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楼主:康指南 时间:2018年02月18日 07:23:34 点击:0 回复:0
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What’s it like to drive a car that drives itself? To give a computer full control of your destiny, on the highway, at 70 miles an hour?开着一辆自动驾驶汽车是什么感觉?是不是将你的小命交给电脑,让它指引汽车在高速公路上以每小时70英里的速度行驶?It will happen to you, maybe not in five years, but definitely within 15. You’ll be on the highway and hit a button and the car will take over, navigating through slow traffic and allowing you to tap away at your cell phone or even take a short nap.你迟早会体会到这种感觉,也许5年内还不行,但15年内绝对可以。上了高速,你只要按下一个按钮,汽车就会开启自动驾驶模式,你可以玩一会儿手机,甚至睡上一觉。Well, I’ve experienced it aly, in the very first week of 2015, on a 560-mile road trip from Silicon Valley to Las Vegas. On behalf of Fortune, I was one of five journalists to experience an autonomous car at this advanced level.2015年的第一个星期,在一段从硅谷前往,长达560英里的旅程中,我体验了一番这种感觉。作为代表《财富》的记者,我荣幸地成为率先体验一款技术先进的自动驾驶汽车的五名记者之一。The car was an Audi A7 that looked exactly like any other, if you discounted the special paint job and the words “Audi Piloted Driving” on the sides. The oddest part was just how quickly I got used to the car making decisions for me at highway speeds.除去特殊的涂装和车身上的“奥迪自动驾驶”字样,这辆奥迪A7看起来与同型号的其它车辆没有任何区别。最奇妙的是,我很快就习惯了它在高速公速上替我做决定。All the major automakers are in a race to develop the first fully autonomous car, and if you listen to some of the companies it sounds as if a robotic chauffeur will be taking over grocery-getting duties any day now. Don’t believe them. Neither the technology nor the laws governing it are anywhere near that point. Your 10-year-old will still need his or her driving license in six years unless you plan to pay for Uber rides to the mall well into their 20s.目前,市面上所有主流汽车厂商都在争先恐后地开发首款完全自动驾驶的汽车。在有些厂家的宣传词里,好像不久之后“汽车人”就能自动替你去买菜了。别相信他们。不论是在技术层面还是法律层面,我们离那个目标都非常遥远。你10岁的孩子六年后还是得考驾照,除非你打算让他们20多岁时还要通过Uber来叫车载他们去商场。Nonetheless, Volkswagen Group-owned Audi was out to prove that it was ahead of the curve, and invited me to test drive a prototype sedan capable of “level three” autonomous technology (see accompanying story for definitions of those levels). The trip began from a hotel in Menlo Park, and I had visions of inputting “Las Vegas” into the navigation system, hitting the “go” button and kicking back with 1984 on my Kindle as the car whisked me away.不过,德国大众集团旗下的奥迪公司想要明他们已经在这个领域领先了一步,于是邀请我去试驾一款据说具备了“第三级”自动驾驶技术的轿车(这些等级的定义见本文附注)。这趟旅行的起点是门洛帕克市的一家酒店。在我的想象中,我以为只需要在导航系统里输入“”,按一个“走你”的按钮,车子就会载着我飞奔,然后我就可以用Kindle电子书悠闲地看《1984》了。Not so much. This special prototype can only pilot itself in very specific situations. The basic criteria: 1) It drives itself only on well-marked freeways during the day and in favorable weather conditions; 2) A driver has to be in the seat at all times and y to take back control immediately in an emergency situation (so no napping); 3) The driver gives up control while aly on the freeway and takes it back before it’s time to exit.事实上并没有这么简单。这台原型车只能在非常特定的情形下才能实现自动驾驶。基本条件是:1、它只能在标志明显的高速公路上才能实现自动驾驶,而且必须是白天,天气状况必须良好;2、驾驶员必须始终坐在驾驶座上,随时准备在紧急条件下立即转到手动驾驶模式(所以打盹是不可能了);3、只有上了高速,司机才能开启自动驾驶,在车子下高速之前,司机就要重新接管汽车。Audi engineers says they have done more than 50,000 miles of testing on public roads in America using this self-driving technology. But on this trip they weren’t leaving much to chance. They had run the long, southeastern route through Bakersfield at least six times previously. There were two German engineers in the car at all times. The one in the back had a laptop and was constantly screening data. The fellow in the right-hand seat paid keen attention to the road ahead. Disconcertingly, he also had his own gas and brake pedals.奥迪的工程师表示,他们已经利用自动驾驶技术,在美国的公共道路上行驶了50,000多英里。但在本次旅途中,他们也不敢怠慢,而且已经沿这条向东南方经由巴克斯菲尔德的公路行驶了六次。这次车里依然始终坐着两名德国工程师。坐在后面的这位架着一台笔记本电脑,不停地检查各种数据。坐在副驾驶的那位始终谨慎地观察前方道路。比较尴尬的是,他的脚底下也有一套油门和刹车踏板。The trunk of the car was filled with components from desktop computers, with a hydra of cords interconnecting them to the car. Also a bit disconcerting. But the interior looked almost entirely normal.车子的后备箱里装满了台式电脑的部件,一大团数据线把它们与汽车联接在一起。这一幕看着也有点尴尬,但内饰基本上完全正常。It’s at this point that I should mention that I’m an A-type driver. Years of training on the racetrack and practicing emergency maneuvers have not helped matters. You may think you’re a great driver. I would likely disagree. I love to be in the driver’s seat—and if I’m not, I’d just prefer to be outside the car. So yes, you might say I’ve got control issues.我应该强调一下,我是A型血。多年的赛道训练和紧急操作练习也没有治好我的强迫症。你可能认为你是个很好的司机,但我很可能不这么认为。我喜欢坐在驾驶座上——如果开车的不是我,我宁可不坐这辆车。所以你可能会认为我的控制欲过强。And while I like technology, I don’t really trust it. Computers crash all the time. They can be hacked and compromised and my Apple computer too often suffers that spinning ball of death. Was I really y to turn over my life to a robotic overlord? Have we learned nothing from the Terminator movies?另外,虽然我喜欢高科技,但我并不真心信任它。电脑还经常崩溃呢,或是被黑、中毒什么的,我自己的苹果电脑也经常死机。我真的准备好把宝贵的生命托付给机器人了吗?难道看了《终结者》系列电影后,我们什么教训都没学到吗?So I was happy enough to be in control as we motored through a small California town in the prototype Audi, making our way toward Interstate 5. The prototype was in most regards still a stock A7, a sexy, swoop-backed sedan that I really love. It has lots of pep and a great suspension.所以当我们沿5号公路来到加州一个小镇,换我坐到驾驶座上时,我还是非常高兴的。这辆原型车骨子里还是一台量产的奥迪A7,它是一款令人爱不释手、非常性感的溜背轿跑,动力充沛,悬挂也很出色。Then we got on the freeway and a message appeared on my digital dash, informing me that “piloted” driving mode was available. Traffic was heavy and too closely spaced together. This truly would be a test of the technology.然后我们又上了高速,这时数码仪表盘上显示出一条消息,提示称“自动”驾驶模式已经可以使用了。不过这时路上车流很大,车距很窄,这对该技术真是一项挑战。I glanced over at the engineer and he gave me a confident nod. The lower stalks of the steering wheel have two extra buttons. You press and hold both simultaneously to engage the autonomous feature. I did so: an alert sounded and the steering wheel automatically retracted several inches, literally moving out of my hands.我瞄了工程师一眼,他对我信心十足地点了点头。方向盘下面有两个额外的按钮。同时长按这两个按钮即可启动自动驾驶功能。我这样做了以后,车内响起了一声提醒音,然后方向盘收缩了几英寸,摆脱了我的掌控。The A7 prototype uses an array of stock sensors, including radar and a front-facing camera, to navigate through traffic. It stays in the right-hand lane until it comes on slower-moving traffic, and then will engage its turn signal, pull into the left lane, and pass.这台A7原型车使用了一系列传感器,包括雷达和正对前方的摄像头,用来感应车流状况。车子一直在右道行驶,如果遇见前车行驶太慢,它就会打转向灯,然后拐上左道超车。Using the side stalk, I set the speed at 70 mph. The steering wheel was moving on its own, a ghost in the machine. We were approaching a slow-moving minivan quickly and I tensed, my foot hovering over the brake pedal. The car smoothly engaged the brakes, waited for a car on the left to pass, turned on the signal, passed the van and pulled back to the right. Seamless.通过方向盘侧边的拨杆,我把速度设定为每小时70英里(约每小时112公里)。方向盘自动摆动,就像有个幽灵在开车一样。车子很快接近了一台开得很慢的面包车,我精神紧张起来,把脚放在刹车踏板上准备随时制动。但车子自动平顺地放慢了车速,等到左边的一辆车先超过去,才打了转向灯,超过了这辆面包车,然后又回到右侧车道,简直天衣无缝。I stared straight ahead, hands in lap. Then I relaxed a bit. Then I got bored. I twisted in the seat and began chatting with the engineers. Then I started messing with traffic around me, planting both hands on the side window as cars passed. Look, sir! No hands. I got some strange looks. I even tried to attract the attention of a state trooper pulled to the side of the road. My engineer/minder wasn’t so amused.我的眼睛直视前方,双手放在了膝盖上。然后,我放松了一会儿,很快就觉得无聊。我把座椅调整了个角度,然后开始和工程师们聊天。我开始望着周围的车流,有车子经过时,我就把两只手都伸到车窗外头。“看我大撒把!”人们对我投来奇怪的眼神。我甚至还试图吸引停在路边的交警的注意力。当然,那位工程师并不觉得我这样做有多么好玩。Here’s what I liked: It was very easy to take back control. Simply grab the steering wheel and apply light pressure, and the system happily gives all controls back to you. You can also apply the brakes or gas and do the same thing. And the car still drove and handled like an Audi. It really wasn’t foreign at all: Easy to understand even easier to use.我最喜欢的一点是:你很容易就能收回对车子的控制权。只需轻轻一拉方向盘,施加一点点力量,系统就会很高兴地把它的所有控制权交还给你。踩刹车或油门也能达到同样的效果。车子的操纵感仍然像一辆经典的奥迪。它完全没有陌生的感觉,了解它很容易,用起来甚至更容易。What I didn’t like: The passiveness. It’s very hard to pay attention after a while. Being sort-of, kind-of in control is difficult. Either you’re all-in driving, or you’re not. Engineers say that when the technology eventually comes to market, the car should be able to perform some evasive maneuvers. But right now, if a car careens toward you the car can only slow down to avoid an accident. It’s up to you to perform more elaborate evasive action.我不喜欢的一点是它的被动性。车子走了一阵子之后,你就很难集中注意力了,很难获得所谓的“控制感”。要么是用手动模式开车,要么不是。工程师们表示,等到这项技术最终投放市场,它届时应该可以进行机动规避。不过目前,如果一辆车子向你行驶的方向侧翻过来,车子只能自动减速以避免事故。要想进行更复杂的机动动作,就得靠你自己去手动操作。As for accidents, we saw a lot of them that day on I-5. Fender benders mostly, but at least one serious incident the other direction. Audi says it is pursuing this technology because it saves lives, as the majority of accidents are the result of distracted driving.说到事故,那天我们在5号公路上见到了很多交通事故,大部分是小刮蹭,但至少在反向车道上还是发生了一起严重事故。奥迪公司表示它正在积极推进这项技术,因为它可以挽救很多人的生命,因为大多数交通事故都是因为开车分心而导致的。Meanwhile, our A7 stayed out of trouble and accident free, moving steadily to our destination, the Las Vegas Strip, which we would reach just in time for the annual Consumer Electronics Show.我们的A7一路平安无事,也没有遇到事故,稳稳地驶向我们的目的地,刚好能赶上一年一度的CES消费电子展。By the end of the trip, I was a believer. The technology is for real. Do I love it? Well, I certainly see the attraction, especially on a long boring route. And I do believe that it will eventually save lives.等到这趟旅程结束时,我自己也成了自动驾驶技术的拥趸。这项技术是真真切切的。要说我喜欢它吗?我当然看到了它的优点,尤其是在行驶一段漫长而无聊的道路时。而且我也真心相信,最终它会拯救许多人的生命。But I write about cars for a living. Fully autonomous driving would consign me to the ranks of scriveners, typesetters and harpoon salesmen. I guess at that point, I’ll be reviewing the fengshui of the interior.不过,我是靠写汽车新闻谋生的。如果自动驾驶汽车技术完全成熟了,我只能去做代书人、打字员或是卖渔具之类的工作。估计到那时候,我也就只能评测一下汽车内饰的风水了。For now, I’ll just say that the A7 self-driving car and I are frenemies.现在,我只能说A7自动驾驶汽车与我是“亦敌亦友”的关系。Sidebar: stages of self-driving cars附注:自动驾驶汽车的发展阶段Hoping for a car that will pick you up at your doorstep, whisk you to work, and then disappear around the block until it returns for you at 5 pm? For many engineers, such a fully automated and self-guiding car is the ultimate goal, but it will be many years until we actually see one.你是否畅想过,你的汽车能像变形金刚一样,每天自动开到门口接你,载着你上班,然后自己消失了,直到下午5点钟又来公司接你?对于很多工程师来说,这种完全的自动驾驶和自动导航汽车仍是一个终极目标,我们可能还得等很多年才能见到它。Experts have laid out five levels of automation, from the lowest (one) to that full robotic taxi (five).专家们给自动驾驶划分了五个等级,从最低级(一级)到全自动机器人出租车(第五级)。The first level is found on many luxury cars today. It’s referred to as a driver’s assistance program and include automatic cruise control, in which the car will slow or even stop when it senses slower traffic ahead. A lane-assistance system, which helps keep a car from straying beyond lane markings, is also considered level one.当前的很多豪华车型已经具备了第一级功能。它是指驾驶员的辅助程序,包括自动巡航控制,也就是当汽车感觉到前方车速较慢时会自动减速甚至停车。车道辅助系统可以避免车子在行驶时越线,它也被视为第一级技术。Level two is a car that can handle several tasks independently of the driver, including parking itself, with the driver outside the car controlling some aspects with a key fob.第二级是指汽车可以脱离驾驶员,来处理几项任务,包括自动停车入位,不过通常是驾驶员在车外通过某种遥控器遥控的。Level three is where things get more interesting. The Audi prototype that we tested was level three, and it can negotiate traffic on a pre-ordained route independent of the driver. However, it depends on a driver to be behind the wheel at all times, and to take over control at the beginning and end of the route. It also demands that the driver take back control in any emergency circumstance.第三级更有趣些。我们试驾的这辆奥迪原型车就是第三级技术,它可以独立于驾驶员,自动在一条预先设定好的道路上行车。但它需要驾驶员全程坐在方向盘后面,并且要在自动驾驶模式开始前和结束后手动驾车。在紧急状况下也需要驾驶员接管车辆。High automation is level four. This car will be able to find a safe area to pull off the road if the driver doesn’t respond to a call of action to take back over. It could also potentially drop you off outside of your building and then pull itself automatically into a pre-ordained spot in the public garage.第四级是高度自动化。如果驾驶员没有响应汽车交回控制权的要求,它甚至可以自己找到一个安全的区域停在路边。它也可能会自动开到你的楼前接你,然后自动把自己停在公共停车场的一个预定车位上。Five is the robotic taxi that would need no driver behind the wheel whatsoever. Which brings us to this question: When are we going go get those flying cars, anyhow?第五级是根本不需要驾驶员坐在方向盘后头的“机器人出租车”。这也让我们不禁想问:那种会飞的汽车什么时候才能出现呢?(财富中文网) /201502/358751Technology companies and advertisers are putting pressure on carmakers to pass on data collected by connected cars, BMW has warned, highlighting the concerns the automotive industry faces as it ts a fine line between performance and privacy.宝马(BMW)警告说,高科技企业和广告商正在向汽车制造商施加压力,要让他们交出通过互联汽车收集的数据。这种局面凸显出汽车业正面临有关保护隐私的担忧,它们不得不在用户体验和隐私权之间仔细权衡。Ian Robertson, the German manufacturer’s board member for sales and marketing, said that every car rolling off its production lines had a wireless network that could yield information about location, speed, acceleration and even the occupants of the car.宝马公司主管营销的董事会成员伊恩#8226;罗伯逊(Ian Robertson)表示,每辆走下该公司产品线的汽车都装有无线网络,可以生成关于该车位置、速度、加速度、甚至车上乘客的信息。“There’s plenty of people out there saying: ‘give us all the data you’ve got and we can tell you what we can do with it’,” he told the Financial Times on the sidelines of the Detroit motor show, adding that this included “Silicon Valley” companies, as well as advertising groups. “And we’re saying: ‘No thank you’.”在底特律车展会场外,他告诉英国《金融时报》:“很多人都在跟我们说:‘把你们获取的数据都交给我们,我们能告诉你我们能用它做什么。’”他补充说,这么说的企业不仅包括广告公司,还包括那些“硅谷”公司。“对此,我们的回答是:‘不用了,谢谢。’”About two-thirds of today’s new cars have sensors and communications systems that send and receive data, offering potential for carmakers to find out more about how drivers use their vehicles. But the systems could also provide insurers and advertisers with personal information about customers.如今,大约三分之二的新车拥有能发送和接收数据的传感器和通信系统,从而令汽车制造商有可能更多地了解司机的用车方式。不过,这样的系统同样能够向保险公司和广告商提供客户的个人信息。BMW said it had a firewall in place to protect crucial data about the internal running of the car. But any transmission of data raises concerns about who might access that information — and what they might do with it.宝马表示,该公司设置了防火墙,以保护那些有关汽车内部运转的关键数据。不过,只要存在数据传输,就会有人担心谁可能访问这些信息,他们会对这些信息做什么。Adam Jonas, analyst at Morgan Stanley, said it was a “major issue” for carmakers, which “ unanimously want to create a barrier on this information”. He said: “They don’t want to be the first one to let [their] guard down on information privacy or to become the first company to have a car hacked with bad consequences and image.”根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)分析师亚当#8226;乔纳斯(Adam Jonas)表示,这对汽车制造商来说是个“大问题”,他们“无一例外地想在这些信息上设置壁垒”。他说:“他们不想成为第一个降低隐私保护标准的公司,也不想成为第一家因为其汽车被黑客攻破而导致不良后果和流出非法照片的公司。”Ford was forced into an embarrassing retraction at last year’s Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas after Jim Farley, then head of marketing at the US carmaker, said: “We know everyone who breaks the law. We know exactly when you do it because we have a GPS sensor in your car.” He added: “By the way, we don’t supply that data to anyone.”在去年的消费电子展(Consumer Electronics Show)上,福特(Ford)曾因其营销主管的一句话而不得不十分尴尬地予以澄清。当时,时任该公司营销主管的吉姆#8226;法利(Jim Farley)说:“我们知道每个违反交通法规的人。我们会在你违法的那一刻知道此事,因为我们在你的车里装了GPS接收装置。”他补充说:“顺便说一下,我们不会把数据交给任何人。”Mr Farley later clarified that the company did not track anyone without their permission.后来,法利曾澄清说,福特不会未经许可跟踪任何人的状况。The scale of the data collected by modern vehicles goes beyond how fast or far cars have driven. In an illustration of the potential data that could be surrendered by carmakers, Mr Robertson said that BMW cars knew whether a child was on board, based on weight sensors in the seats linked to the airbag system.当代汽车收集的数据已不限于汽车的速度和开出的距离。为了向人们展示汽车制造商可能泄露的数据,罗伯逊表示,在宝马汽车的座椅上,安装着一个连接至安全气囊系统的的重力感应器,这个感应器令该车能知道车上是否坐着儿童。“Several companies have said: ‘We’d like to know that data because then we will know whether it’s an adult or a child sitting in the car’,” said Mr Robertson.罗伯逊表示:“有几家企业曾表示:‘我们很想获得这些数据,因为那样我们就能知道坐车的是成人还是儿童了。’”He said that advertisers also wanted to know how long the engine has been running so that they could tell “from the navigation system, they’re about to pass a McDonald’s, the car’s been running for three hours and the child’s probably hungry”.他还说广告商还想知道引擎已运转的时间,从而令他们“能够从导航系统了解到,这辆车正要经过一家麦当劳(McDonald#39;s),而车已跑了三个小时,车上的孩子可能饿了。” /201501/354717Don’t tell people what you do,” Per Sundin’s wife insisted as they went to a dinner party several years ago. Sundin wasn’t a banker, used-car salesman or weapons producer, but the head of a record label in Sweden. Back then, being a music industry boss in the Nordic country was a miserable job. Sales had more than halved between 2000 and 2008 as illegal downloading took over. Sundin, who has headed a record label since 1998, was known by international colleagues as the expert on The Pirate Bay, an infamous Swedish website used to illegally download the latest music and films.几年前,佩尔#8226;松丁(Per Sundin)与妻子参加晚宴时,妻子叮嘱他:“别跟别人说你是做什么工作的。”松丁既非家、二手车销售员,也非军火商,而是瑞典一家唱片公司的主管。那时在这个北欧国家,音乐产业高管的日子可不好过。由于非法下载猖獗,销售额在2000至2008年间锐减过半。从1998年起便开始担任唱片公司主管的松丁,是各国同事们眼中的“海盗湾”(The Pirate Bay)问题专家。海盗湾是一家臭名昭著的瑞典网站,人们通过它非法下载最新的音乐和电影。Today Sundin, now head of Universal Music in Sweden, is that rarest of things: a happy music executive. No longer shunned by colleagues, he is the company expert on something more attractive: Spotify. “Sweden has gone from being worst in the class to the best in five years. We were so down the drain when Spotify came and presented their idea. Today, Spotify is the majority of the success we have,” he says.但如今,担任环球唱片(Universal Music)瑞典分公司总裁的松丁成了稀有物:一位开心的音乐公司高管。同事们不再回避他,相反,他是公司里的Spotify专家——而Spotify可比海盗湾更吸引人。松丁表示:“瑞典在五年时间里从差生变成了优等生。当Spotify来介绍他们理念的时候,我们简直是一团糟。现在,我们的成功主要归功于Spotify。”Sundin’s happiness is mirrored by much of the music industry in Sweden. Music sales have increased by more than a quarter from their nadir in 2008 and Sweden has become one of the first countries in the world where streaming services – listening to music over the internet without owning it – make more money for the industry than CDs or downloads. Almost three-quarters of the SKr990m (£86m) made last year came from streaming.瑞典音乐产业的诸多从业者也体会到松丁的这种幸福。音乐销售额比2008年谷底时高出逾四分之一,瑞典也成为世界上首批流媒体音乐务(即用户在互联网上听音乐,但无音乐所有权)收入超过CD或下载务收入的国家之一。瑞典音乐产业去年收入9.9亿瑞典克朗(合8600万英镑),其中近四分之三来自流媒体务。Launched in Stockholm in 2008, Spotify has a library of more than 20 million songs that people can choose from. They either pay for the premium service to stream music without interruption or they listen for free but with adverts between songs. Sundin insists that Spotify – in which Universal and other big record labels have minority stakes – has saved the music industry, although the company itself remains lossmaking.Spotify于2008年在斯德哥尔创办,如今拥有2000多万首歌曲供用户选择。用户可以选择付费高级务,不间断收听流媒体音乐,也可以选择免费收听,但曲目之间会插播广告。松丁坚信Spotify拯救了音乐产业,尽管它还在亏损。环球唱片等大牌唱片公司持有Spotify的少数股份。His office is strewn with memorabilia, from a picture of a “Born to Run”-era Bruce Springsteen to gold records of his latest star, the DJ Avicii. Sundin is dressed simply in a black sweater and jeans, his completely bald head glistening under the lights. “It was devastating,” he says, thinking back to those years. “People thought it was OK to steal with The Pirate Bay. It wasn’t nice going to international meetings. Was it close to killing the industry? Yes. Then Spotify came and it was better than illegal downloading. It was super-fast, almost everything was on it, and it was free.”松丁的办公室摆满了纪念物,从《Born to Run》风靡之时布鲁斯#8226;斯普林斯汀(Bruce Springsteen)的照片,到他旗下新晋明星DJ艾维奇(Avicii)的金唱片,不一而足。松丁衣着休闲,一身黑毛衣配牛仔裤,光头在灯光下闪闪发亮。回忆起难熬的那几年,他说道:“那是毁灭性的。人们觉得从海盗湾下载盗版内容没什么问题。参加国际会议的经历很狼狈。海盗湾是不是差点毁了音乐产业?是的。后来Spotify出现了,它比非法下载要好。它速度极快,几乎无所不有,而且免费。”Spotify’s reach goes beyond its home base. It has more than 10 million paying subscribers and a total of 40 million active users in 58 countries. Many executives hope that streaming – including other services such as Deezer or Pandora’s internet radio – can demonstrate that record labels can still make money in the digital age. Apple seems to be making the same bet with its bn acquisition in May of Beats, a smaller streaming service and maker of headphones.Spotify走出了国门。它拥有1000多万名付费用户,而活跃用户总计达4000万,分布在58个国家。许多高管希望流媒体务——包括Deezer和Pandora互联网电台等其他务——可以明,唱片公司在数字时代仍能赚钱。苹果(Apple)似乎也在下同样的赌注,它在5月份斥资30亿美元收购了较小的流媒体务商Beats。Jonathan Forster, Spotify’s managing director for the Nordics, argues: “We find ourselves being in this position where Sweden is a crystal ball for the new music industry. And that’s as relevant for what might happen next in the UK or US as it is here in Sweden.” But could this country of just 10 million inhabitants really offer a blueprint for the future of music?Spotify北欧区执行董事乔纳森#8226;福斯特(Jonathan Forster)表示:“我们所处的情况是,瑞典成为了预知新音乐产业趋势的水晶球。瑞典即将发生的事情,对于英国或美国同样相关。”但这个只有1000万居民的国家,是否真能呈现音乐产业的未来蓝图?If it does, people like Ash Pournouri will be the winners. The 32-year-old is manager and producer of Avicii, whose track “Wake Me Up” is the most streamed song yet on Spotify, with more than 200 million listens. His At Night Management company is based at one of Stockholm’s most prestigious waterfront addresses. The first-floor office is home to four recording studios of various sizes and a cinema room with an enormous screen. At its heart is a boardroom pimped out by Ralph Lauren almost entirely in black, from the wallpaper to the mixing bar. “I want to show people how successful we are. There is still life in the business, and still a lot of potential for people to make it,” says Pournouri, clad in a black jacket, denim shirt and skinny tie.如果真是如此,那么像阿什#8226;普尔努里(Ash Pournouri)这样的人将成为赢家。32岁的普尔努里是艾维奇的经纪人兼制作人,艾维奇的曲目《Wake Me Up》已是Spotify上迄今播放次数最多的歌曲,收听量达200多万次。普尔努里的At Night Management公司总部坐落于斯德哥尔最有名的海滨地带,办公楼一层设有四个不同大小的录音棚,以及一间配有巨屏的放映室。该层的中心是一间会议室,它由拉尔夫#8226;劳伦(Ralph Lauren)设计,从墙纸到调音台几乎完全采用黑色色调。“我希望向人们展示我们有多成功。音乐产业仍有活力,对于投身这一产业的人们仍充满潜力,”身穿黑夹克和牛仔衬衫、打着细领带的普尔努里表示。Pournouri is a fervent believer in Spotify. “I always thought it was the next thing,” he says while sipping a latte. “How do consumers want to consume music? If you mimic the behaviour as much as possible of illegal downloading and make it even easier and for a small payment, then you have the solution.”普尔努里是Spotify的狂热信徒。“我一直觉得它是下一个大热门,”他边啜着拿铁边说,“消费者希望如何消费音乐?如果你尽可能模仿非法下载的模式,让整个体验变得更轻松,收取一小笔费用,那你就有了解决问题的出路。”Perhaps most appealing for him is what he calls Spotify’s “democratic” side. The more a song is streamed, the more an artist is paid. “Not only do you have a platform where you can reach the whole world but you have a way that you can be listened to a lot. It hasn’t been democratic before in any sense. People buy a CD even if they only like three songs. With iTunes you might like it this week but not next week. Spotify is more democratic – people listen to a good song over and over again,” he says.或许最吸引普尔努里的,是他所称的Spotify“民主”的一面。一首歌播放的次数越多,艺人的报酬就越高。他表示:“艺人不仅获得了接触全世界的平台,还有办法让自己的作品得到大量收听。以往的音乐产业从来没有这么民主过。人们就算只喜欢一张专辑中的两三首歌,也得买下整张专辑。至于iTunes,你或许这周还喜欢一首歌,但下周就不喜欢了。Spotify更民主——人们会反复听一首好歌。”Some artists, however, are less glowing. Thom Yorke, the singer of Radiohead, told a Mexican website that Spotify was “the last desperate fart of a dying corpse”. He added: “I feel like as musicians we need to fight the Spotify thing. I feel that in some ways what’s happening in the mainstream is the last gasp of the old industry.”但有些艺人的反响没有这么热烈。电台司令(Radiohead)主唱汤姆#8226;约克(Thom Yorke)向墨西哥一家网站表示,Spotify是“濒死之人放的最后一个绝望的屁”。他补充道:“我认为作为音乐人,我们需要反抗Spotify这类东西。我觉得从某种程度上,主流世界发生的事情是旧音乐产业的垂死挣扎。”Spotify has responded to growing criticism by detailing how artists get paid. It pays out about 70 per cent of its revenues to record labels, who share the pot depending on how often their artists’ songs have been played. On average, that works out to between Nokia is in advanced talks to acquire Alcatel-Lucent’s wireless business, say people familiar with the matter.知情人士表示,诺基亚(Nokia)正在就收购阿尔卡特-朗讯(Alcatel-Lucent)无线业务开展深入磋商。The Finnish company’s move to acquire assets from its Franco-American rival highlights its return to growth and appetite to expand following the sale of its handset business to Microsoft a year ago.这家芬兰公司打算从其法美竞争对手处收购资产的举措,凸显出该公司在一年前将手机业务出售给微软之后已回归增长,并想扩张自己的业务。A deal would significantly boost Nokia’s market share in the wireless infrastructure business as Alcatel’s wireless unit generated about bn in revenues last year.考虑到阿尔卡特无线部门去年的营收约为50亿美元,该交易或将大大提高诺基亚在无线基础设施业务方面的市场份额。Nokia is competing against China’s Huawei and Sweden’s Ericsson for contracts to supply next generation mobile equipment to network operators. Huawei and Ericsson are neck and neck in the race to become the telecoms equipment industry’s biggest group by revenue.目前,诺基亚正与中国的华为(Huawei)及瑞典的爱立信(Ericsson)竞争网络运营商的下一代移动设备供货合同。在电信设备业营收最高集团的竞争方面,华为和爱立信可谓并驾齐驱。People briefed about the Nokia-Alcatel negotiations warned that although the talks were at an advanced stage a deal could still fall a part.了解双方磋商的知情人士警告说,尽管该磋商已处于深入谈判阶段,这一并购交易仍有可能失败。Nokia’s chief executive Rajeev Suri has predicted that the industry would in time be reduced to as few as three companies given the competitive pressures it faces.诺基亚首席执行官拉杰夫#8226;苏里(Rajeev Suri)曾预计,考虑到电信设备行业的竞争压力,该行业的企业数随着时间的推移可能会减少至3家。Alcatel, which has struggled since the merger of France’s Alcatel with US-based Lucent Technologies, is going through a lengthy restructuring process to turn round falling sales in its core markets in the US and Europe. The company, led by chief executive Michel Combes, has begun to improve its profitability amid deep cost-cutting.自法国阿尔卡特(Alcatel)与美国朗讯科技(Lucent Technologies)合并以来,阿尔卡特朗讯一直处于困境之中。该公司正在开展漫长的重组,以扭转其欧美核心市场销售额的不断下滑。目前,该公司在首席执行官米歇尔#8226;库姆斯(Michel Combes)的领导下,已开始通过大幅削减成本改善其盈利能力。One person familiar with the two companies said the deal made strategic sense for Nokia as it would help strengthen its core business following the handset sale. Alcatel is also relatively strong in North America, a region where Nokia has only begun to make headway after recent deals with Sprint. Nokia is aiming to become the world’s mobile equipment specialist, while rivals such as Ericsson are branching out into other areas such as media services.一名熟悉两家公司的人士表示,该交易对诺基亚有战略上的意义,因为它将有助于诺基亚在手机业务出售后强化其核心业务。此外,相对来说阿尔卡特在北美的实力也很强,而诺基亚在该地区才刚刚通过近期与Sprint的交易取得进展。So far the Finnish company’s gamble on telecoms equipment is paying off. For the third quarter of last year it reported its first year-on-year sales increase in more than three years.到目前为止,诺基亚对电信设备产业的押注正在取得回报。去年第三季度,该公司报出逾三年来首次销售额同比增长。Shares in Nokia have risen nearly 45 per cent since the sale of its handset business was completed a year ago.自一年前诺基亚转让其手机业务的交易完成以来,诺基亚股价已攀升近45%。 /201504/370015.006 and Last year will long be remembered as the year when cyber attacks became front page news. No institution was spared — public companies, government agencies or non-profits. Heading into 2015, we have just reached the first mile of a race without a finish line, and time is of the essence when it comes to understanding the sophistication and complexity of cyber attacks.2014年将因屡屡登上头条新闻的网络攻击事件而被人们长期铭记。无论是上市公司、政府机构还是非营利组织,没有哪类机构能够幸免于难。进入2015年,我们只是在维护网络安全这条永无止境的征途上前进了一小步。我们亟需理解网络攻击的复杂性,时不我待。Most cyber attacks fall into one of three main threat types:大多数网络攻击都可归类于以下三种主要的威胁类型:oattacks on a network’s confidentiality, causing theft or release of secure information such as credit card or Social Security numbers;o针对网络机密性的攻击,导致信用卡号或社会保险号等安全信息遭窃或泄露;oattacks on a network’s availability by overwhelming it with so many requests that it renders the site inoperable, or by injecting code that redirects traffic away from the site; ando针对网络可用性的攻击,通过发送大量请求导致网站无法访问,或插入代码改变访问页面的路径;oattacks on a network’s physical integrity which alters or destroys computer code causing damage to the network’s infrastructure.o针对网络物理完整性的攻击,改变或破坏计算机代码,以损毁网络基础设施。In 2015, here are seven resolutions to help protect your company against cyber threats:2015年,你的公司应该在免受网络威胁方面立下7项新年决心:1. Tighten Your Vendor Network1、管理好你的供应商网络If there is one key takeaway from the cyber attacks of 2014 it’s that passwords are dead. Hackers gained access to Fortune 100 companies by stealing passwords and log-in credentials of smaller vendors, including air conditioning and food delivery companies. Replace your single passwords with two-factor authentication or “2FA.” A good example of 2FA is withdrawing money from an ATM – it requires two authentications — your bankcard and your password. Another example is signing on to a Bloomberg terminal, which requires a password and then, using biometrics, requires a fingerprint swipe for a second form of authentication that cannot easily be stolen. You should require 2FA of all vendors or employees who log on to your networks remotely.要从2014年的网络攻击中总结出一个要点,那就是密码被破。黑客通过窃取空调和食品配送公司等小型供货商的密码和书,进入了《财富》100强的公司网络。请修改你的简单密码,采用双重认(2FA)的方式。双重认的一个典型例子就是用卡从自动取款机上取钱——它需要双重认:你的卡和你的密码。另一个例子是登录彭社终端,首先你需要输入密码,然后采用生物测定学技术的系统还会要求你刷指纹进行二次认。想要偷走指纹可不容易。你应该对所有远程进入公司网络的供应商和员工采用双重认方式。2. Detonate Malware2、引爆恶意软件“Spear Phishing” is an easy and effective way to attack a network. Hackers obtain names of your friends from your public social media accounts and then send you a personal note that appears to come from someone you know and trust. When you click on the attachment or link, the email installs “malware” on your network. A solution for malware is “detonation” software. Once an email with malware is opened but before it can leave your network with critical information, it is detonated in a “sandbox” to test whether it is being routed to an inappropriate site.“网络钓鱼”是一种发动网络攻击的简单而有效的方式。黑客从你的社交媒体公共账户获得了你朋友的名字,并伪装成你认识且信任的人给你发私信。当你点开附件或链接,邮件就会把恶意软件装进你的网络。一种应对恶意软件的方法是安装“引爆”软件。一旦带有恶意软件的电子邮件被打开,在它把你的重要信息带走之前,这种软件会先将它扔进“沙盒”中进行引爆测试,看它是否指向了一个不正常的网站。3. Guard Your “Crown Jewels”3、保护你的“王冠”What information matters the most to you? Is it a secret formula, proprietary IP, Social Security or credit card numbers, sensitive health care data or non-public financial information? Once you determine your company’s most important and sensitive information, compartmentalize it from the rest of your technology and network operations.对你来说,什么信息最重要?是秘密配方、专有知识产权、社会保险号、信用卡号、敏感的卫生保健数据,还是非公开的财务信息?一旦你确定了公司最重要和敏感的信息,就把它与其他的技术和网络操作分离开来。4. Develop a Cyber Attack Response Plan – Now4、现在就准备好网络攻击应急计划Develop a plan and practice it regularly. As part of your plan, hire a forensic investigatory firm to review your network and your response plan.准备好应急计划并定期演练。作为计划的一部分,你应当雇佣取调查公司来检查你的网络和应急计划。5. Conduct “Penetration” Tests5、进行“渗透”测试Engage a third-party firm to conduct “penetration tests” to identify weaknesses in your company’s IT network and infrastructure. Based on the findings, make the necessary security improvements and comply with disclosure requirements. For example, the SEC has published guidance regarding the responsibilities of public companies to inform investors about cybersecurity vulnerabilities.邀请一家第三方公司来进行“渗透测试”,找出公司信息技术网络和基础设施中的缺陷。根据结果来进行必要的安全性改进,同时遵守资料公开的要求。比如,根据美国券交易委员会的规定,上市公司有义务告知投资者公司内部存在的网络安全漏洞,该委员会还专门就此发表了一份指南。6. Embrace the Government6、寻求政府的帮助When it comes to cyber attacks, the famous saying that “we are from the government and we are here to help” couldn’t be more true. The U.S. government has been far out front of the business community in understanding the significance of cyber threats. Current and former cabinet officials have warned for years about the risk of a “cyber Pearl Harbor” or “cyber 9/11.” The Secret Service and FBI have repeatedly alerted unaware public companies that their systems were breached — even though neither agency was under any obligation to do so. Don’t wait until after an attack to build relationships with key officials at the FBI, the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Justice.在网络攻击领域,那句著名的“我们来自政府,我们将施以援手”简直是再正确不过。在理解网络威胁的严重性方面,美国政府要远远领先于商界。现任和前任内阁官员多年来一直警告称,美国有可能遭遇“网络珍珠港”或“网络9o11”袭击。美国特勤局和联邦调查局也在不断提醒毫无觉察的上市公司,他们的系统被攻破了——尽管这些机构并没有这种义务。不要等到自己被攻击之后,才开始同联邦调查局、国土安全部和司法部的核心官员搞好关系。7. Kick the Tires in Mamp;A7、从事并购交易时要审查网络安全Traditionally, the biggest security risk in a merger or acquisition transaction was confidentiality. Increasingly, cyber risk is becoming a critical, and often overlooked, factor. Heed the Department of Homeland Security’s recent warning about cyber risks in companies that you may consider buying or investing in and conduct cyber audits as part of routine due diligence.传统上,并购交易的最大安全隐患在于保密工作。而网络风险正日益成为其中一个重要却被忽视的因素。请注意国土安全部最近发出的网络风险警告,其中也许就包括你正考虑购买或投资的公司。请将网络安全审查作为常规尽职调查的组成部分。In 2014, the focus of many cyber attacks was stolen credit cards and financial crime. In the future, the threat will likely escalate to physical damage of technology networks and infrastructure.在2014年,许多网络攻击的目标都是盗窃信用卡,进行金融犯罪。在未来,这种威胁可能会逐步升级为对技术网络和基础设施的物理性破坏。During the 2014 December holiday season, the German government reported a cyber attack that caused “massive damage” to an iron plant. Utilizing a spear phishing attack, hackers disabled the electronic controls that turned off the plant’s furnaces, causing damage to the entire plant.在2014年12月的假日季,德国政府报道了一起导致钢铁厂“严重损毁”的网络攻击事件。黑客利用网络钓鱼攻击,使得负责关闭熔炉的电子控制系统陷于瘫痪,最终造成整个工厂严重受损。What new forms of cyber attacks will 2015 bring? Don’t wait to find out. Start 2015 off right by implementing these resolutions to help protect your company from ever-present cyber threats.2015年将会有什么新型的网络攻击?不要再被动地等待了。即刻实施这些新年决心,保护你的公司在2015年免受无处不在的网络威胁吧。(财富中文网)Peter J. Beshar is Executive Vice President and amp; General Counsel of Marsh amp; McLennan.本文作者彼得oJ.o贝沙尔是Marsh amp; McLennan公司执行副总裁兼法律总顾问。 /201501/354390.0084 per stream. Or to put it another way: one million streams would give a label ,000-,400.面对着越来越多的指责,Spotify的对策是详细说明其补偿艺人的方式。它将自己约70%的收入付给唱片公司,而唱片公司能分到多少,取决于旗下艺人曲目的播放频度。平均而言,每次播放可以带来0.006至0.0084美元的报酬。换句话说,100万次播放可以为唱片公司带来6000至8400美元。But Spotify argues that to concentrate on the “per stream” maths is the wrong way of looking at things. In total, it has paid out bn in royalties to labels including 0m alone last year. It has also persuaded 10 million people to pay 0 a year for music. And it contrasts its fees with others: a “-streaming service” (presumably YouTube) would pay out just ,000 for one million listens while US terrestrial radio would hand over . Spotify has had some success – notable holdouts such as Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd and Metallica have all signed up recently, leaving The Beatles as the main exception. But other bands, such as the Black Keys, refuse to release new music on to Spotify straightaway.但Spotify辩称,专注于每次播放的酬金是错误的解读方式。它总共向唱片公司付了10亿美元的版税,去年一年就付了5亿美元。它还说1000万人每年为听音乐付120美元。这与其他务商的费用形成了对比:某一家“视频流媒体务”(想必是指YouTube)只为每100万次收听付3000美元,而美国的地面无线电台只付41美元。Spotify取得了一些成功——齐柏林飞船(Led Zeppelin)、平克#8226;弗洛伊德(Pink Floyd)和金属乐队(Metallica)等知名的不合作者最近均与它签署了协议,使得主要的“钉子户”只剩下披头士乐队(The Beatles)。但Black Keys等乐队仍拒绝直接在Spotify上发布新曲。Per Herrey has known the heights of pop success, winning the Eurovision Song Contest in 1984 with “Diggi-Loo, Diggi-Ley”. He is now a lawyer for the Swedish musicians’ union and is preparing to sue several record labels over the royalties they pay from Spotify. He says the labels, not Spotify, are the villains. “They have stolen the rights of artists. It is betrayal from the record companies. They have snatched the rights and paid nothing to the artists. It’s ridiculous,” he says.佩尔#8226;赫雷(Per Herrey)经历过流行音乐成功的巅峰,他在1984年凭借一首《Diggi-Loo, Diggi-Ley》赢得欧洲歌唱大赛(Eurovision Song Contest)冠军。他如今是瑞典音乐人联盟的律师,正准备起诉数家唱片公司,称它们拖欠向音乐人付来自Spotify的版税。他表示,Spotify不是坏蛋,唱片公司才是。“它们窃取了艺人的权利。这是唱片公司的背叛。它们拿走了版权,却不分一点给艺人。这很荒唐,”他说。Herrey says the problem is that the artists do not even get the Momo, a location-based social networking app for strangers, ranked No. 1 in terms of yearly revenue on the iOS App Store in China during 2015, according to San Francisco-based app analytics firm App Annie.根据2015年旧金山移动数据分析领航者App Annie介绍,陌陌,一款基于地理位置、为陌生人务的社交网络软件,在2015年中国的iOS应用商店收入排行中排名第一。Momo is followed by Baidu and Tencent in the annual iOS revenue ranking list. App Annie bases the ranking on download revenue from individually downloaded paid apps as well as in-app purchase revenue from both individually downloaded apps and app bundles.在iOS公司收入排行榜中,陌陌所属公司的排名也紧随百度公司和腾讯公司之后。App Annie分析介绍,这个收入排行榜是基于苹果商店的付费应用下载收入及应用内购收入进行统计排名的。The popular app has gained widesp traction through its find-and-flirt capabilities. It also ranks second in the non-game app category in China.陌陌软件因其“随时搭讪”的特性而受到热捧。在中国所有非游戏软件类别中,陌陌的排名也位居第二名。Momo members reached 3.3 million, membership subscription revenues were .0 million in the third quarter of 2015, and mobile marketing revenues .8 million, according to its third-quarter earnings report.根据第三季度收益报表显示,陌陌的用户量高达330万,2015年第三季度会员收入费共计1600万美元,移动营销收入达到了1080万美元。 /201601/424490.006-<牛人_句子>.0084 per stream; instead they get between 6 and 10 per cent of that small sum. The rest goes to the record label in what he calls a hangover of the days when the label had to recoup the costs of distribution and pressing. Now those costs no longer exist, Herrey argues that labels should give artists a similar deal to radio, where royalties are split 50-50.赫雷表示,问题是艺人连每次播放0.006至0.0084美元的酬金都拿不到,只能获得这一小笔钱的6%至10%,其余都被唱片公司收入囊中。赫雷称这种分配方式是旧时代的遗留物——以前,唱片公司要收回发行和压制唱片的成本。如今这些成本已经不复存在,赫雷主张,唱片公司应当像电台那样对待艺人,与他们平分版税。Herrey says artists are afraid of speaking out. “I can’t even begin to tell you how many artists I’ve talked to. They are too scared. Sweden is a small market and they are afraid of burning their bridges. Artists are also extremely sensitive to not show their fans they are interested only in money. The winners therefore are the big companies.” He adds that he believes the major record labels offered their back catalogue to Spotify at a reduced rate in return for their shareholdings in the company. Spotify refuses to say how much the labels own but people close to the company say it is less than the 17 per cent or so they were reported to have five years ago.赫雷称,艺人不敢大声抗议。“我都没法跟你说我同多少艺人谈过。他们太害怕了。瑞典市场小,他们不敢断了自己的后路。艺人也极为敏感,不想向歌迷们表现出自己只对钱感兴趣。结果,大公司成了赢家。”他补充称,据他所知,大型唱片公司以折价向Spotify提供旧曲目,以换取Spotify的股份。Spotify拒绝公布唱片公司持有的股份,但接近该公司的人表示,这部分持股不到五年前报道的17%上下。What is certain is that Spotify is changing the economics of music. Ludvig Werner, the head in Sweden of IFPI, an organisation representing the record industry globally, says: “The music industry has never been so different from one country to another. For instance, 10,000 CD sales in Poland can make more money than being number one in Sweden.” He adds: “Under the old business model, you pre-paid for eternal listening. The downside was if you didn’t like it, if you damaged it. For 90 years, we didn’t know as a business how you listened to a song: was it 10 times or 10,000?”可以肯定的是,Spotify正在改变音乐的商业模式。国际唱片业协会(IFPI)是代表全球唱片行业的机构,其瑞典分会主席路德维希#8226;维尔纳(Ludwig Werner)表示:“各国音乐行业从未有过如此大的差异。例如在波兰卖出1万张CD,可能比瑞典的排行榜第一名赚得还多。”他补充道:“在旧有的商业模式下,你预付一笔钱,获得永久的收听权。坏处是你可能不喜欢,你可能把CD损坏。在整整90年期间,音乐行业不知道你怎么听某一首歌:听了10次还是1万次?”Per Sundin now has the answer in his hands. He flips open his MacBook Air and logs on to a website, Spotify Analytics. Within seconds, he has dialled up information on Avicii. The 24-year-old DJ has been played 129,694,407 times in the past 59 days. That works out at 2.2 million streams a day by 1.16 million different listeners. Sundin calls up some more statistics. A fifth of Avicii’s listeners were in the US, with 17 per cent in Sweden. Males accounted for 60 per cent and Sundin can also see a breakdown by age. “When I wake up every morning I log into this and see what happened yesterday. This is addictive. And this is money,” he says.如今,佩尔#8226;松丁随时能够掌握。他麻利地打开自己的MacBook Air,登录一个名叫Spotify Analytics的网站。区区数秒间,他便已经查到关于艾维奇的信息。这位24岁DJ的曲目在过去59天内被播放129,694,407次,日均播放220万次,听众数量达到116万。松丁调出一些更具体的数据。艾维奇五分之一的听众位于美国,17%的听众位于瑞典。男性占60%。松丁还能看到用户的年龄构成。“我每天早晨醒来都会登录这个网站,看看昨天发生了什么。这让人上瘾,这也是实实在在的业务。”The power of the data has other effects as well. “The industry gets excited when you talk to them about this. We have an incredible amount of data about what is being played by whom and when,” says Spotify’s Jonathan Forster. Artists can plan tours by targeting cities where they have fans or see where they need to boost marketing. The company is aly adding other services such as allowing artists to sell merchandise or concert tickets via Spotify or even send an email when a new song is out.数据的力量还有其他影响。“跟行业人士谈到这些数据时,他们就会兴奋起来。我们拥有令人难以置信的海量数据,能够展示谁在何时收听了什么曲目,”Spotify的乔纳森#8226;福斯特表示。艺人在策划巡演时可以选择那些他们拥有大量歌迷的城市,他们也可以看出自己在哪些市场需要加强市场宣传。Spotify已经加入了其他务,如允许艺人通过Spotify出售商品或演唱会门票,甚至是在新歌发布时发送一封邮件。. . .. . .The company that is supposedly the future of the music industry is housed in a nondescript tower block north of Stockholm’s city centre. Get past Spotify’s reception and the offices finally begin to look like a typical start-up. Fridges stocked high with soft drinks, milk and even beer are dotted around, as are big comfortable chairs.这家被视为音乐产业未来的公司,坐落于斯德哥尔市中心以北一座不起眼的高楼里。走过Spotify的前台,办公室终于开始有了典型创业公司的模样。散布各处的冰箱堆满了软饮料、牛奶乃至啤酒,舒适的大椅子随处可见。 /201412/348076<牛人_句子>

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