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贵阳天伦不孕不育售后电话爱卫生

2018年05月22日 04:43:48 | 作者:医苑常识 | 来源:新华社
Da Yan Calendar《大衍历》D a Yan Cdlenddr was drafted by Zhang Sui ( 683一727,also named Seng Yixing)in 727,and was later sorted out by Zhang Shuo(667一730) and Chen Xuanjing.《大衍历》,公元727年唐朝天文学家张遂(683一727,又名僧一行)修订,后经张说(667一730)和陈玄景整理成文。The calendar consists of seven parts that elaborate on a variety of computa-Lion. There are another 12 articles dealing with some theoretical issues,mainly the articles Zhang Sui wrote in the calendar.《大衍历》分七章,详细介绍了各种计算方法。此外,张遂还在《大衍历》中写了12篇相关理论问题的文章。At the beginning of calendar making,in order to measure the position of stars in their orbits and get the law of movement, Zhang,in cooperation with his colleagues,made the bronze armillary sphere and ecliptic sphere,with which they gath-erect lots of astronomic data through practical ob-nervation,and carried out effective astronomic re-search. For instance,they remeasured the post-tion of over 150 stars and the degree between the 28 constellations and the celestial North Pole,hence concluding the stars were always in mo-tion. Based on this fad,Zhang inferred other stars on the celestial bodies were also movable,over-throwing the conclusion reached by his predeces-sors.Halley(1656一1742),a British astronomer also Put foward a similar view-Point,but was over a thousand years later.在《大衍历》修订初期,为了测量日、月、星辰在其轨道上的位置和掌握其运动规律,张遂等人制造了观测天象的“浑天铜仪”和“黄道游仪”。借助天文仪,通过实际观测,他们搜集了许多天文数据,有效地进行了对天文学的研究。例如,通过重新测定150多颗恒星的位置,多次测定二十八星宿距天体北极的度数,发现恒星是运动的。根据这个事实,张遂推断出天体上的恒星肯定也是移动的,于是推翻了前人的恒星不运动的结论。英国天文学家哈雷(1656 } 1742)也提出了恒星自己移动的观点,但比张遂的发现晚1000多年。In revising the calendar, Zhang attached huge importance to practice. Togeth-er with Nan Gongshuo,he used a post to measure the shadow cast by the sun,and calculated the relations between the sun’s positions and the solar terms. Be-sides,Zhang also designed an astronomic instrument called Fujuyi for measuring the altitude of the North Pole in different places throughout the country.在历法修订过程中,张遂非常重视实践。张遂和南宫说等人一起,用标竿测量日影,推算出太阳位置与节气的关系。张遂设计制造了“复矩仪”,用于测量全国各地北极的高度。Between 724一725,Zhang led a large-scale project to identify the astro-geo-detic measurement of 13 places and,based on the results,concluded that the length of a degree of the meridian line was 351.27 li(131.3 kilometers)by the Tang measurement. This was the first measurement of the meridian ever done in the world.公元724-725年,张遂组织了全国13个点的天文大地测量。从测量数据中,张遂得出了北极高度相差一度,南北距离就相差351里80步(合现代131. 3千米)的结论。这个数据就是地球子午线一度的弧长。唐朝测出子午线的长度,在当时的世界上还是第一次。Beginning in 725,Zhang set out to revise the calendar, and finished the draft namely the Da Yan Calendar,before his death in 727. The new calendar was im-plemented in 728.公元725年,张遂开始编订历法,至逝世前完成《大衍历》草稿。公元728年《大衍历》颁行。An innovative calendar in Chinese history,Da Yan Calendar inherited the strong points of calendars of the previous dynasties,while making improvement on the shortcomings and defects,making a significant breakthrough in the calendar-making field. The calendar provided a deep insight into the asymmetrical move-ment of the sun and the moon. The most prominent point about it lies in the correct calculation with a new formula of the speed of the sun’s movement along the eclip-tic.《大衍历》是一部具有创新精神的历法,它继承了前朝历法的优点和长处,对不足之处和缺点作了修正,因此,在历法制定领域取得了重要突破。《大衍历》对太阳和月亮的不均匀运动有很深见解,最突出的表现在,它运用新的公式比较正确地计算出太阳在黄道上运行的速度。Well organized and logically deducted,Da Yan Calendar was more precise than its predecessors,and it served as a benchmark for calendar makers for many dynasties afterwards.《大衍历》结构合理、逻辑严密,比以往各朝代历法更精确,成为后世历法编制的经典模式。Da Yan Calendar was a leading calendar in the world at that time. In 717,Ja-pan sent Kibi Makibi to China to study astronomy,and when he went back to Ja-pan in 735,he brought with himself manuscripts of Da Yan Calendar,and the cal-endar was sp to Japan and used there for over a hundred years.《大衍历》是当时世界上先进的历法。公元717年,日本派吉备真备来中国学习天文学,735年,吉备真备回国时带走了《大衍历》。于是《大衍历》便在日本广泛流传起来,作为历法使用了100多年。 /201511/409378Potala Palace布达拉宫Potala Palace, situated on the Hongshan Hill in Lhasa, means ;the Sacred Palace of Buddhism; in Sanskrit. It was built in the 7th century by King Songtsan Gambo for his bride, the Princess Wencheng of the Han nationality, and was enlarged and renovated to the present scale by the successive Dalais. The 13-story palace, 117 meters high, 360 meters from east to west and 130,000 square meters in area, was constructed completely by stone and wood. It includes temple, seminary chanting hall, dormitory, mourning hall, yard and so on. The eight mourning halls house the stupas of several Dalai Lamas, which are covered with gold leaf and studded with jewels. Enormous precious historical relics and frescos on various themes are kept in the building. Potala Palace was the winter residence of Dalai Lamas. The imposing grand building was constructed on the slope of the hill, which demonstrates the characteristics of Tibetan archietcure and a combined style of Tibetan and Han cultures.布达拉官位于拉萨市的玛布日山上。布达拉,梵语意为“佛教圣地”。始建于公元7世纪,为吐蕃赞普松赞干布迎娶文成公主而建。后经历世达赖的扩建和修筑,形成今日规模。布达拉宫主体楼房13层,高117米,东西长360米。建筑面积13万平方米、全部为石木结构。内有宫殿、佛堂、习经室、寝官、灵堂殿、庭院等。有历代达赖喇嘛灵堂八座,塔身以金皮包裹,宝玉镶嵌,辉煌壮观。各殿墙壁绘有题材丰富的壁画,宫内还存有大量珍贵文物。布达拉官为历代达赖喇嘛的冬官。全部建筑依山势垒砌,体现了藏式建筑的特色和汉藏文化融合的风格。 /201601/419358LONDON — One arm of the European Union is looking into whether Facebook and other tech companies unfairly favor their own services over those of rivals. At least five data protection watchdogs across the region are questioning Facebook’s privacy settings.伦敦——欧盟的一个分机构正在对Facebook等科技公司进行调查,看它们是否让旗下的务获得了相对于竞争对手的不正当优势。该地区有至少五家数据保护监管机构正在对Facebook的隐私条款提出质疑。And in a case that could have broad implications for many tech companies, the region’s top court will issue a preliminary decision next month on whether Facebook can continue transferring user data between Europe and the ed States.这个案子可能对许多科技公司产生广泛影响。欧盟的最高法院将于下个月公布关于Facebook能否继续在欧洲和美国之间传输用户数据的初步裁决。Move over, Google. Facebook is the latest American tech giant that Europeans love to hate.靠边站吧,谷歌(Google)。Facebook才是欧洲向美国科技巨头发难的最新目标。For decades, European policy makers have taken aim at America’s giant tech businesses, trying to force them to play by European rules. In the past, Microsoft and Intel were found guilty of abusing their dominant positions to shut out rivals. Google has most recently been under the microscope, and it now faces accusations that it unfairly promoted some of its search products over those of competitors.数十年来,欧洲的决策者一直把矛头指向美国的大型科技公司,试图强迫他们按照欧洲的规则行事。过去,微软(Microsoft)和英特尔(Intel)曾被判定利用自身的垄断地位打压对手。到了近期,是谷歌在接受严格的审查,眼下还面临着以不正当手段盖过对手来推广自己的搜索产品的指责。In recent months, though, regulators’ gazes have turned to Facebook, raising questions about whether the social network has learned from the past mistakes of companies like Intel, Microsoft and Google when dealing with Europe’s policy makers and its legal system. And as Facebook runs into an increasing number of regulatory hurdles here, the scrutiny could potentially distract the company from its ambitions of becoming a one-stop shop for Internet messaging, online publishing and digital advertising.然而最近几个月,监管机构把视线转向了Facebook,对这家社交网络提出了质疑:在面对欧洲的决策部门和法律体系时,它是否从英特尔、微软和谷歌等公司过去的错误中吸取了教训?随着Facebook在欧洲遭遇越来越多来自监管方面的障碍,这些严密审视可能会分散公司对提供包括网络即时通讯、在线出版和数字广告在内的一站式务的注意力。“Platforms like Facebook have grown quickly to become global forces,” said Serafino Abate, a director at the Center on Regulation in Europe, a research organization in Brussels. “But with that size comes responsibility.”“Facebook这样的平台已经迅速成长为全球性力量,”布鲁塞尔研究机构欧洲监管中心(Center on Regulation in Europe)的一名主管塞诺·阿巴特(Serafino Abate)说。“但是规模越大,责任也越大。”The scrutiny is mounting as the company’s messaging and digital advertising services sp globally. More than 1.4 billion people now use Facebook, and hundreds of millions of people also rely on the company’s mobile messaging services, WhatsApp and Facebook Messenger, and its photo-sharing service, Instagram.Facebook的即时通讯和数字广告务在全球范围扩张的同时,它遭遇的监管也在不断加强。目前有超过14亿人使用Facebook,还有数亿人使用这家公司的移动即时通讯务WhatsApp和Facebook Messenger,以及照片分享务Instagram。Facebook’s core business, its social networking service, is especially popular in Europe. The company has almost doubled its number of European users to the service, to around 260 million, since 2010. Facebook also has more users in Europe than in the ed States, according to eMarketer, a research company.Facebook的核心业务——社交网络务——在欧洲尤其受欢迎。自2010年以来,该公司在欧洲的用户人数几乎翻了一番,达到2.6亿左右。根据调研公司eMarketer的数据,Facebook在欧洲的用户人数要多于美国。Regulators in Europe, however, are especially focused on how the company collects and handles those users’ data. The region has some of the world’s toughest data protection rules, and policy makers from France, Germany and Belgium are investigating whether Facebook broke Europe’s laws after the company announced a new privacy policy this year.然而,欧洲的监管机构主要关注的是这家公司搜集和处理用户数据的方式。该地区拥有世界上最严苛的一些数据保护规定。在Facebook今年宣布了一项新的隐私政策之后,法国、德国和比利时的决策机构正在调查它是否违反了欧洲的法律。If found to have breached the privacy rules, Facebook may face fines or demands that it change how the company handles people’s data, though the company says it complies with the region’s data protection laws.如果被认定违反了隐私方面的规定,Facebook可能面临罚款,或是接到更改公司处理用户数据的方式的指令。不过公司表示,自己遵守了欧盟的数据保护规定。“Obviously, there are privacy issues,” said Mathias Moulin, deputy director of enforcement at the French data protection regulator, who is overseeing the watchdog’s review of the company’s activities and who will meet other regulators at the end of May to discuss the investigations. “This is a global company. Facebook affects millions of people across Europe.”“显然,Facebook存在隐私方面的问题,”法国数据保护监管机构的执法副主任马蒂亚斯·穆兰(Mathias Moulin)说。他正在负责这家机构对Facebook行为的审核,并将在5月底与其他监管机构的人员见面,讨论调查结果。“这是一家全球性的公司。Facebook影响着欧洲的上亿人。”Taking a page from the playbooks of other American tech companies, Facebook has not stood idle as regulators steadily lined up against it.在监管机构纷纷发难之际,Facebook并未坐以待毙,而是借鉴了其他美国科技公司的经验。The company has hired a number of prominent former lawmakers and regulators, including Erika Mann, a former German member of the European Parliament. This month, the company also chose Kevin Martin, a former chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, to champion its cause in Washington, Brussels and beyond.Facebook聘请了多位重量级的前任议员和监管者,包括曾在欧洲议会代表德国的议员埃丽卡·曼(Erika Mann)。本月,Facebook还挑选了美国联邦通讯委员会(Federal Communications Commission)前主席凯文·马丁(Kevin Martin)来为公司在华盛顿和布鲁塞尔等地方游说。To get a sense of the European backlash against Facebook, you do not have to look much further than the experiences of Max Schrems, an Austrian law student who has led a vocal opposition to how the company collects and uses people’s data from around the world.要想了解欧洲对Facebook的强烈不满,看看马克斯·施雷姆斯(Max Schrems)的经历就够了。施雷姆斯是奥地利的一名法学系学生,一直带头反对这家公司搜集和使用全世界用户数据的做法。Mr. Schrems, 27, recently said his concern about online data traces back at least to 2011 and a college class in California. In the class, he said, employees of several West Coast tech companies expressed open disdain for Europe’s tough data protection rules, which enshrine a person’s right to privacy as a fundamental human right.27岁的施雷姆斯最近表示,他对网络数据的担忧至少要追溯到2011年,在加州的一个大学课堂上。他说,在那门课上,几家美国西海岸科技公司的雇员公开嘲笑了欧洲严苛的数据保护规定。这些规定郑重其事地表示,隐私权是一项基本人权。After returning to Europe, he began a lengthy campaign against the type of data that Facebook collected on its users, including information on their physical locations.回到欧洲之后,他开始了一项长期活动,抗议Facebook搜集某些类型的数据,比如地理位置信息。To rein in the company’s efforts, Mr. Schrems filed multiple complaints with the Irish data protection watchdog, which is responsible for policing Facebook’s activities in its international headquarters in Dublin. That led to a three-month audit of how Facebook collected data, and changes to the way the company obtained and used people’s online information.为了限制Facebook的做法,施雷姆斯多次向爱尔兰的数据保护监管机构投诉。后者负责监管Facebook设在都柏林的国际总部的活动。这引发了对Facebook数据搜集方式的长达三个月的审核,并且迫使Facebook改变了一些获取和使用用户网上信息的操作。Unhappy with how Ireland’s regulator managed his case, Mr. Schrems intensified his campaign.施雷姆斯对爱尔兰监管机构处理该案的手法并不满意,此后加大了自身行动的力度。He appealed to the country’s highest court, which referred the case to the European Court of Justice, the region’s top court. A preliminary decision is expected by the end of June on whether Facebook and other companies can continue transferring data between Europe and the ed States.他向爱尔兰的最高法院提出了上诉,后者将案子转交给了欧盟地区的最高法院——欧洲法院(European Court of Justice)。该院关于Facebook等公司能否继续在欧洲和美国之间传输用户数据的最初裁决,预计将于6月底做出。Many American tech giants rely on moving online information between the regions to feed their business models, like personalized digital advertising. If the European court rules in favor of Mr. Schrems, those practices could be drastically curtailed.许多美国科技巨头依靠在不同地区之间传输网络信息来撑其商业模式,比如个性化的数字广告业务。如果欧洲法院的裁决持施雷姆斯,那么这些操作或将大大受限。Mr. Schrems also filed a separate Austrian class-action lawsuit against Facebook after collecting more than 75,000 online signatures. He said that the company had violated Europe’s privacy rules — accusations Facebook strongly denies — and that his side could receive up to million if he wins the case. A decision is not expected until at least early 2016.在征集了逾7.5万个网上签名之后,施雷姆斯还在奥地利发起了另一桩集体诉讼。他说,这家公司违反了欧洲的隐私规定——Facebook强烈否认这些指控——如果胜诉,他这一方可以获得至多1400万美元的赔偿。此案至少要等到2016年初才会有裁决。“This is about limiting what Facebook can do with Europeans’ data,” said Mr. Schrems, who remains active on the service despite his legal disputes. “How much should they be allowed to dig into the souls of their users? That’s what we’re fighting for.”“这是为了限制Facebook可以对欧洲用户的数据进行的操作,”施雷姆斯说。尽管与Facebook存在法律纠纷,他仍然是该网站的活跃用户。“应该允许他们在多大程度上挖掘用户的灵魂?这就是我们在努力抗争的问题。”Big European companies are also pushing for stronger oversight of Facebook, including the region’s well-connected telecom industry.欧洲的大型企业也要求对Facebook实行更加严格的监督。这其中包括在该地区颇具影响力的电信行业。After Facebook bought WhatsApp, the Internet messaging service, last year for billion, many of Europe’s cellphone carriers lobbied hard for the region’s antitrust regulators to review the deal. Carriers say that by combining WhatsApp with Facebook’s own messaging service, the company has a virtual monopoly over how people send messages on their smartphones.在Facebook去年以190亿美元收购了网络即时通讯工具WhatsApp之后,许多欧洲的手机运营商进行了大力游说,要求欧盟的反垄断机构对这笔交易进行审核。这些运营商们提出,把WhatsApp与Facebook自身的即时通讯务合起来考虑之后,Facebook基本垄断了用智能手机发送即时讯息的业务。Europe’s antitrust authorities, however, eventually approved the takeover, and Facebook contends there are other Internet messaging services that compete with its offerings.然而,欧洲的反垄断部门最终还是批准了这笔交易。Facebook也坚称,还有其他一些互联网即时通讯务在与自己竞争。Yet lawmakers are now looking into whether Facebook’s messaging services should be regulated like those offered by traditional carriers. And industry executives say that as the social network starts to offer other services like phone calls through the company’s many smartphone applications, Facebook should play by the same rules that now apply to traditional mobile operators.然而,欧洲的议员们目前正在研究Facebook的即时通讯务是否应该受到与传统运营商同样的监管。通讯行业的高管称,由于Facebook已经开始通过自身的许多智能手机应用来提供手机通话等务,这家社交网络公司也应该遵守适用于传统移动运营商的规定。“We can’t forever be living in a world where we compete with one arm tied behind our backs and they don’t,” Pierre Louette, deputy chief executive at Orange, the former French telecom monopoly, said in reference to Facebook. “Our two worlds are colliding. Now that the worlds have met, we’re all competing for people’s attention.”“在竞争中我们的一只手被绑在身后,而他们却不受束缚。我们不能永远生活在这样的世界里,”曾垄断了法国电信行业的Orange公司的副执行官皮埃尔·卢埃特(Pierre Louette)提到Facebook时说。“我们的两个世界正在发生碰撞。既然世界已经相遇,那我们就都在争夺人们的关注。” /201505/377715

Development of Pottery陶器的发展The existence of pottery was a hallmark of the Neolithic Age in primitive society.陶器的发明是原始社会新石器时代的一个重要标志。Pottery shards of more than i0000 years ago were discovered in the Fairy Cave site in Lishui County of East China’s Jiangsu Province, and shards of sandy red pot-tery dating back 10000 years ago were found in the Nanzhuang Culture site in Xushui County of North China’s Hebei Province.我国已发现距今约10000年新石器时代早期的残陶片。河北徐水县南庄头遗址发现的陶器碎片经鉴定为10800~ 9700年的遗物。The site of the Peiligang CultLrre in Xinzheng of Central China’s Henan Province and the site of the Cishan Culture in Wu’an of Hebei Province are early Neolithic sites found in northern China, dating as far back as 7900 years ago. They wereearlier than Yangshao Culture, and potteries of that period were mostly plain color without decorative designs.河北武安发现的磁山文化和河南新郑发现的裴李岗文化,是黄河中游地区新石器时代的代表,距今7900年以上。它们早于仰韶文化,该文化的陶器以素面无文者居多。The site of the Hemudu Culture in Yuyao County of East China’s Zhejiang Prov-ince is another early Neolithic site that flourished 7000 years ago. Grey pottery, red pottery, charcoal-mixed black pottery, and even an occasional piece of painted pottery were found at all these ancient sites.浙江余姚河姆渡发现的河姆渡文化距今7000年左右,在该文化遗址也出土了大量的陶器。河姆渡文化的陶器为黑陶,造型简单,早期盛行刻画花纹。The site of the Yangshao Culture at Yangshao Village in Mianchi County of Henan Province, and at Banpo Village in Xi’an of North China’s Shaanxi Province,inhabited by people who lived in prosperity in a matriarchal clan society, are more than 6000 years old. Large quantities of fine painted pottery were aly made at that time.在河南渑池仰韶村的新石器时代遗址,和陕西省西安市郊的半坡遗址都发现了大量做工精美,设计精巧的陶。这两个新石器时代遗址都属于母系社会遗址,有6000年以上的历史。With the development of the society, the quality of pottery steadily improved.By the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, a clear-cut division of labor had aly ap-peared among potters. Elegant designs and pictures of flowers and birds were carved on pottery ware during the Warring States Period.Potters in this period intro-duced lead glaze, which made the surface of pottery smooth and fine and added luster to the vessels.随着社会的不断进步,陶器的质量也逐步提高。到了商代和周代,已经出现了专门从事陶器生产的工种。在战国时期,陶器上已经出现了各种优雅的纹饰和花鸟。这时的陶器也开始应用铅釉,使得陶器的表面更为光滑,也有了一定的色泽。In the Western Han Dynasty the art of glazing pottery became widesp.Multi-colored glaze was also introduced in the Han Dynasty. The renowned Tang Dynasty tri-color pottery with lead glaze was the invention of potters who introduced white, yellow, blue, green, brown, and purple glazes and skillfully applied them in combination. The appearance of Tang tri-color glazed pottery marked the entry of pottery art into an era of greater variety and color.到了西汉时期,上釉陶器工艺开始广泛流传起来。多种色的釉料也在汉代开始出现。有一种盛行于唐代的陶器,以黄、褐、绿为基本釉色,后来人们习惯地把这类陶器称为“唐三”。唐三是一神低温釉陶器,在色釉中加入不同的金属氧化物,经过焙烧,便形成浅黄、赭黄、浅绿、深绿、天蓝、褐红、茄紫等多种色,但多以黄、褐、绿三色为主。唐三的出现标志着陶器的种类和色已经开始更加丰富多。 /201512/410746

AS much as we love our digital devices, many of us have an uneasy sense that they are destroying our attention spans. We skitter from app to app, seldom alighting for long. Our ability to concentrate is shot, right?我们喜爱我们的数码设备,但与此同时,很多人也对此感到不安,觉得它们破坏了我们注意力的持续度。我们在各种应用中切换,很少在其中一个上做长时间停留。我们全神贯注的能力遭到了削弱,是吧?Research shows that our intuition is wrong. We can focus. But our sense that we can’t may not be a phantom. Paying attention requires not just ability but desire. Technology may snuff out our desire to focus.研究表明,这种想当然的看法并不正确。我们是可以集中注意力的。但我们觉得自己丧失了这个能力也是有原因的。因为这不仅需要能力,也需要意愿。而科技产品可能扼杀了我们全神贯注的意愿。The idea that gadgets corrode our attention span sounds logical. Screen-based activities can take upward of 11 hours of a teenager’s day, and many demand rapid shifts of attention: quick camera cuts in s, frenetically paced games, answering questions in multiple apps, not to mention web design that invites skimming. And we often do all this simultaneously, so attention bounces between two (or three or eight) fast-paced tasks. The theory is that the brain’s plasticity turns this quick mental pivoting into a habit, rendering us unable to sustain attention.数码设备削弱了我们的注意力,这个想法似乎很合逻辑。青少年每天在屏幕上进行的活动时间可以长达11小时,很多设备需要你快速转换注意力:视频中的快速剪接镜头,节奏紧张的游戏,在多个应用中回答问题,更不用说鼓励你一览而过的网页设计了。我们经常同时做这些事情,因为我们的注意力也在两个(或三个,或八个)快节奏的任务之间来回切换。有人认为,大脑具有可塑性,因此快速切换的做法逐渐养成了习惯,导致我们无法持续集中注意力。But there’s little evidence that attention spans are shrinking. Scientists use “span” to mean two separate things: how much we can keep in mind, and how well we can maintain focus. They measure the former by asking people to repeat increasingly long strings of digits in reverse order. They measure the latter by asking people to monitor visual stimuli for occasional, subtle changes. Performance on these tests today looks a whole lot as it did 50 years ago.但几乎没有据表明,人们注意力的持续度正在缩短。科学家用“持续度”来表示两种不同的东西:我们一次可以记住多少东西,以及我们可以全神贯注的程度。他们测量前者的方式是让人以相反的顺序复述越来越长的数字串。衡量后者时则要求人监测视觉刺激,注意到偶然发生的微妙变化。这些测试的结果似乎和50年前相差无几。Scientists also note that although mental tasks can change our brains, the impact is usually modest. For example, practice with action games improves some aspects of vision, but it’s a small boost, not an overhaul of how we see. Attention is so central to our ability to think that a significant deterioration would require a retrofitting of other cognitive functions. Mental reorganization at that scale happens over evolutionary time, not because you got a smartphone.科学家还指出,虽然心智任务可以改变我们的大脑,但其影响通常不大。例如,对于我们如何看东西,动作类改善了其中的某些方面,但幅度很小,并不显著。注意力是我们思考能力的核心,以至于只有加上其他认知功能的变化才会导致它出现显著恶化。这种程度的心智重组属于进化范畴,不是弄到一部智能手机就会发生的。But if our attention span is not shrinking, why do we feel it is? Why, in a 2012 Pew survey, did nearly 90 percent of teachers claim that students can’t pay attention the way they could a few years ago? It may be that digital devices have not left us unable to pay attention, but have made us unwilling to do so.但是,如果我们的注意力持续度没有缩减,为什么我们会有这种感觉呢?为什么皮尤(Pew)2012年的一项调查显示,将近90%的教师说学生们不像几年前那样注意力集中了?这可能是因为数码设备虽然没有让我们削弱集中注意力的能力,但却让我们失去了这样做的意愿。The digital world carries the promise of amusement that is constant, immediate and limitless. If a YouTube isn’t funny in the first 10 seconds, why watch when I can instantly seek something better on BuzzFeed or Spotify? The Internet hasn’t shortened my attention span, but it has fixed a persistent thought in the back of my mind: Isn’t there’s something better to do than what I’m doing?数码世界提供了源源不断、即时、无限的活动。如果YouTube上一段视频的前10秒没意思,那为何还要看它,反正我可以马上到BuzzFeed或Spotify找到更好的东西?互联网没有缩减我的注意力持续度,但它改变了我脑海中一个长期以来的想法:是不是有什么东西比我现在手上的更好?Are we more easily bored than we were 20 years ago? Researchers don’t know, but recent studies support the suggestion that our antennas are always up. People’s performance on basic laboratory tests of attention gets worse if a cellphone is merely visible nearby. In another experiment, people using a driving simulator were more likely to hit a pedestrian when their cellphone rang, even if they had planned in advance not to answer it.与20年前相比,我们现在更容易厌倦了吗?研究人员没有,但最近的研究持了一个说法:我们的天线一直是开着的。在基本的实验室测试中,仅仅是有一部手机在视线范围之内,人们的注意力表现就会变差。在另一个实验中,如果手机在响,即使驾驶模拟器的人决定不去理睬它,也更有可能撞上行人。The direst prediction offered by digital critics — our phones are really pocket-size deep fryers for the mind — may be untrue, but the alternative I’ve suggested sounds nearly as bad. The appetite for endless entertainment suggests that worthier activities will be shoved aside. We may buy Salman Rushdie’s book, but we’ll end up sucked in by Flappy Bird.数码批评家做出了可怕的预测——手机就是一口袖珍的心智油炸锅。事实可能并非这样,但我的说法似乎也暗示着同样糟糕的事情:对的无限热衷,似乎意味着更有价值的活动将被抛到一边。我们可能会购买萨尔曼·拉什迪(Salman Rushdie)的书,结果却沉迷于玩《像素鸟》(Flappy Bird)游戏。That doesn’t quite seem to be the case, either. Research shows, for example, that the amount of leisure ing hasn’t changed with the advent of the digital age. Before we congratulate ourselves, though, let’s acknowledge that brainier hobbies have never been that popular. There have always been ways to kill time.情况好像也不是这样。例如,研究表明,休闲书刊阅读量似乎并没有随着数字时代的来临而改变。在祝贺自己之前,我们不妨先承认,更高雅的爱好从来都没有那么流行。打发时间的方式一直都不缺乏。Still, digital activities may be different. Over the last decade, neuroscientists distinguished two systems of attention and associated thought. One is directed outward, as when you scroll through your email or play Candy Crush. The other is directed inward, as when you daydream, plan what you’ll do tomorrow, or reflect on the past. Clearly, most digital activities call for outwardly directed attention. These two modes of attention work like a toggle switch; when one is on, the other is off. In fact, when attention is outwardly directed, the inwardly directed attention system is somewhat suppressed. Given the amount of time people spend with digital devices, that sounds ominous.但是,数字活动可能还是有所不同。过去十年来,神经学家总结出两种有关注意力和思考的系统。一种是外指向的,出现在你浏览电子邮件,或玩《糖果粉碎传奇》(Candy Crush)的时候。另一种是内指向的,出现在你发呆,计划明天会做什么,或反思过去的时候。显然,大多数数字活动引发的都是外指向的注意力。这两种模式就像按动开关;当其中一种打开,另一种就关闭了。事实上,当注意力切换到外指向系统时,内指向的系统就遭到了抑制。鉴于我们在数码设备上花的时间如此之多,这听起来有些不妙。Will we actually lose our ability to daydream? Let’s hope not. Among daydreaming’s many merits, research shows, is an association with greater creativity. But there is a dark side of inwardly directed thought, too. Daydreaming often distracts us when we’re trying to get something done. And reflection can turn ugly, as when we ruminate about some past insult or error.我们真的会失去发呆的能力?希望不会吧。研究显示,发呆有诸多优点,其中一个和创造力提升很有关系。但是内指向活动也有缺点。比如我们想把事情做好的时候,发呆可能会让我们分心。当我们纠结于过去的一些侮辱或错误时,反思可能并非好事。Digital devices are not eating away at our brains. They are, however, luring us toward near constant outwardly directed thought, a situation that’s probably unique in human experience. A flat cap on time with devices — the restriction we first think of for ourselves and our kids — might help. So would parking devices in another room for a while. But it would be more effective if we could learn to recognize in ourselves when escape from our thoughts is O.K. and when reflection is in order. As a bonus, judgments like that require inwardly directed attention, a mental habit that in our smartphone era, we’d be dumb to lose.数码设备不会蚕食我们的大脑。然而,它们引诱我们几乎总是采取外指向思维,在人类经验中,这种情况可能是是独一无二的。为设备使用时间设定上限——我们首先为自己和孩子想到的限制——可能会有帮助。放下设备,到另一个房间呆一段时间也会很有用。但是,如果我们可以自己意识到,什么时候应当从思绪中抽离,什么时候应该进行反思,效果就会更好。这样的判断需要内指向的注意力,这是一个额外优点。在目前这个智能手机的时代,放弃这种心智习惯就太不明智了。 /201501/356554

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