there," she said. "Our thoughts go out to their relatives and friends who have shown immense dignity in the face of great personal loss."她说:“我相信我们所有的人都受到了发生在阿富汗的那些事件的影响,所有的人都为我们驻阿富汗部队所遭受的伤亡感到悲伤。我们惦念着这些军人的亲朋好友,面对巨大的个人损失,他们表现出了极强的尊严。”Britain currently has just over 9,000 forces deployed in Afghanistan. The Queen also paid tribute to members of other Commonwealth states that have sent troops to the region.英国目前在阿富汗部署着9千多名军人。伊丽莎白女王还对向阿富汗派兵的其他英联邦成员国表示了敬意。"We can be proud of the positive contribution that our servicemen and women are making, in conjunction with our allies," she said. "Well over 13,000 soldiers from the ed Kingdom and across the Commonwealth - Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore - are currently serving in Afghanistan. The debt of gratitude owed to these young men and women and to their predecessors is indeed profound."她说:“我们对我们的男女军人与盟友一起所做的积极贡献感到自豪。目前,英国和加拿大、澳大利亚、新西兰以及新加坡等英联邦国家一共有1万3千多名军人驻扎在阿富汗。我们向这些年轻男女以及在他们之前派驻阿富汗的军人表达深切的感激之情。”More than 100 British soldiers have died this year in Afghanistan. That is the most since the lengthy deployment began back in 2001. Since then, a total of 243 have been killed.今年有100多名英国士兵在阿富汗死亡。这是自2001年英国向阿富汗派兵以来,伤亡人数最多的一年。自2001年以来,共有243人阵亡。Polls here repeatedly show that average British citizens want to see the troops brought back home as soon as possible.多次民意调查显示,英国公民普遍希望英国部队尽快回家12/93304Pakistan: Up to 500,000 May Flee Taliban-Held Swat多达50万人或撤离巴西北地区 Security forces have been battling with Taliban fighters for more than a week in the northwest Malakand division, but troops have largely avoided entering the militant stronghold in Swat Valley.巴基斯坦安全部队在西北部的马拉坎地区同塔利班战斗人员交战已经一个多星期,但巴基斯坦军队基本上避免进入在斯瓦特河谷的激进分子大本营。But residents of the main city Mingora began leaving Tuesday when officials lifted a curfew in some places to allow civilians to relocate.但是星期二在当局解除了一些地方的戒严、允许平民重新安置之后,主要城镇明戈拉的居民开始离开。One resident who left with his family told VOA that militants completely control the town, have taken up fighting positions in large buildings and placed landmines along key routes. He said the Taliban did not prevent people from leaving during the suspended curfew.一位和家人一起出逃的居民告诉美国之音说,激进分子已经完全控制了明戈拉,已经将一些主要建筑物作为他们的战斗阵地,并在主要道路上埋下地雷。他说,在暂停戒严期间, 塔利班没有阻止人们离开。"We are leaving our homes from Mingora. Some people going to Mardan, some are going to Peshawar. The government gave us only three or four hours, so that is why the people of Mingora are leaving Mingora," he said.“我们离开明戈拉的家园。一些人前往马尔丹,一些人去白沙瓦。政府仅给我们3-4个小时的时间,这就是明戈拉居民离开那里的原因。”The information minister for the North-West Frontier province predicted as many as 500,000 people may flee the Swat Valley. He said the government is preparing temporary camps to house those who have nowhere else to go.西北边境省的新闻部长预计,多达50万人可能逃离斯瓦特河谷。他说,政府正准备临时营地,收留那些无处可去的人们。Pakistan's army has not said if it is planning an assault on Swat, which would be the final blow for a much criticized peace deal with the Swat Taliban. Provincial officials had reached a deal with the militants that allowed the establishment of Islamic courts in parts of the northwest in exchange for the disarming of the militants, something they did not do.巴基斯坦军方还没有表示他们是否要进攻斯瓦特。军方进攻斯瓦特将是对斯瓦特和平协议的最后打击。政府同斯瓦特塔利班签署的这项和平协议受到广泛的批评。马拉坎省的官员同激进分子达成一项协议,允许在西北部分地区设立一个伊斯兰法院,以此作为交换来解除激进分子的武装,但是激进分子却没有这样做。But even staunch defenders of the agreement have in recent days harshly criticized the Taliban for failing to hold up their end of the bargain.但是,即使极力维护该协议的人们最近也严厉抨击塔利班未能兑现他们在谈判中做出的承诺。Bashir Bilour is a senior member of the Awami National Party, which played a key role in setting up the deal. He defended the recent military action by citing a long list of grievances.比卢尔是“人民民族党”的资深党员,在达成这项和平协议努力中发挥了重要作用。他列举了很多令人不满的事例,为最近的军事行动辩护。"After we discussed implementing Sharia, the other side smashed our schools, slaughtered our men and hanged our people. They stopped girls from attending school and women from going to the market," he said.Since last week, Pakistan's army said it killed more than 100 militants and secured three districts that earlier had been controlled by the Taliban. Fighting continues in some of those places, but overall, the military said its operations have gone smoothly.从上星期以来,巴基斯坦军方说,他们打死100多名激进分子,占领此前塔利班激进分子控制的三个区。军方说,战斗仍在其中一些地方进行,但总的来说,军方的行动进展顺利。In Swat, there is concern among residents who have aly been through two previous military operations that failed to dislodge the militants. The resident of Mingora who spoke to VOA said people are opposed to the Taliban, but are equally wary of military operations that have killed civilians in the past.在斯瓦特,当地居民忧心忡忡,因为他们已经历了两次没有把激进分子赶走的军事行动。接受美国之音采访的这位明戈拉的居民反对塔利班,但是他同样对军事行动表示担心。过去的军事行动造成了平民的伤亡。"People want operation against the militancy, but not against the innocent people. This is the big problem for us, the Swati people, also for Buner," he said.这位居民说:“人民希望军方采取打击激进分子的行动,但是不希望伤及无辜人民。这是我们、斯瓦特人民,以及布纳尔人民关心的最主要问题。”He said residents worry the military's attempts to dislodge the Taliban could fail once again.他说,居民们担心,军方赶走塔利班的企图可能会再次失败。05/68901

World Markets Lower Amid Further Signs of US Economic Weakness美联储:今年经济可能收缩1.3%World markets were mostly lower on Wednesday amid more dire U.S. economic news and a move by Germany to facilitate bank nationalization. The Dow Jones Industrial Average was up one-tenth of a percent, while other U.S. indexes were just slightly lower. The Tokyo exchange was nearly 1.5 percent lower, while the major European indexes lost less than one percent. 世界大部分股市星期三走低,与此同时,美国经济传出更加黯淡的消息,德国政府采取措施促使国有化。One day after President Barack Obama signed the biggest stimulus package in U.S. history, the scale of the challenges facing America's ailing economy came into sharper focus. 美国总统奥巴马签署了美国历史上最大的经济刺激计划,使之成为法律的一天后,美国经济面临的巨大挑战显得十分明显。The Federal Reserve, the nation's central bank, now projects U.S. unemployment will rise as high as 8.8 percent this year, while the economy could contract by as much as 1.3 percent, extending a recession that began more than a year ago. 美国联邦储备委员会--美国中央现在预测美国的失业率今年将上升到8.8%。经济可能会缩水1.3%, 一年多前开始的经济衰退会进一步延长。In addition, the Fed reports that U.S. industrial production fell for a third consecutive month in January, by 1.8 percent, a larger drop than most economists had anticipated. The central bank also revised downward the figure previously released for December 2008 was the worst year for American manufacturing in seven years. 除此之外, 美联储报告,美国工业产出一月份连续第三个月出现下跌,跌幅为1.8%,超过大部分经济学家先前的预测。中央还下调了先前公布的去年12月的工业产出的数据。2008年是7年来美国制造业面临的最糟糕的一年。Meanwhile, the U.S. Commerce Department reported that new home construction plummeted to an all-time low, down 17 percent in January from the previous month. Applications for building permits, an indicator of future construction activity, also fell. 与此同时, 美国商务部报告, 新房建造率下降到最低点。 一月份新房建造比前一个月下降了17%。建房申请,也是未来建筑活动的指向标,也在下降。President Obama says the housing slowdown is having a devastating effect on the economy as a whole.  奥巴马总统说,房屋市场下跌对整个经济会产生灾难性的后果。"Construction companies and home furnishing stores and painters and landscapers, they are all cutting back. The number of residential construction jobs has fallen by more than a quarter million since mid-2006. As businesses lose revenue and people lose income, the tax base shrinks, which means less money for schools and police and fire departments," he said. “建筑公司和装修商店、油漆工以及园艺工人,都在削减。2006年中期以来,居民房屋建设方面的工作下降了25万多个。企业收益缩减,老百姓收入减少,可征税基础缩小,这意味着学校、警察以及消防等其他各方的资金减少。”Mr. Obama spoke in Arizona on Wednesday, where he unveiled a program to reduce home foreclosures. 奥巴马星期三在亚利桑那州发表讲话,并推出了一个减少住房被没收的项目。But not all economists see the steep decline in home construction as a bad thing, given the severely depressed state of America's housing market. 不过,由于美国住房市场处于严重低迷的状态中,所以并不是所有经济学家都认为住房建筑数量的急剧下跌是一件坏事。Millions of home foreclosures combined with a continuing credit squeeze and a deteriorating economy have led to a glut of unsold houses on the market. Given massive inventory surpluses, the last thing the market needs is an infusion of newly-built dwellings, according to Diane Swonk, Chief Economist at Chicago-based Mesirow Financial.  数百万幢住房被收回、信贷继续紧缩再加上恶化的经济状况导致市场上充斥着大量的未售出房屋。芝加哥麦斯洛金融公司的首席经济学家戴安娜·斯旺克认为,由于房屋库存量极大过剩,市场目前最不需要的就是大量新建房屋。"The bad news is, it is very hard on builders who cannot get paid to build. The good news is that it is clearing the inventory of unsold homes. What we are doing is not adding insult to injury by putting more empty homes on the market," she said. 她说:“坏消息是,那些拿不到钱的建筑商很难去建房子。好消息是,这种情况可以逐渐清空积压的未售出房屋。我们在做的就是不再向市场推出更多的空房子,这样就不会把情况弄得更糟。”Economists have been debating the likely effectiveness of President Obama's initiatives to prop up the economy, aid homeowners and deal with the country's financial crisis. 奥巴马提出实施一些政府项目,以推动经济、帮助房屋所有人并解决美国的金融危机。经济学家们一直在对这些计划的有效性进行辩论。More important than the details of any one provision of any one plan is whether, taken as a whole, the initiatives restore the nation's collective confidence, according to economist Mark Zandi of Moodys Economy.com. 穆迪经济网的经济学家赞迪认为,比任何一项计划中任何一个条款的内容更重要的是,从总体来说,这个措施能恢复整个国家的信心。"The key aspect of all of this, to get the economy on more stable ground, is to try to restore confidence because we have in many respects lost faith in our economy," he said. 他说:“为了使经济更加稳定,所有这些措施中最重要的是要恢复人们的信心,因为人们在许多方面失去了对经济的信心。”Earlier Wednesday, Germany's government agreed on a new provision that will allow it to nationalize private banks that are at risk of failing. The measure is the latest in a series of steps taken by governments and central banks around the world to rescue their banking and financial sectors in the wake of a global credit crisis. 星期三早些时候,德国政府通过一项允许政府把处于倒闭边缘的私有国有化的计划。在此之前,世界各国的政府和中央已经采取了一系列措施,力图在全球信贷危机中挽救自己的和金融业。02/62773

As lawmakers in the ed States argue over the nation's debt ceiling and spar over who is responsible for the nation's 9.2 percent unemployment rate, many business owners look on in disbelief. They are uncertain about the state of the economy, and are looking for signs of confidence in Washington that it is safe to begin hiring.就在美国议员就国债上限问题以及谁应当为美国9.2%的失业率负责而争论之际,许多企业老板在怀疑地观望。他们不能确定经济的实际状况。他们在等候华盛顿出现对经济有信心的迹象,也就是说,现在安全了,可以雇用新员工。At Carlos Interiors in Crofton, Maryland, company owner Cristina Uria sees a glimmer of hope. Business is up 15 percent from last year.在马里兰州克罗夫顿的卡洛斯室内装璜设计公司,老板克里斯蒂娜.乌里亚看到一线希望。公司的生意比去年增长了15%。In 2008, when the recession began, Uria's business dropped 60 percent. Like many small business owners, she had to make painful decisions in order to remain open.2008年,美国的经济衰退开始时,乌里亚的生意下降了60%。和许多小公司老板一样,为了不让公司停业,她不得不做出一些痛苦的决定。“We had to let go probably about four people," said Uria. "During this recession, companies have needed to become leaner and meaner. Any extra fat that we had, and extra expenses, we needed to cut them off.”乌里亚说:“我们当时不得不裁员4个人。在这次经济衰退时期,公司更需要精简机构和节约开。我们必须让公司减肥,削减额外的开。”Uria said there were months when no one walked through the door at her design center. With more than 25 years in business, it was her established clients that kept her afloat. Even though business is picking up, she said she is not y to hire new employees.乌里亚说,曾经有几个月的时间,她没有什么生意。乌里亚做这个生意超过25年时间,全靠她建立起来的客户使她能够经营下去。她说,即使目前经济正在好转,她也不想招收新雇员。“The government in Washington is not giving us the right signals,” she said.乌里亚说:“华盛顿政府并没有给我们发出正确的信号。”Uria cites the long, drawn out negotiations between the White House and Congress over raising the debt ceiling as an example. She said rhetoric on both sides adds to the confusion.乌里亚援引白宫和国会就提高债务上限进行的旷日持久的谈判为例。她说,双方在辩论中的一些空洞辞令使人们更为困惑。201107/144868

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