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高安人民医院做韩式隆鼻手术多少钱4399医生

2017年10月19日 04:15:05    日报  参与评论()人

江西省丰城市人民医院纹眉多少钱宜春鼻翼整形医院宜春铜鼓县中人民医院凹陷性疤痕凹陷性痘疤鼻尖扁平整形要多少费用 A piece of oily fish should be the same size as a mobile phone.一片富含油脂的鱼应与一部手机的大小相同。For cooked pasta, imagine the size of a tennis ball to estimate the correct portion size.对于煮好的意面,想象一下一个网球的大小来估计一下意面的正确份量。Fill a coffee mug with dry cereal to get an indication of the size of a portion of dry cereal.往一个咖啡杯中装满干麦片,就可获得干麦片的食用份量。Is the size of your piece of b no bigger than a five pound note? If so, it#39;s the right size.你的面包片还没有一张5英镑的纸币大?如果是这样的话,则大小合适。Imagine the size of a lightbulb when doling out portions of fruit.在发放水果的时候,想想一个灯泡的尺寸。Fill your glass with greens, not wine, to get an idea of how many green vegetables you should be eating.在你的玻璃杯中装满绿叶蔬菜,不是酒,就可得出你应食用的绿叶蔬菜的份量。Chocolate and make-up are some women#39;s weaknesses - use one to signify the size of the other.巧克力和化妆品是一些女人的弱点——用化妆品的尺寸来表示巧克力的大小。Judge the number of raisins you should be eating by the size of a matchbox.根据火柴盒的大小来判断你应该食用的葡萄干的数量。Measure your nut butter by the dimensions of a golf ball and your portion size will be correct.根据一个高尔夫球的尺寸来衡量你的果仁奶油,它的份量会是正确的。Is the potato you#39;re planning on eating the same size as a computer mouse? It should be to be the right size.你要吃的土豆和一个电脑鼠标一样大?这应该是正确的尺寸。Find out if the amount of butter you#39;re eating is correct by measuring it against the size of a die.通过衡量一个骰子的尺寸来弄清楚你要食用的黄油的份量。A cupcake that#39;s the same size as a make-up compact is the correct size for a portion of cupcake to be.纸杯蛋糕的正确食用份量与化妆粉盒大小相同。A portion of nuts should be the same size as a book of six stamps.坚果的份量应与6枚邮票的尺寸相同。Find out how much popcorn you should be eating by measuring it against a roll of sellotape.通过测量一卷塑料胶带来弄清楚你应食用的爆米花的份量。 /201605/442625Florida, the southernmost state in the US mainland, has bestowed many gifts upon the world. It’s the birthplace of the modern air conditioner, site of the largest Disney World and home to a rotating cast of eccentrics, who supply endless amusement to observers the world over. 佛罗里达州位于美国本土最南端,这里是全世界自然物产最丰富的地区之一。它是现代空调的诞生地,全球最大迪士尼乐园所在地,这里还有形形色色特立独行的“奇葩”,他们为观察我们这个世界提供了源源不绝的乐趣。 Remember that guy arrested last year for beating one of his employees with a real, live lizard? Yup, that was Florida. And the pilot who illegally flew a gyrocopter to the US Capitol? You can thank Florida for that gem too. 还记得去年有人因为用一只活生生的蜥蜴咬自己的雇员而被捕的新闻吗?是的,这发生在佛罗里达。还记得一名飞行员曾非法驾驶旋翼机冲到美国国会大厦么?这也是佛罗里达的一大“功绩”。 Yes, the Sunshine State has done a lot for humanity, including tickling its collective funny bone. But as many American college students can tell you, its biggest contribution may be the phenomenon known as “spring break”. 确实,阳光州为人类做了不少贡献,包括它的全民幽默感。不过正如一些美国大学生会告诉你的,它最大的贡献要数创造了一种叫“春假”的现象。 It’s that special time each year when college students are liberated from class for one full week, to rest and prepare for the exam season ahead. Or not. Nowadays, it’s a tradition for students to abandon their dorm rooms for Florida’s white-sand beaches–and, en route, abandon most of their clothes and common sense too. 每年的某个特定时期,大学生都能有一整周的假期,他们养精蓄锐,为接下来的考试季做准备,或者就是玩玩玩。现如今的春假,这样的生活已经变成了一项传统:学生们撇下宿舍,蜂拥到佛州的白色沙滩,尽情脱掉外衣,忘乎所以。 Spring break evolution 春假的进化史 In springtime, Florida becomes the host of a beachside bacchanal for college students, but not so long ago, it was a relatively low-key tourist destination. The rise of the modern spring break and the rise of Florida as a tourist destination went largely hand-in-hand. 春天的佛罗里达成了大学生狂欢的海滨胜地,不过不久之前,这儿还是个人气不怎么高的旅游景点。现代春假的兴起几乎和佛罗里达成为旅游胜地相伴相生。 According to research from the University of New Orleans, college swim teams discovered Florida’s vacation potential back in the 1930s. But other destinations, like Bermuda, remained more popular for college getaways. World War II changed that. With German U-boats patrolling offshore, American students were less inclined to go overseas for spring vacations. Florida’s time had arrived. 据美国新奥尔良大学的研究显示,早在20世纪三十年代,大学游泳队们就发现了佛罗里达作为热门度假地的潜力。不过当时像百慕大群岛这样的景点,作为逃离学校的旅游胜地则更受欢迎。二战改变了这种状况。由于德国U形潜水艇在近海巡逻,美国学生不倾向于出国度春假了。佛罗里达时代就此开启。 By the 1950s, novels like Where the Boys Are and articles like Time magazine’s “Beer amp; The Beach” had established spring break as an excuse to party, and Florida as its capital. 直到20世纪五十年代,《男孩在哪里》这样的小说和《时代周刊》刊登的如《啤酒amp;沙滩》这类文章为春假聚会找到了理由,佛罗里达顺势成了派对之都。 With that anarchic spring break spirit comes an iconic spring break style, one that reflects Florida’s own eccentricities. It’s messy and wild and borderline tasteless–fashion’s rebellious answer to prim-and-proper college attire. 和无法无天的春假精神相伴而生的是春假的标志性风格,它反应了佛州的独特性。它凌乱、狂野,居于无品味的临界点上——是时尚对一本正经的大学生装束的反击。 /201604/436063宜春隆胸价格表

宜春韩美整形美容医院激光脱毛好吗After meeting with a group of gay people who said they had been bullied, Prince William, the Duke of Cambridge, appeared on the cover of Attitude, a gay magazine, and urged young people to report instances of abuse to an adult.剑桥公爵威廉王子登上了同性恋杂志《态度》(Attitude)的封面,呼吁年轻人向成年人反映虐待现象。在此之前,威廉王子还会见了一群称自己受到霸凌的同性恋者。“No one should be bullied for their sexuality or any other reason, and no one should have to put up with the kind of hate that these young people have endured in their lives,” Prince William said in an accompanying statement. “You should be proud of the person you are, and you have nothing to be ashamed of.”“任何人都不该因为性取向或其他任何原因受到欺侮,任何人都不应容忍这些年轻人在生活中忍受的憎恶,”威廉王子在随杂志一同发表的声明中说。“你应该以自己为傲,不用觉得羞耻。”The cover was planned weeks before a shooting at a gay nightclub in Orlando, Fla., killed 49 people, but the magazine said in a statement that the type of hatred exhibited by the gunman, Omar Mateen, begins at an early age.这一期封面的策划发生在造成49人死亡的奥兰多同性恋夜店击案的前几周。但该杂志在一份声明中表示,手奥马尔·马廷(Omar Mateen)表现出的那种仇恨在他小时候就开始了。“Such violence does not exist in a vacuum but snowballs from intolerance and bullying that begins in classrooms, too often comes from politicians, religious leaders and is often not treated with respect by the media,” the statement .“这种暴力并非凭空而来,而是不宽容和欺侮行为滚成的雪球,这种不宽容和欺侮从上学时就开始出现,很多时候来自政界人物和宗教领袖,并且常常得不到媒体的重视,”声明写道。For Prince William, the decision to meet with members of the lesbian, bisexual, gay and transgender community appears to be a further venture into gay rights issues and an extension of a broader effort to combat bullying. In April, he established a task force to help combat cyberbullying — on Tuesday, Kensington Palace announced that Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the creator of the World Wide Web, had joined the effort. 对威廉王子来说,决定会见同性恋、双性恋和跨性别者群体的成员,似乎是在同性恋权益问题上的又一次尝试,也是一项打击欺侮行为的广泛行动的延伸。4月,他成立了一个工作小组,帮助打击欺侮行为。周二,肯辛顿宫(Kensington Palace)宣布,万维网的发明者蒂姆·伯纳斯-李爵士(Tim Berners-Lee)加入该小组。Prince William is not the first royal to champion a high-profile cause, but Arianne Chernock, an associate professor of history at Boston University who specializes in modern British history, said that Prince William; his wife, Catherine, the Duchess of Cambridge; and his brother, Prince Harry, had gravitated toward more sensitive topics than others had in the past.威廉王子不是首位投身广受关注的倡导事业的王室成员,但波士顿大学(Boston University)专门研究现代英国史的副教授艾丽安·彻诺克(Arianne Chernock)表示,威廉王子和他的妻子、剑桥公爵夫人凯瑟琳及弟弟哈里王子关心的话题,比过去其他人关注的更敏感。L.G.B.T. issues, Ms. Chernock said, might have been seen as “an underdog cause” until relatively recently, and was perhaps the kind of work that would have attracted the duke’s mother, Princess Diana.彻诺克表示,可能直到最近,LGBT问题还被当做是“一项弱者事业”,是可能会吸引公爵的母亲戴安娜王妃的那种工作。“I think they’re building on Diana,” Ms. Chernock said, “who really championed the other causes other people didn’t want to touch.”“我认为他们是在发扬戴安娜的风格,”彻诺克说。“她真的持其他人不愿触碰的其他事业。”Ms. Chernock said that Diana understood that the news media could be used to bring awareness to her causes; she also knew that it could help keep the royal family relevant and fashion her image as a royal. When she chose to shake hands with an H.I.V.-positive man in 1987, she was credited with helping to shed light on a cause that had been shunned and ignored. 彻诺克称,戴安娜知道去利用新闻媒体来让外界关注她持的事业;她也知道这样有助于保持王室的影响力,塑造她作为王室成员的形象。在1987年选择同一个HIV检测呈阳性的人握手时,她的举动被认为有助于人们了解一项一直被逃避和忽略的事业。;That was a really huge turning point for her,” Ms. Chernock said, “and really did change a lot of the public attitude toward H.I.V. AIDS in particular, but as a consequence, the gay community more generally.”“对她来说,那真的是一个很大的转折点,”彻诺克说,“真的让公众的态度发生了很大的改变,尤其是对HIV/艾滋病,也因而改变了对同性恋群体的态度。”Her sons have largely followed her blueprint. In March, Prince Harry made headlines when he spoke about the need for gender equality while on a visit to Nepal. But Prince William’s decision to allow himself to be photographed for a gay magazine, Ms. Chernock said, shows a royal “pushing the envelope further than we’ve seen before.” 她的两个儿子在很大程度上继承了她的风格。3月,哈里王子在访问尼泊尔期间谈到须实行性别平等一事,成为热门新闻。但彻诺克说,威廉王子同意为一份同性恋杂志拍摄封面的决定表明,王室“正在进一步挑战极限”。 /201606/449936江西宜春市韩美医院文眉雾化眉雾眉漂唇多少钱 MARTIN R. ANDERSON, 65, squints to appreciate the geometry of paintings at the museum. Kate Davis, 24, says the sunlight that bounces off museum walls and onto the art can’t be reproduced. 65岁的马丁#8226;R#8226;安德森(Martin R. Anderson)眯着眼睛观赏物馆中油画的几何构图。24岁的凯特#8226;戴维斯(Kate Davis)说,从物馆墙壁反射到艺术品上的阳光是不可复制的。Stan Kaplan, 65, flies across the country just to see a Leonardo da Vinci drawing “more beautiful” than the Mona Lisa. And an elderly woman posts to Facebook a selfie of herself beside a masterwork, presumably commencing an avalanche of social-media approval.65岁的斯坦#8226;卡普兰(Stan Kaplan)坐飞机穿越整个国家,就为了看一眼列奥纳多#8226;达#8226;芬奇(Leonardo da Vinci)比《蒙娜#8226;丽莎》“还要美”的一幅画。一位年长的女人在Facebook主页上贴出了一张她在一幅大师杰作旁边的自拍,估计会得到社交媒体上的大量点赞。As for those interviewed, they included students who said museums were like “eating your vegetables” and romantics who cherish their lunch breaks, when they can hop in a cab to go steal a few quiet minutes in front of a beloved painting they have aly gazed at dozens of times before.受访者中有学生,他们说来物馆就像“吃蔬菜”,还有趁着午休时赶来的浪漫主义者,他们愿意坐出租车赶来,在心爱的油画面前享受安静的几分钟时间,而这些画他们之前其实已经看过几十次了。A handful of works in particular generated the most comment (a deathbed portrait of an artist’s mistress, a painting of someone being skinned alive) and common themes emerged over time (the ubiquity of technology, people’s short attention spans).有几幅作品获得了特别多的评价(比如一位艺术家的情妇临终时刻的油画,一幅表现活剥人皮的油画),随着采访进行,有一些共同的主题渐渐开始出现(技巧的普遍性,人们的注意力持续时间之短)。Here’s what museumgoers said.下面是一些来物馆的人说的话。The artwork: “James Hunter Black Draftee” (1965) by Alice Neel艺术品:《詹姆斯#8226;亨特黑人新兵》(James Hunter Black Draftee,1965),爱丽丝#8226;尼尔(Alice Neel)Mr. Anderson’s take: “He probably did get killed because his family would have heard about this painting and said something by now.”安德森的观点:“他可能已经被杀死了,否则他的家人肯定会听说过这幅画,时至今天,他们会出来说点什么。”Another perspective: “When I saw this image in the advertisements, I saw it as contemporary, like an album cover.” — Steve Wolkwitz, 25, a student另一种角度:“当我看到这幅画被用在广告里时,我觉得它是当代艺术,就像唱片封套一样。”——史蒂夫#8226;沃尔克维茨(Steve Wolkwitz),25岁,学生The artwork: “Self-Portrait With Wig” (1898-1900) by Pablo Picasso艺术品:《戴假发的自画像》(Self-Portrait With Wig,1898-1900),巴勃罗#8226;毕加索Ms. Kops’ take: “He was probably drunk.”科普斯(Ms. Kops)的观点:“他可能喝醉了。”Another perspective: “I didn’t know it was a Picasso. And then like, whoa. It’s a Picasso.” — Normandie Syken, 20, an illustrator另一种角度:“我一开始不知道这是毕加索的画,知道了以后才觉得,哇。这是毕加索。”——诺曼迪#8226;西肯(Normandie Syken),20岁,插画家The artwork: “Untitled I-VI (Green Paintings)” (circa 1986) by Cy Twombly艺术品:《无标题 I-VI(绿色油画)》(Untitled I-VI [Green Paintings],约1986),赛#8226;通布利(Cy Twombly)Mr. Meyerhofer’s take: “I want to hate it, but it’s so good.”梅尔霍夫(Mr. Meyerhofer)的观点:“我本想讨厌它,但它实在太棒了。”“It’s awful algae green. But you can’t deny it. It grabs you. But part of me thinks it is so crude.”“它是一种可怕的水藻绿。但是你无法抗拒。它能吸引你的注意力。但是我也觉得它有点粗糙。”The artwork: “The Flaying of Marsyas” (probably 1570s) by Titian艺术品:《马斯亚斯的剥皮》(The Flaying of Marsyas,可能是16世纪70年代),提香。Mr. Meyerhofer’s take: “It’s so violent and awful. My husband would say, ‘I wouldn’t want this on the wall of my living room.’ This must have been the equivalent of a horror movie back in the day.”梅尔霍夫先生的观点:“它非常暴力,非常吓人。我的丈夫会说,‘我可不想在起居室里挂这么一幅画。’这在当年可能就相当于恐怖片吧。”Another perspective: “You’re imagining what is he going to do with that knife. The bucket: Is it enough to hold? And his eyes — he can see the pain coming.” — Stan Kaplan, 65, Los Angeles另一种角度:“你会想像他拿着这把刀要干什么。那个桶,足够用来盛血吗?还有他的眼睛——他可以看到痛苦正在到来。”——斯坦#8226;卡普兰,65岁,洛杉矶The artwork: “The Vision of Saint John” (1609-14) by El Greco艺术品:《圣约翰的形象》(The Vision of Saint John,1609-14),埃尔#8226;格列柯(El Greco)Ms. Campbell’s take: “It could have been a blue sky, but maybe it was going to be dark and stormy.”坎贝尔女士(Ms. Campbell)的观点:“天本来应该是蓝的,可能会阴沉下去,下起狂风骤雨。”Another perspective: “It’s so modern. And what’s with these crazy babies floating around?” — William Meyerhofer另一种观点:“它很现代。这些疯狂的婴儿们飘来飘去是干什么的?”——威廉#8226;梅耶霍夫(William Meyerhofer)The artwork: “Head of a Woman (La Scapigliata)” (1500-5) by Leonardo da Vinci艺术品:《女子头像(La Scapigliata)》(Head of a Woman [La Scapigliata],1500-5),列奥纳多#8226;达芬奇Mr. Miozzo’s take: “This is unfinished, but you can see the psychology of a character. It forces you to think what is in the mind of this young woman. It makes me think, Who was she? What was she thinking?”米奥佐先生(Mr. Miozzo)的观点:“这幅画没有完成,但是你可以看出人物的心理。它迫使你去思考,这个年轻女人的心里在想什么。它让我去思考,她是谁?她在想什么?”Another perspective: “I think about how much more beautiful she is than the Mona Lisa.” — Stan Kaplan另一种角度:“我觉得她比蒙娜#8226;丽莎美多了。”——斯坦#8226;卡普兰Another perspective: “You need to see this one with your own eyes. No reproduction I’ve seen comes close to this.” — Martin R. Anderson另一种角度:“你应该亲眼看看这幅画。我见过的复制品都不能与它相比。”——马丁#8226;R#8226;安德森The artwork: “You or Me” (2005) by Maria Lassnig艺术品:《你或我》(You or Me, 2005),玛丽亚#8226;拉斯尼戈(Maria Lassnig)Ms. Choi’s take: “It made me think about women in Korea, where I that the suicide rate is [very high]. For some reason, I thought about that.”崔女士(Ms. Choi)的观点:“它让我想起韩国的女人,我读到那里的自杀率(非常高)。出于某些原因,我就是想起这个。”Another perspective: “This is brave. She’s old. She’s overweight. Think about how courageous this is.” — Michele Miozzo另一种角度:“这很勇敢。她很老,她很胖。想想这有多么勇敢吧。”——米歇尔#8226;米奥佐(Michele Miozzo)The artwork: “Cart Full of Action” (1986) by Cady Noland艺术品:《装满物品的推车》(Cart Full of Action, 1986),卡迪#8226;诺兰(Cady Noland)Ms. Davis’ take: “I don’t like this. I think the question is not even if it is finished but is this even art? I could see this in a parking lot.”戴维斯女士的观点:“我不喜欢它。我觉得问题不是它有没有完成,而是它究竟算不算艺术?我在停车场里也能看见这样的东西。”Another perspective: “This is what the artist is putting into the world. Nothing is a waste of space.” — Tony White, 29, Louisville另一种角度:“这就是艺术家带给世界的东西。没有什么是对空间的浪费。”——托尼#8226;怀特(Tony White),29岁,路易斯维尔 The artwork: “Gardanne” (1885-86) by Paul Cézanne艺术品:《贾达尼》(Gardanne, 1885-86),保罗#8226;塞尚(Paul Cézanne)Michelle Oliveira’s take: “The curious thing to me is why are these unfinished. What better thing did Picasso or Cézanne feel they needed to go and do? Grab a coffee? Go kiss a girl?”米歇尔#8226;奥利维拉(Michelle Oliveira)的观点:“让我好奇的是,那些作品为什么没能完成。毕加索和塞尚觉得他们最好还是做点别的什么事吗?去喝杯咖啡?去吻一个女孩?”Nilza Oliveira’s take: “An artist is never finished so their art is never finished. When you finish it, you kill it. Leaving it unfinished, you keep it alive.”尼尔扎#8226;奥利维拉(Nilza Oliveira)的观点:“艺术家永远不会止步,所以他们的艺术也永远不会完成。一旦完成就是杀死了它,让它保持未完成的状态,就是让它活着。”The artwork: “Bouquet of Peonies in a Green Jar” (1898) by Paul Cézanne艺术品:《绿色花瓶中的牡丹花束》(Bouquet of Peonies in a Green Jar,1898),保罗#8226;塞尚Mr. Scotch’s take: “Those empty spaces could be light. If you put more there, it’s almost too much information. Like this it is allowed to breathe.”斯科奇先生(Mr. Scotch)的观点:“这些留白应该是光。如果你再添加什么东西,信息就几乎太多了。像这样,就有了呼吸的空间。”Another perspective: “There are only a few strokes here. But I can tell the petals feel velvet.” — Michele Miozzo另一种角度:“画上只有寥寥几笔,但我可以感觉到花瓣丝绒般的质感。”——米切尔#8226;米奥佐 /201608/463531江西省韩美整形医院疤痕多少钱

宜春韩美整形美容医院qqI first encountered these intriguing attitudes to sleep during my first stay in Japan in the late 1980s. At that time Japan was at the peak of what became known as the Bubble Economy, a phase of extraordinary speculative boom. Daily life was correspondingly hectic. People filled their schedules with work and leisure appointments, and had hardly any time to sleep. The lifestyle of this era is aptly summed up by a wildly popular advertising slogan of the time, extolling the benefits of an energy drink. “Can you battle through 24 hours? / Businessman! Businessman! Japanese businessman!”我第一次见识到日本人对于睡眠的这种有趣态度是在上世纪80年代末首次去日本时。当时,日本正处于泡沫经济的巅峰时期,整个社会的投机氛围泛滥,日常生活也处于高度忙碌状态。人们整天忙于工作和休闲约会,几乎连睡觉的时间都挤不出来。当时最为流行的一条能量饮料广告语恰如其分地反映了这段时期人们的生活方式:“谁能24小时战斗不停?商人!商人!日本商人!”Many voiced the complaint: “We Japanese are crazy to work so much!” But in these complaints one detected a sense of pride at being more diligent and therefore morally superior to the rest of humanity. Yet, at the same time, I observed countless people dozing on underground trains during my daily commute. Some even slept while standing up, and no one appeared to be at all surprised by this.许多人抱怨说:“我们日本人工作太辛苦,简直太疯狂!”但是在这种抱怨声中也不乏一丝自豪:勤勉苦干的日本人由此拥有了对其他民族的某种道德优越感。然而,与此同时,我每天在地铁车厢里都会发现有无数的日本人在打盹,有些人甚至站着就呼呼大睡,没人会对此大惊小怪。I found this attitude contradictory. The positive image of the worker bee, who cuts back on sleep at night and frowns on sleeping late in the morning, seemed to be accompanied by an extensive tolerance of so-called ‘inemuri’ – napping on public transportation and during work meetings, classes and lectures. Women, men and children apparently had little inhibition about falling asleep when and wherever they felt like doing so.我发现这种态度自相矛盾。这些晚上很晚才睡,却在早晨因为缺乏睡眠而哈欠连天的“工蜂”在日本属于正面形象,而社会对于“小憩”(inemuri,日本汉字为“居眠”)——指在公共交通工具上、在工作会议、课堂和讲座期间打盹的行为却普遍持宽容态度。无论是妇女、男人还是儿童,都能很自然地随时随地酣然入睡。If sleeping in a bed or a futon was considered a sign of laziness, then why wasn’t sleeping during an event or even at work considered an even greater expression of indolence? What sense did it make to allow children to stay up late at night to study if it meant that they would fall asleep during class the next day? These impressions and apparent contradictions led to my more intensive involvement with the theme of sleep for my PhD project several years later.如果人们认为在床上或榻榻米上睡觉属于懒惰行为的话,那么为什么不认为在会议上甚至工作时打瞌睡是更严重的懒散行为?为什么要让儿童学习到深夜,却在第二天的课堂上补觉?带着对这种矛盾意识的疑惑,在几年后攻读士学位时,我选择了睡眠的文化含义作为课题做了深入研究。Initially, I had to fight against prejudice as people were reluctant to consider sleep a serious topic for academic enquiry. Of course, it was precisely such attitudes that had originally caught my attention. Sleep can be loaded with a variety of meanings and ideologies; analysing sleep arrangements and the discourse on it reveals attitudes and values embedded in the contexts in which sleep is organised and discussed. In my experience, it is the everyday and seemingly natural events upon which people generally do not reflect that reveal essential structures and values of a society.研究刚开始的时候,人们认为睡眠本身不是一个严肃的学术研究课题,对此我做了很大努力才打消他们的这种偏见。当然,当初吸引我的正是这种消极态度。睡眠本身承载着多种含义和意识形态要素,对睡眠和与之有关的话语进行分析可以揭示出深植在睡眠组织和讨论语境下的价值观。我发现,大多数人不认为睡眠这种日常而自然的现象会反映出一个社会的核心结构和价值观。We often assume that our ancestors went to bed ‘naturally’ when darkness fell and rose with the Sun. However, sleep times have never been such a simple matter, whether in Japan or elsewhere. Even before the invention of electric light, the documentary evidence shows that people were scolded for staying up late at night for chatting, drinking and other forms of pleasure. However, scholars – particularly young samurai – were considered highly virtuous if they interrupted their sleep to study, even though this practice may not have been very efficient as it required oil for their lamps and often resulted in them falling asleep during lectures.我们往往认为人类的祖先遵循日出而作、日落而息的规律生活。但实际上,不管在日本还是在其他地区,人们的睡眠习惯从来就没有如此简单过。即便在电灯发明前,当时的文献记录就曾记载了很多人因为深夜沉湎于聊天、喝酒和其他享乐,迟迟不睡而遭到责备的故事。但人们普遍认为有文化的人——尤其是年轻的武士——挑灯夜读是一种好的品德,即使这种学习习惯可能效率并不高,因为这不仅会耗费更多的油来点燃油灯,而且还会在第二天上课时打盹。Napping is hardly ever discussed in historical sources and seems to have been widely taken for granted. Falling asleep in public tends to be only mentioned when the nap is the source for a funny anecdote, such as when someone joins in with the wrong song at a ceremony, unaware that they have slept through most of it. People also seem to have enjoyed playing tricks on friends who had involuntarily dozed off. 历史文献里几乎从未提起过打瞌睡,好像当时的人们对此都习以为常。唯一的例外是在公共场所打瞌睡引起某些趣闻轶事的情形,比如,某人在一场典礼上加入合唱时唱错了歌曲,因为他们在典礼的大部分时间内都在睡觉。另外,人们还喜欢拿不知不觉打瞌睡的朋友开玩笑。Early rising, on the other hand, has clearly been promoted as a virtue, at least since the introduction of Confucianism and Buddhism. In antiquity, sources show a special concern for the work schedule of civil servants, but from the Middle Ages onwards, early rising was applied to all strata of society, with “going to bed late and rising early” used as a metaphor to describe a virtuous person.另一方面,清晨早起被誉为是一种美德,至少从儒家和佛家被引入日本后是如此。古代文献中有人们对于公务员工作时间表感到担忧的记载,但从中世纪以来,早起就已经成为社会各阶层的共同喜好,“晚睡早起”成为有文化品德的人的象征。Another interesting issue is co-sleeping. In Britain, parents are often told they should provide even babies with a separate room so that they can learn to be independent sleepers, thus establishing a regular sleep schedule. In Japan, by contrast, parents and doctors are adamant that co-sleeping with children until they are at least at school age will reassure them and help them develop into independent and socially stable adults.另一个有趣的问题是父母是否与子女共寝。英国的习惯是,父母让儿童在单独卧室里独睡,即便在婴儿时期也是如此。这样做的目的是让儿童学会独立入睡,并建立起有规律的入睡习惯。然而,日本父母和医生却坚决主张父母与子女共寝直到学龄。他们的理由是:这样做不仅会消除儿童的紧张情绪,还有助于塑造独立和适应社会的成人人格。Maybe this cultural norm helps Japanese people to sleep in the presence of others, even when they are adults – many Japanese say they often sleep better in company than alone. Such an effect could be observed in spring 2011 after the huge tsunami disaster destroyed several coastal towns. Survivors had to stay in evacuation shelters, where dozens or even hundreds of people shared the same living and sleeping space. Notwithstanding various conflicts and problems, survivors described how sharing a communal sleeping space provided some comfort and helped them to relax and regain their sleep rhythm.可能正是这种文化习惯才让日本成年人在他人面前毫无心理负担地酣然入睡。许多日本人说,他们在有人陪伴时睡眠质量比独处时更好。2011年春天,威力巨大的海啸袭击了日本几座沿海城市。灾难发生后,幸存者们挤住在避难所里,数十甚至数百人共处同一片屋檐下。虽然人和人之间也发生了某些冲突和问题,但幸存者们却说,和这么多人一起睡觉让他们更为放松,更易入眠,并且重新找回了健康的睡眠节律。However, this experience of sleeping in the presence of others as children is not sufficient on its own to explain the widesp tolerance of inemuri, especially at school and in the workplace. After some years of investigating this subject, I finally realised that on a certain level, inemuri is not considered sleep at all. Not only is it seen as being different from night-time sleep in bed, it is also viewed differently from taking an afternoon nap or power nap.然而,婴儿时期与他人共寝的经验无法解释日本人对于小憩,尤其是对学校和工作场所小憩的的广泛宽容态度。经过为期数年的调查,我终于意识到:在某种程度上,日本人根本不把小憩和睡眠同等对待。在日本人心目中,小憩不仅和夜间床上睡眠毫不相干,与睡午觉也有所区别。How can we make sense of this? The clue lies in the term itself, which is composed of two Chinese characters. ‘I’ which means ‘to be present’ in a situation that is not sleep and ‘nemuri’ which means ‘sleep’. Erving Goffman’s concept of “involvement within social situations” is useful I think in helping us grasp the social significance of inemuri and the rules surrounding it. Through our body language and verbal expressions we are involved to some extent in every situation in which we are present. We do, however, have the capacity to divide our attention into dominant and subordinate involvement.原因何在?首先要从它的文字组成来分析。“小憩”的日语汉字写法是由两个汉字组成:“居”和“眠”。“居”指“在场”,“眠”指“睡眠”。我认为,埃文#8226;古夫曼(Erving Goffman)提出的“融入社会环境”概念能够帮助我们了解小憩的社会意义以及与其有关的规则。通过身体语言和口头表达,我们在某种程度上介入到所处的环境之中。然而,我们可以把自己的注意力分割为数个可配的底层介入活动。In this context, inemuri can be seen as a subordinate involvement which can be indulged in as long as it does not disturb the social situation at hand – similar to daydreaming. Even though the sleeper might be mentally ‘away’, they have to be able to return to the social situation at hand when active contribution is required. They also have to maintain the impression of fitting in with the dominant involvement by means of body posture, body language, dress code and the like.在这种情况下,小憩可看做是一种底层介入,在没有打扰所处的社会环境的情况下,不必对此大惊小怪——这点和白日梦很类似。尽管小憩者此时可能已经精神溜号,但在需要主动参与时,他们就会立刻返回到所处的社会环境中来。他们还可以通过身体姿态、身体语言、衣着符号等方式保持符合可配介入活动的印象。Inemuri in the workplace is a case in point. In principle, attentiveness and active participation are expected at work, and falling asleep creates the impression of lethargy and that a person is shirking their duties. However, it is also viewed as the result of work-related exhaustion. It may be excused by the fact that meetings are usually long and often involve simply listening to the chair’s reports. The effort made to attend is often valued more than what is actually achieved. As one informant told me: “We Japanese have the Olympic spirit – participating is what counts.”工作场所中的小憩就是一个很好的例。原则上,工作场所要求员工态度专注、主动参与,在工作场所睡觉则会给人留下性情倦怠、逃避责任的印象。然而,打瞌睡也会是勤奋工作的产物。在要求听众被动聆听主席台上冗长报告的会议上,听众非常容易入睡。来参加会议本身比会议能取得什么成果更加重要。一位消息人士告诉我:“我们日本人都有奥林匹克精神——重在参与。”Diligence, which is expressed by working long hours and giving one’s all, is highly valued as a positive moral trait in Japan. Someone who makes the effort to participate in a meeting despite being exhausted or ill demonstrates diligence, a sense of responsibility and their willingness to make a sacrifice. By overcoming physical weaknesses and needs, a person becomes morally and mentally fortified and is filled with positive energy. Such a person is considered reliable and will be promoted. If, in the end, they succumb to sleep due to exhaustion or a cold or another health problem, they can be excused and an “attack of the sleep demon” can be held responsible. 日本人认为,勤奋是指长时间尽全力工作,这是一种得到高度推崇的美德。在筋疲力尽或者疾病缠身的情况下仍然参加会议的人表现出的是勤奋态度、责任感和自我牺牲精神。通过克身体不适和需求,一个人就能在道德和精神意义上变得更加强大,并且充满正能量。人们会觉得这类人忠诚可靠,应当晋升。如果他们因为过度劳累、患上感冒或其他疾病而酣然入睡,人们会原谅他们,并且打趣地说,这是因为“睡魔”袭来的缘故。Moreover, modesty is also a highly valued virtue. Therefore, it is not possible to boast about one’s own diligence – and this creates the need for subtle methods to achieve social recognition. Since tiredness and illness are often viewed as the result of previous work efforts and diligence, inemuri – or even feigning inemuri by closing one’s eyes – can be employed as a sign that a person has been working hard but still has the strength and moral virtue necessary to keep themselves and their feelings under control.另外,日本社会也高度崇尚谦虚这项美德。因此,没人会四处吹嘘他工作勤奋–此时就需要采取某种巧妙的方法获得社会认可。由于劳累和疾病往往是由于过去的努力工作所致,这时可以小憩一番–甚至闭上眼睛假装小憩–从而表明该人一直在努力工作,虽然他现在正在打瞌睡,但却仍然具有控制自身及情绪的力量和道德。Thus, the Japanese habit of inemuri does not necessarily reveal a tendency towards laziness. Instead, it is an informal feature of Japanese social life intended to ensure the performance of regular duties by offering a way of being temporarily ‘away’ within these duties. And so it is clear: the Japanese don’t sleep. They don’t nap. They do inemuri. It could not be more different.因此,日本人的小憩习惯不能和懒惰划等号。恰恰相反,它是日本社会生活中的一种非正式行动,目的在于通过暂时“离开”职责而确保日常职责得以履行。很明显:日本人不是在睡觉,也不是在打瞌睡,他们正在小憩。这三者之间的区别可大了去了。 /201606/449653 A new study found that men show shifts in behavior from mating-oriented to parent-oriented while their partners’ pregnancy develops. 一项新的研究发现,在伴侣怀时,男性的行为会从交配导向型转变为家长导向型。These changes are determined by changes in testosterone levels across pregnancy and hormonal linkage with their partner。决定这一转变的是伴侣怀期间男性睾丸素水平的变化,以及他们与伴侣之间的荷尔蒙联动。It’s almost hard to imagine that every caring dad was once a skirt-chasing ball of hormones — but it’s true. Somewhere along their transition to parenthood, biology puts a stop to men’s carefree days of sowing wild oats and turns their attention towards nurturing children. 难以想象每个慈爱的爸爸都曾是一团追逐女性的荷尔蒙——但这是真的。在转变为人父的过程中,生物机制使男性结束了逍遥自在、四处播种的日子,并将注意力转到养育孩子上。This is a very solid strategy from an evolutionary point of view, but we didn’t know exactly how it happened. 从进化的角度来看,这是一个非常可靠的战略,但我们并不确切知道它是如何发生的。A new study found that the answer may be testosterone. 一项新的研究发现,可能是睾丸素。While high levels of this androgenic steroid hormone have been associated with aggression and competitive behavior, lower levels promote nurturing behaviors, particularly those related to caring for offspring. 尽管高水平的这种雄性类固醇激素与侵略性和竞争性行为有关,低水平时则促进养育性行为,特别是那些与照顾子女相关的行为。Previous studies show that fathers who are in a relationship and are more involved with children’s care show lower testosterone levels that men who don’t have children. 之前的研究表明,处在一段亲密关系中且更多地参与照看孩子的父亲,其睾丸素水平低于没有孩子的男性。 /201608/463072丰城市中医院华尔兹脱毛锯齿线面部提升锯齿线悬吊除皱术多少钱樟树市中人民医院整形美容

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