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2018年04月26日 06:10:00 | 作者:驱动联播 | 来源:新华社
LOS, NIGERIA — People avoid shaking hands here these days. The government is urging us not to. This is a serious matter in a country where a casual “hello” is downright rude and everyday greetings involve elaborate rituals based upon age, rank and even the state of the weather and the day of the week. Until about a month ago, it was by no means unusual for two friends, male as well as female, to remain hand-in-hand long after the protocol of the greeting was complete. Now not so. The Ebola scare has introduced a new awkwardness in social relations.尼日利亚拉各斯——这里的人现在都会避免握手。政府正在呼吁我们不要握手。这是一个很严重的问题,因为在尼日利亚,随口说声“你好”绝对是种粗鲁之举,这里的日常问候是一种复杂的礼仪,根据年龄、等级、乃至天气状况如何和当天是星期几而变化。直到大约一个月前,两个朋友,无论男女,在问候礼仪完成后很久仍然手握着手的情况绝不少见。但现在不同了。埃拉疫情造成的恐慌,已经给社会关系制造了一个新的尴尬。I first heard about the government’s call to avoid shaking hands from a priest at Mass three Sundays ago. It was not long after the Ebola virus had landed at the Lagos airport on July 20 in the person of Patrick Sawyer, a Liberian national and naturalized American citizen who had fled the Liberian capital Monrovia in hope of better treatment in Nigeria. He died five days later, by which time others had been infected, whereupon the Lagos state government, in collaboration with federal authorities, was quick to promulgate the message: Avoid physical contact, wash your hands frequently, and leave it to professionals to handle the dead.我第一次听到政府避免握手的号召,是三周前的周日弥撒上由一位牧师传达的。当时埃拉病毒抵达尼日利亚还没有多久:利比里亚裔美国公民帕特里克·索耶(Patrick Sawyer)感染后,逃离了利比里亚首都蒙罗维亚,希望在尼日利亚获得更好的治疗,他于7月20日抵达拉各斯机场。五天以后,他过世了,但那个时候其他人已经被他感染,于是拉各斯州政府与联邦当局合作,很快就发布了预防埃拉的消息:避免身体接触,经常洗手,亡者留给专业人士来处理。While the country’s myriad radio stations broadcast the warnings, the authorities also asked churches and mosques to sp the word. (Most Nigerians are profoundly religious, and even many nonbelievers attend services, compelled as often as not by neighborly tradition rather than pietistic pressure.)尼日利亚众多电台播放了这些警告,当局还要求教堂和清真寺传达这个消息。(大多数尼日利亚人都笃信宗教,甚至还有很多非信徒参加礼拜,这通常是街坊传统使然,而非虔诚信仰的压力。)Working from the airline passenger list and hospital patient information, the authorities were quickly able to develop a comprehensive list of those who came into contact with Mr. Sawyer, and sent medical workers to locate those who might have been exposed to the virus. Some 200 people were put under observation until the 21-day incubation period had passed.当局根据航空公司的乘客名单和医院的病人信息,很快就列出了一份完整清单,内含所有与索耶接触过的人。而且当局还派出医疗人员,寻找那些可能已经接触到病毒的人。大约有200人接受观察,直到21天的潜伏期完全结束。The authorities wanted to avoid the panic and mayhem that occurred in Liberia, and I have to say (though I usually find very little to praise in any government in Nigeria) that the speed and efficiency with which the Lagos State authorities reacted was exemplary. It seems as if the virus has been contained in this city of 20 million people. Agence France-Presse reported this week that 320 people suspected of exposure to the virus have been certified clear and released, and that another 41 remained under surveillance.埃拉在利比里亚引发了恐慌和混乱,尼日利亚当局希望避免重蹈它的覆辙,我不得不说(虽然我平时很少对尼日利亚的各级政府予以赞扬),拉各斯州当局的反应速度和效率堪称典范。在这个2000万人口的城市,病毒看起来已被控制住。据法新社(Agence France-Presse)报道,本周有320个可能接触过埃拉病毒的人,已被实未受感染,并且解除了隔离,另有41人仍然有待观察。But the situation here and elsewhere is still uncertain. Despite all the precautions, one of the nurses who had treated Mr. Sawyer managed to escape a poorly guarded isolation ward and travel to the southern city of Enugu. Her name was never released, and it is not known why a professional nurse would suddenly take flight. In any case, the Enugu state government was quick to act. All of the 20 or so people she is known to have come into close contact with during her daylong trip from Lagos were located and placed under surveillance. Though the nurse, who apparently did not know she was infected, has since been reported to have died, there have been no reports — so far — that any of the people she came in contact with have been infected.但这里和其他地方的局势依然不明朗。尽管采取了各种预防措施,接触过索耶的一名护士还是逃出了守卫松懈的隔离病房,前往南部城市埃努古。我们一直不知道她的名字,也不知道为什么一个职业护士会突然逃走。但无论如何,埃努古州政府迅速采取行动。这名护士离开拉各斯后,在一整天的行程中曾密切接触过约20人,现在这些人都被找到,并处在监控之下。这名护士似乎不知道自己已经感染病毒,虽然报道称她已经去世,但迄今还没有听说她接触过的任何人感染了埃拉病毒。People in Port Harcourt, the oil capital in the south, have not been so lucky. Another suspected carrier also escaped from a Lagos isolation ward. Unlike the nurse, he allegedly knew he was infected. The doctor he consulted died of Ebola on Aug. 22, according to the World Health Organization. The doctor’s wife, who was flown to Lagos for treatment with her three-month-old baby, is also said to have died, according to local media reports. The infant’s fate is unknown. The authorities say the man who infected them may be tried on manslaughter charges. W.H.O. officials said this week that there were three confirmed cases of Ebola infection in the city, and that some 200 people remain under surveillance there.南部石油之都哈科特港的人们就没有这么幸运了。另一名可能携带埃拉病毒的病人也从拉各斯的隔离病房逃离,与那名护士不同,据说他知道自己感染了病毒。据世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)透露,他咨询过的医生因为感染埃拉病毒于8月22日死亡。当地媒体报道称,这名医生的妻子为了给三个月大的婴儿治病飞到了拉各斯,据称,她已经死亡。这名婴儿的命运目前还不得而知。当局称,导致他们感染病毒的男子可能会遭到审讯,罪名是过失杀人。WHO官员本周表示,该市确认了三例感染埃拉病毒的病例,大约有200人仍然处在监控下。The tendency to panic in the face of a deadly virus with no known cure is of course understandable, especially given the stories that have been coming out of Monrovia and elsewhere in West Africa. Foreigners from suspect countries are regarded warily. Just recently, the Lagos police, acting on a tip from fearful neighbors, raided a hotel and arrested 39 people, 35 of them from the Democratic Republic of Congo. The others were from Senegal, or Sierra Leone, depending upon what newspapers you .当然,面对这种无法治疗的致命病毒,出现恐慌倾向是可以理解的,特别是考虑到蒙罗维亚及西非其他地方传来的报道。来自可能存在风险的国家的外国人受到密切关注。就在最近,拉各斯警方根据担忧的邻居提供的情报,采取行动,突击搜查了一家酒店,逮捕了39人,其中有35人来自刚果民主共和国。剩下的来自塞内加尔或塞拉利昂,各报的报道存在不同。There have also been the inevitable quack cures, as well as traditional herbal remedies from folk doctors. In one bizarre case, claims that drinking and bathing in salt water would prevent infection flooded the Internet. A surprising number of people apparently believed it. Two are reported to have died from drinking salt water, and another 20 have been hospitalized.庸医胡乱治病、民间医生使用传统草药治疗的情况不可避免地出现了。还有个匪夷所思的事情是,喝盐水和用盐水洗澡可以防止感染病毒的说法在网上广为流传。看来相信这种说法的人意想不到地多。据称,有两人因为喝盐水而死亡,还有20人入院就医。Yet it is remarkable how calm most people have remained. Not that they aren’t taking precautions. The other day, for instance, a bank security guard offered me some of the hand disinfectant that most people seem to carry about these days, as did the owner of a local cafe I frequent.但值得注意的是,大多数人能够保持冷静。这并不是说他们不采取预防措施。例如,有一天,一名保安给了我一些手消毒液,一家我经常光顾的当地咖啡馆的老板也给了我一些,目前大多数人似乎都带着这种消毒液。There is little doubt that quick action by the authorities has generated a broad sense of civic responsibility that is rare in Nigeria. Even the federal government, otherwise so mired in corruption that it is helpless in the face of our home-grown Islamist insurgency, appears to have taken an atypically responsible approach. Despite the perennial distrust that most Nigerians have toward any government statement, the fact that the virus has so far been relatively contained has given this nation of skeptics hope that our leaders can govern, once they put their minds to it.毫无疑问,当局的快速行动促使广大民众产生责任感,这在尼日利亚非常罕见。尽管联邦政府陷入腐败泥潭,对国内的伊斯兰主义叛乱束手无策,但这个政府似乎一反常态,承担责任,应对问题。尽管大多数尼日利亚人一直不相信政府的声明,但病毒到目前为止已经相对得到控制的事实,给这个充满疑虑的国家带来希望——如果我们的领导人愿意用心治理,他们就能治理好国家。Nevertheless, fear remains that Ebola may yet spiral out of control. Another death was reported here this week, this one at the Lagos University teaching hospital. It is said, though not confirmed, that the health workers who attended to the victim were not wearing the recommended protective equipment.尽管如此,人们仍然担心埃拉疫情可能会失控。本周这里又出现了一例死亡病例,这次是在拉各斯大学(University of Lagos)的教学医院。据称,照料这名死者的医护人员没有穿戴相关部门推荐的防护装备,但该消息没有得到实。This does not inspire confidence. Though ed Nations officials have praised the way Nigeria has handled the threat so far, the nation’s health minister warns that “a few” more cases are likely. In the meantime, most of us are crossing our fingers, rubbing our hands with disinfectant, and carrying on as best we can. Meanwhile, newspaper cartoonists are having a field day dreaming up alternatives to the handshake.这对信心的建立是不利的。虽然联合国(ed Nations)官员对尼日利亚迄今为止应对威胁的方式提出表扬,但该国卫生部长警告称,可能还会出现“一些”病例。在此期间,我们当中的大多数人都会祈祷,用消毒液搓手,尽可能继续这么做。与此同时,报纸漫画家正忙着构思代替握手的问候方式。 /201409/327452As if you needed another reason to run out for another cappuccino, along comes a new study by three university professors suggesting that caffeine may help make the sleep-deprived more honest.一项由来自三所大学的教授合作的研究表明,咖啡因或许可以让睡眠不足的人更为诚实。这样看来,大家又多了一个理由再来一杯卡布奇诺。;Our research shows that sleep deprivation contributes to unethical behavior at work by making you more susceptible to social influences, such as a boss who tells you to do something deceptive,; says Michael Christian, a co-author of the study who teaches organizational behavior at the University of North Carolina#39;s Kenan-Flagler Business School. ;Caffeine can help you resist by strengthening your self-control and willpower when you#39;re exhausted.;“我们的研究显示,缺少睡眠会导致人们对社交影响的敏感程度提高,因此就会更容易做出一些有违道德的行为,比如老板让你去实施某种欺骗行为的时候,”研究的合作者迈克#8226;克里斯蒂安说道,他是北卡罗莱纳大学肯南弗拉格勒商学院(Kenan-Flagler Business School)组织行为学教师。他补充说:“但咖啡因却可在你疲倦不堪的时候,增强你的自控能力和意志力,以抵消这些影响。”The findings are important for managers, he adds: ;We tend to think of people who work nonstop as the best employees. But they are often the ones making the worst ethical choices. It#39;s the people working the longest hours, and getting the least sleep, that managers need to keep their eye on.;这项结论对管理者来说非常重要,克里斯蒂安说:“我们倾向于认为,不眠不休、努力工作的员工才是好员工,但是这些人同样也容易干出有违道德的事情。管理者们要特别注意那些长时间工作而又睡眠不足的员工。”The research, published in the March issue of the Journal of Applied Psychology, built on a 2011 study of 171 hospital nurses who showed ;increases in hostility and dishonesty, including theft, and decreases in self-control; after working long shifts without sleep, Christian said.这项发表在《应用心理学杂志》(Journal of Applied Psychology)三月号上的研究于2011年调查了171位医院护士。研究人员发现,在长时间工作却不睡觉的情况下,这些护士都表现出了更多的“敌意以及包括偷窃在内的欺诈行为,她们的自制力也出现下降”,克里斯蒂安说。For this study -- which, by the way, wasn#39;t sponsored by Starbucks -- volunteers who had been kept awake all night were divided into two groups. All were asked to chew gum in the morning, but one group got a plain wintergreen placebo, while the other chomped on gum laced with 200 milligrams of caffeine, or about the same amount that#39;s in two cups of black coffee.在这项研究(顺便说一下,这项研究并不是星巴克赞助的)中,志愿者们一夜没睡,随后被分成两组。实验人员要求他们早上嚼口香糖,但其中一组的口香糖中含有冬青草安慰剂,而另一组的口香糖中则含有200克咖啡因,相当于两杯黑咖啡中咖啡因的含量。The participants were then put in situations where researchers ;encouraged them to go along with a lie in order to earn some extra money,; Christian says. ;We tried to replicate a situation where a boss or a peer was pressuring them to cut ethical corners at work.;随后,实验参与者们被安排在一个场景中,研究人员“鼓励他们用谎言来赢取更多的钱,”克里斯蒂安说。“我们尝试模拟这样一种场景,也就是,老板或者同事给他们施压,要求他们在工作中违背道德,捞取好处。”The results: Those who got the extra boost of caffeine consistently balked when researchers urged them to cheat, while those who were just exhausted -- and had chewed the non-caffeinated gum -- showed a marked willingness to cast conscience aside and go along with the deception.实验结果显示,在研究人员不断催促他们欺诈的压力下,那些额外摄入了咖啡因的被试验者一致表示拒绝;而那些筋疲力尽、只是嚼了无咖啡因口香糖的实验者们却表现出放弃道德感,愿意实施欺骗的倾向性。Employers who want to reduce the likelihood of misbehavior should make sure people aren#39;t putting in too many long hours without a break and ;avoid scheduling tasks that require a great deal of self-control when looming deadlines make long hours unavoidable,; the study concludes. Two other suggestions: Put in nap rooms at the office and don#39;t skimp on the free coffee.对于那些力图减少工作中品行不端现象的雇主们来说,应该确保员工不用长时间工作而得不到休息。研究认为,要“避免在截止期限临近、长时间工作不可避免的时候,安排需要极大自制力的工作。另外,研究人员还提出了两个建议:在办公室中设置午休室,也不要不舍得提供免费的咖啡。;Our experiment doesn#39;t explain all of people#39;s decisions to do unethical things, but it is significant,; says Christian. He points to statistics from the National Sleep Foundation that show that most Americans say they sleep, on average, only about five-and-a-half hours per night. The clinical definition of sleep deprivation is anything under seven.克里斯蒂安说:“我们的实验无法解释人们做出有悖道德之举的全部原因,但是结论的意义十分重大”。他指出,全国睡眠基金会(National Sleep Foundation)的数据显示,大部分美国人每晚平均睡眠时间只有5.5个小时,而低于7小时的睡眠时间都会被临床诊断为“睡眠不足”。So are we less ethical than back in 1999, when most of us claimed to get at least seven hours of shuteye? Maybe not: Caffeine consumption is up, too. The National Coffee Association, a trade group of java producers and purveyors, said in its annual report last month that we#39;re gulping 18% more cappuccinos, lattes, and other espresso-based (: strong) coffee drinks than we did in 2013.那么,比起1999年来,如今的我们是否更加“不道德”呢?毕竟在当时,大部分美国人声称自己每晚至少会睡7个小时。或许是否定的,因为我们的咖啡因摄入量也在提高。美国咖啡协会(The National Coffee Association)是一个爪哇咖啡生产商和经销商的贸易团体。这个协会上个月发布的年度报告指出,我们消费的卡布奇诺、拿铁以及其他浓缩咖啡的总量比2013年上涨了18%。 /201405/294594

With best wishes for a happy New Year!祝新年快乐,并致以良好的祝福。I hope you have a most happy and prosperous New Year.谨祝新年快乐幸福,大吉大利。With the compliments of the season.祝贺佳节。May the season#39;s joy fill you all the year round.愿节日的愉快伴你一生。Season#39;s greetings and best wishes for the New Year.祝福您,新年快乐。Please accept my season#39;s greetings.请接受我节日的祝贺。To wish you joy at this holy season. Wishing every happiness will always be with you.恭祝新年吉祥,幸福和欢乐与你同在。Good health, good luck and much happiness throughout the year.恭祝健康、幸运,新年快乐。May the joy and happiness around you today and always.愿快乐幸福永伴你左右。Please accept my sincere wishes for the New Year. I hope you will continue to enjoy good health.请接受我诚挚的新年祝福,顺祝身体健康。Allow me to congratulate you on the arrival of the New Year and to extend to you all my best wishes for your perfect health and lasting prosperity.恭贺新禧,祝身体健康、事业发达。Best wishes for the holidays and happiness throughout the New Year.恭贺新禧,万事如意。With very best wishes for your happiness in the New Year.致以最良好的祝福,原你新年快乐幸福。Please accept our wishes for you and yours for a happy New Year.请接受我们对你及你全家的美好祝福,祝你们新年快乐。May the coming New Year bring you joy, love and peace.愿新年为你带来快乐,友爱和宁静。Wishing you happiness during the holidays and throughout the New Year.祝节日快乐,新年幸福。A happy New Year to you.恭贺新年。Season#39;s greetings and sincere wishes for a bright and happy New Year!献上节日的问候与祝福,愿你拥有一个充满生机和欢乐的新年。I give you endless brand-new good wishes. Please accept them as a new remembrance of our lasting friendship.给你我无尽的新的祝福,让它们成为我们永恒友谊的新的纪念。Good luck and great success in the coming New Year.祝来年好运,并取得更大的成就。On the occasion of the New Year, may my wife and I extend to you and yours our warmest greetings, wishing you a happy New Year, your career greater success and your family happiness.在此新年之际,我同夫人向你及你的家人致以节日的问候,并祝你们新年快乐、事业有成、家庭幸福。May everything beautiful and best be condensed into this card. I sincerely wish you happiness, cheerfulness and success.愿一切最美好的祝福都能用这张贺卡表达,真诚地祝你幸福、快乐、成功! /201401/274338

China has a growing number of Christians, and that#39;s causing increasing tensions with the officially atheistic ruling Chinese Communist Party. China#39;s solution is if you can#39;t beat #39;em, co-opt them.中国的基督教徒越来越多,导致与无神论的GCD的关系越发的紧张。中国的解决方式是如果你无法打败它那就收编它。;Over the past decades, the Protestant churches in China have developed very quickly with the implementation of the country#39;s religious policy,; says Wang Zuoan, director of the State Administration for Religious Affairs, according to the state-run China Daily newspaper. ;The construction of Chinese Christian theology should adapt to China#39;s national condition and integrate with Chinese culture,; including its path of socialism.“过去几十年来,新教教会在中国宗教政策的实施下发展的非常快速,”国家宗教事务局长王作安说,《中国日报》报道。“中国基督教神学的构建应该适应中国的国情,并与中国文化融合,”包括其社会主义路线。Christians in China have to worship in state-approved and supervised churches, and official estimates number the country#39;s Protestant population at 23 million to 40 million, with 500,000 more baptized each year. Wang was speaking at an event in Shanghai to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the National Committee of the Three-Self Patriotic Movement of the Protestant Churches in China. He didn#39;t address the estimated 12 million Catholics in China, about half of whom illegally follow the lead of the Roman Catholic Church while the other half worship in the officially sanctioned, Vatican-rejecting Catholic church.中国的基督教徒只能在国家批准和监管的教堂里祷告,官方估计中国新教徒数量在2300万到4000万,每年新增50万。王是在上海参加新教三自爱国教会全国委员会成立60周年纪念日上讲这番话的。他并没有提及在中国的预计的1200万天主教徒,其中大约一半非法的听从罗马天主教会的领导,其余一半则听从中国官方持的、梵蒂冈反对的天主教会的领导。Wang didn#39;t elaborate on this new ;Chinese Christian theology,; but the Three-Self Patriotic Movement#39;s Gu Mengfei explained that the year-old Chinese push to promote correct Christian theology encourages pastors and laypeople alike to extract moral teachings in line with Biblical times and with other religious faiths. ;This will encourage more believers to make contributions to the country#39;s harmonious social progress, cultural prosperity, and economic development,; Gu added.王并没有对这种新的“中国基督教神学”做过多的阐述,但是三自爱国教会的顾梦菲解释说,一年来,中国积极推进正确的基督教神学观,鼓励牧师和俗人吸收圣经时代的道德教化以及其他的宗教信仰。“这将鼓励更多的信教者为国家和谐的社会进步、文化繁荣和经济发展做出贡献,”顾说。 /201408/319876

Taste is mostly genetic. But appreciating a fine bottle of wine can be learned. One expert, Gary K. Beauchamp, director of the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia, which studies smell and taste and how they affect human health, offers his view of what goes on when we sip.味觉是否灵敏通常由先天决定。但是人们可以通过后天学习来品鉴出一瓶酒的好坏。加里?比彻姆(Gary K. Beauchamp)是费城莫内尔化学感官研究中心(Monell Chemical Senses Center)主任,专注于研究嗅觉、味觉以及它们对人类健康的影响,这位专家给出了自己对于品酒的见解。That Tingly Feeling轻微的刺痛When we talk about flavor, says Dr. Beauchamp, three factors come into play. The first two are the most familiar: The tongue and palate sense the primary taste categories of sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami. And smell receptors at the top of the nose capture molecules floating in the air. In fruit season, for instance, #39;the odors and the tastes interact with different receptors and all converge in the brain, which tells you that this is a peach,#39; he says.比彻姆士说,谈到口味,就必须要提及三个要素。前两个要素我们非常熟悉:舌头和上颚感受几种最基本的口味──甜、咸、酸、苦和鲜味。而鼻腔上部的嗅觉受体捕捉空气中的分子。他说,比如到了盛产水果的时节,桃子的气味和口味与身体中不同的受体相接触,最终汇聚到大脑,告诉你这是一个桃子。For wine, a third factor is also important -- an irritation in the mouth, the throat and the nose that some people like and others find unpleasant. #39;We don#39;t have a good term for it, but it#39;s that sense of pain you feel when you taste something spicy or fermented -- that little stinging,#39; Dr. Beauchamp says.而对于品酒来说,第三个要素也同样重要──一种对口、喉、鼻同时造成的刺激感,这种感受是否讨喜则见仁见智。比彻姆士说,这种感觉就是当你尝到一些辛辣或发酵过的东西时的那种轻微的刺痛感,但我们还没找到一个合适的词语来形容它。For example, #39;If you were to give a spoonful of extra virgin olive oil to people in the U.S., many wouldn#39;t like that burning sensation,#39; says Dr. Beauchamp, who has done studies on this particular condition. #39;But if you give it to people from the Mediterranean, they will recognize the feeling as the sign of the very best olive oil.#39; Enjoying that subtle pain is learned, scientists believe, but Dr. Beauchamp says they don#39;t yet understand how that happens.比彻姆士举例说道,如果你让一个美国人品尝一勺特级初榨橄榄油,多数人都不会喜欢它灼热的口感,他的实验也实了这一情况。但地中海的居民就能从中品尝出极佳橄榄油的感受。科学家们相信,对于那种轻微刺痛感的享受是学习得来的,但比彻姆士表示他们尚未弄清这背后的玄机。Expert Palate“专家级”味觉One of Dr. Beauchamp#39;s colleagues explains that wine flavors are made up of many chemical structures. They arise from materials in the grape, from enzymatic reactions with grape compounds, through alcoholic fermentation and even from the wooden barrels used in the aging process. In the glass, those scents and flavors react with the nose and tongue at different times during sipping, which may cause one person to taste a cherry bouquet and another a leather finish from the same vintage.比彻姆士的一位同事解释道,酒的口感由很多化学成份组成,包括葡萄自身的成份、葡萄化合物的?促反应以及酒精发酵的产物,甚至还包括存放过程中木桶里的成份。品尝一杯红酒,这些不同气味和口味会在不同的时间与鼻子和嘴发生反应,因而同一瓶佳酿既可能如樱桃般醇美,也可能像呛人的皮革一样难以下咽。Professional wine tasters are trained to notice the different flavors that tannins, sugars, acids and various processes give to a particular wine, and to put words to them. But tasters#39; physiology is basically the same as everyone else#39;s. #39;It#39;s not as though they were born with more receptors or grew more over time. They simply developed an ability to notice small differences,#39; says Dr. Beauchamp. #39;With experience, some people can become more attuned to certain smells and tastes, which may lead them to like particular wines more, but their chemistry doesn#39;t change; it#39;s a cognitive effect.#39;专业品酒师能够品尝出丹宁、糖分、酸以及生产工艺所赋予一瓶红酒的不同味道,并对这些味道做出评价。这些品酒师生下来感官并不比别人灵敏。比彻姆士说,他们并非天生就具备更多的感觉受体或随着年龄的增长感觉受体越来越多。比彻姆士说,他们只是训练出辨识酒中细微差别的能力,有了一定的饮酒阅历,人们就逐渐喜欢上某些气味、口味,对特定的酒产生偏好,但这当中的原理只有一个;这是认知效应的结果。Bitter Evolution“苦涩”的进化Among the basic tastes, people seem to differ the most on bitter -- a big factor in appreciating fine wine. #39;It#39;s not exactly clear why there is so much more variation on bitter than sweet and salty. But we have evolved to detect bitter things differently, perhaps to protect us against danger in the environment,#39; he says.在所有基本的口味中,人们似乎对“苦”的感受存在最大的差异,而这恰恰是品酒过程中的一个重要因素。比彻姆士说,至今仍不清楚?什么相较于甜、咸的口感,人们对苦的感受差别巨大。然而是人类的进化让我们对苦产生不同的感受,因而这或许是?了更好地保护自身远离环境中的危险。And because so many factors are at work in the preference for certain wines, it would be very difficult for one person to tell another what he should like.因为如此多的因素共同决定了我们对于酒的偏好,所以品酒是一个因人而异的事情。#39;Take your genetics plus your experience, and we are all living in our own sensory world,#39; Dr. Beauchamp says. For that reason, he has one simple recommendation: Enjoy what you enjoy, and don#39;t worry about what the other guy is savoring.比彻姆士说,遗传加上阅历,造就了我们每一个人的感官世界。也正因如此,对于品酒,他的建议很简单:喝自己爱的酒,让别人说去吧。 /201311/263751

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