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2018年01月19日 13:18:16

ATLANTA — WHEN I learned last week about the discovery of an early human relative deep in a cave in South Africa, I had many questions. Obviously, they had dug up a fellow primate, but of what kind?亚特兰大——上周获悉在南非一个洞穴的深处发现了早期人类的亲属时,我有很多疑问。显然,他们又挖出了一种灵长目动物,但属于哪一类呢?The fabulous find, named Homo naledi, has rightly been celebrated for both the number of fossils and their completeness. It has australopithecine-like hips and an ape-size brain, yet its feet and teeth are typical of the genus Homo.凭借化石的数量和它们的完整性,被称作“纳勒迪人”(Homo naledi)的这个惊人发现的确应该庆祝。它的髋部像南方古猿,大脑体积和猿类的相当,但脚和牙齿却表现出了典型的人属特点。The mixed features of these prehistoric remains upset the received human origin story, according to which bipedalism ushered in technology, dietary change and high intelligence. Part of the new species’ physique lags behind this scenario, while another part is ahead. It is aptly called a mosaic species.这些史前骨骸表现出的复杂特征,搅乱了公认的人类起源理论。根据该理论,人类变成两条腿独立行走后迎来了技术、饮食变化和高智商。但这个新物种的身体部分停留在这一幕发生之前,另一部分却已经进化到了这一幕发生之后。叫它组合物种挺恰当的。We like the new better than the old, though, and treat every fossil as if it must fit somewhere on a timeline leading to the crown of creation. Chris Stringer, a prominent British paleoanthropologist who was not involved in the study, told B News: “What we are seeing is more and more species of creatures that suggests that nature was experimenting with how to evolve humans, thus giving rise to several different types of humanlike creatures originating in parallel in different parts of Africa.”但我们往往喜新厌旧,对待每一块化石都像是它必须要符合人类进化历程中的某个节点。未参与该研究的英国著名古人类学家克里斯·斯特林格(Chris Stringer)对B新闻(B News)表示:“我们看到,越来越多的动物物种表明,大自然是在尝试各种人类进化的方式,因而产生了几种不同类型的像人一样的动物,它们同时发源于非洲的不同地区。”This represents a shockingly teleological view, as if natural selection is seeking certain outcomes, which it is not. It doesn’t do so any more than a river seeks to reach the ocean.这就有了一种惊人的目的论色,仿佛自然选择是在追求某些结果。但其实不是这样。它和河流想要注入大海没什么不同。News reports spoke of a “new ancestor,” even a “new human species,” assuming a ladder heading our way, whereas what we are actually facing when we investigate our ancestry is a tangle of branches. There is no good reason to put Homo naledi on the branch that produced us. Nor does this make the discovery any less interesting.新闻报道谈到了“新祖先”,甚至“新人种”,假想出一条向着我们延伸的梯子,但在调查自己的起源时,我们实际面临的是一堆杂乱的分。我们没有充分的理由去把“纳勒迪人”放在那个产生了我们的分上。这丝毫不会减少这项发现的意义。Every species in our lineage tells us something about ourselves, because the hominoids (humans, apes and everything in between) are genetically extremely tight. We have had far less time to diverge than the members of many other animal families, like the equids (horses, zebras, donkeys) or canids (wolves, dogs, jackals). If it hadn’t been for the human ego, taxonomists would long ago have squeezed all hominoids into a single genus.人类谱系中的每一个物种,都会让我们更了解自己,因为人猿总科动物(人类、猿类和介于这两之间的一切物种)在基因方面是极为接近的。我们经历的分歧过程远短于很多其他动物科的成员,如马科动物(马、斑马、驴)和犬科动物(狼、、豺)。如果不是人类的自我意识,分类学家很久以前就把所有人猿总科动物归为一个属了。The standard story is that our ancestors first left the apes behind to become australopithecines, which grew more sophisticated and brainier to become us. But what if these stages were genetically mixed up? Some scientists have claimed early hybridization between human and ape DNA. Did our ancestors, after having split off, keep returning to the apes in the same way that today’s grizzlies and polar bears still interbreed occasionally?标准的说法是,我们的祖先先是从猿进化成了南方古猿,后来又变得更加复杂和聪明,最终变成了我们现在的样子。但如果这些阶段在基因上是混在一起的怎么办?一些科学家已经声称发现了早期的人猿DNA混合。脱离了猿后,我们的祖先是不断回到猿那里去,就像灰熊和北极熊至今还偶尔会杂交繁殖那样?Instead of looking forward to a glorious future, our lineage may have remained addicted to the hairy embrace of its progenitors. Other scientists, however, keep sex out of it and speak of incomplete lineage separation. Either way, our heritages are closely intertwined.我们的谱系没有憧憬美好未来,反而对祖先那毛茸茸的怀抱恋恋不舍。然而,其他一些科学家将性排除在外,转而说起了谱系划分的不完整。不管怎样,我们遗传下来的东西都是密切交织在一起的。The problem is that we keep assuming that there is a point at which we became human. This is about as unlikely as there being a precise wavelength at which the color spectrum turns from orange into red. The typical proposition of how this happened is that of a mental breakthrough — a miraculous spark — that made us radically different. But if we have learned anything from more than 50 years of research on chimpanzees and other intelligent animals, it is that the wall between human and animal cognition is like a Swiss cheese.问题是,我们一直假定自己是从某一时刻起开始成为人类的。但要找到这个点,就如同在光谱中找到从桔色变成红色的那个精确的波长,是不太可能的事。关于这种转变,有一种典型的理论,即是一种智力上的突破——灵光一闪的奇迹——使我们骤然改变。但以我们对黑猩猩和其他高智商动物进行的50多年的研究,至少有一个收获是,人的认知和动物的认知之间那堵墙,就像是一块瑞士奶酪。Apart from our language capacity, no uniqueness claim has survived unmodified for more than a decade since it was made. You name it — tool use, tool making, culture, food sharing, theory of mind, planning, empathy, inferential reasoning — it has all been observed in wild primates or, better yet, many of these capacities have been demonstrated in carefully controlled experiments.除了语言能力,没有哪个声称人类独具某项技能的论断会在提出十年后依然坚挺。你能想到的所有技能——使用工具、制造工具、形成文化、分享食物、心智理论、计划、共情、推理——都已经在野生灵长目动物身上观察到。更进一步,许多还可以在严格控制的动物实验中演示出来。We know, for example, that apes plan ahead. They carry tools over long distances to places where they use them, sometimes up to five different sticks and twigs to raid a bee nest or probe for underground ants. In the lab, they fabricate tools in anticipation of future use. Animals think without words, as do we most of the time.比如,我们知道猿类可以提前做计划。它们会携带工具长途跋涉到需要使用这些工具的地方,有时它们会用多达五种棍子和枝条来对付一个蜂巢,或翻找地下的蚂蚁。在实验室里,它们会制造工具以备将来使用。动物会不经由语言思考,就像我们大多数时候那样。Undeterred by Homo naledi’s relatively small brain, however, the research team sought to stress its humanity by pointing at the bodies in the cave. But if taking this tack implies that only humans mourn their dead, the distinction with apes is being drawn far too sharply.不过,“纳勒迪人”的大脑体积较小并未让研究团队退缩,他们转而通过指出尸体放在洞穴内来突出它们人性的一面。但如果用这一点来表示只有人类才会哀悼死者,那我们就把自己和猿类的差别划分得太清晰了。Apes appear to be deeply affected by the loss of others to the point of going totally silent, seeking comfort from bystanders and going into a funk during which they don’t eat for days. They may not inter their dead, but they do seem to understand death’s irreversibility. After having stared for a long time at a lifeless companion — sometimes grooming or trying to revive him or her — apes move on.猿类表现出会因为同伴死亡而深受影响,以至于完全陷入沉默,从旁观者那里寻求安慰,或陷入数天不吃东西的逃避状态。它们可能不会埋葬死去的同类,但它们似乎的确知道死了就不能再复生。长久地盯着死去的同伴——有时会给它们整理皮毛或试图让它们复活——之后,猿类会离开。Since they never stay in one place for long, they have no reason to cover or bury a corpse. Were they to live in a cave or settlement, however, they might notice that carrion attracts scavengers, some of which are formidable predators, like hyenas. It would absolutely not exceed the ape’s mental capacity to solve this problem by either covering odorous corpses or moving them out of the way.因为不会长久待在同一个地方,所以它们没有理由掩盖或埋葬尸体。但如果是生活在一个洞穴里或在一个定居点,它们可能会注意到,尸体的腐肉会吸引食腐动物,有些还是难以对付的捕食者,比如鬣。猿类绝对有足够的智能来解决这个问题,要么把腐臭的尸体掩盖起来,要么把它们移到偏僻的地方。The suggestion by some scholars that this requires belief in an afterlife is pure speculation. We simply don’t know if Homo naledi buried corpses with care and concern or unceremoniously dumped them into a faraway cave to get rid of them.有些学者认为做出这样的行为需要它们具备来生的观念,这纯粹是猜测。我们根本不知道,“纳勒迪人”是以关切的心态埋葬尸体,还是粗暴地将它们抛入偏远洞穴处理掉。It is an odd coincidence that “naledi” is an anagram of “denial.” We are trying way too hard to deny that we are modified apes. The discovery of these fossils is a major paleontological breakthrough. Why not seize this moment to overcome our anthropocentrism and recognize the fuzziness of the distinctions within our extended family? We are one rich collection of mosaics, not only genetically and anatomically, but also mentally.纳勒迪(naledi)和否定(denial)这两个词,字母相同,排序有异,这是一个诡异的巧合。我们花了太大的力气来否认自己是经过改变的猿类。发现这些化石的确是古生物学上的重大突破。为何不利用这次机会来超越人类中心说,承认我们所属的大家庭里各个成员的界限并没有那么分明?我们是一个组成非常丰富的群体,不仅从基因和解剖学上讲如此,在心智上也是如此。 /201509/400011兴安盟治疗睾丸炎哪家医院最好的Culture and Art in Western Jin and Eastern Jin西晋和东晋时期的文化艺术In the world of literature, Lu Ji(261—303) and Zuo Si(250—305) of the Western Jin excelled in poetry.文学世界中,西晋时期的陆机(261——303)和左思(250——305)擅长诗词歌赋。Lu Ji’s special treatise On Poetry Writing, contributed to the development of China’s literary though.陆机的代表作《文赋》为中国文学的发展贡献巨大。The Ode to the Three Capitals (of the Three Kingdoms), written by Zuo Si in a vigorous style,created such a stir among the men of letters that it was copied and passed from hand to hand, causing a shortage of paper supply in the capital city of Luoyang.左思风格遒劲的《三都赋》在文人墨客中引起轰动,他的作品被不断印刷与传送,一时之间引得洛阳纸贵。Tao Yuanming(365—427),the poet and prose writer of the Eastern Jin,was famous for his five-character poems full of poetic imagination and the flavor of rustic life.东晋时期的诗人与散文家陶渊明(365——427)以他富有诗意想象和乡村生活趣味的五言诗而闻名。Formerly an Eastern Jin official, Tao Yuanming resigned after becoming disillusioned with the corrupt government to lead a secluded life in the countryside.陶渊明以前是东晋的一位官员,他在对于腐败的政府不再抱幻想之后辞去了官职,在乡村过上了隐居的生活。His outstanding prose piece, Peach Blossom Stream, a description of a Chinese Arcadia, expressed his longing for a society without power struggle, cut-throat competition, lying and cheating.他著名的散文诗《桃花源记》是对于中国世外桃源的描写,这首诗表达了他对于一个没有权力斗争、残酷竞争、谎言与欺骗的社会的向往。During the Western and Eastern Jin period, the pian ti wen (a flowery antithetic style of writing) was very popular. It was gorgeous in form but lacked depth.在西晋和东晋时期,骈体文(一种华丽的对偶写作风格)非常流行。Calligraphy and painting reached a high level of development in the Eastern Jin.骈体文的形式绚烂但内容缺乏深度。Wang Xizhi (321—379 or 306—361) absorbed the essence of calligraphy of the Han-Wei period and created a style of his own to earn his fame as the “Sage Calligrapher”.书法与绘画在东晋时期发展至顶峰。Gu Kaizhi (345—406) was noted for his portraits of human figures with highly expressive eyes.王羲之(321——379或306——361)吸取了汉魏时期书法的精髓并形成了自己的风格,他因此被称为“书圣”。The mural painting of Vimalakirti, a lay Buddhist, done for the Waguan Temple of Jiankang, impressed art-lovers with its brightly coloured and finely drawn lines.顾恺之(345——406)以具有极度传神的眼睛的人像画而闻名。His work, On the Art of Painting, was a masterpiece on painting techniques.他为建康瓦官寺所画的维诘壁画“维诘像”的明亮色和流畅线条使艺术爱好者记忆深刻。The Western and Eastern Jin period turned out more historical works than ever.顾恺之的著作《论画》是谈论绘画技巧的杰出之作。There were an outpouring of history books on the Eastern Han, the Three Kingdoms, the Jin and the Sixteen States,西晋和东晋时期涌现出了大量的史学作品,有关于东汉、三国还有晋朝和十六国时期的作品呈井喷状态,notably the History of the Three Kingdoms by Chen Shou (233—297), An Extension of the History of the Han Dynasty by Sima Biao (? —306) and Records of the Later Han Dynasty by Yuan Hong (328—376).其中最著名的是陈寿(233——297)所著的《三国志》、司马彪(?——306)所著的《续汉书》和袁宏(328——376)所著的《后汉纪》。The History of the Three Kingdoms enjoys a fame only next to that of Records of the Historian and History of the Han Dynasty.《三国志》的出名程度仅次于《史记》和《汉书》。Written in biographical form, it describes the rise, growth and fall of the Three Kingdoms.它以传记的形式描写了三国的出现、发展与覆灭。An Extension of the History of the Han Dynasty originally had 80 juan but only 30, about the institutions and statutes of the Eastern Han Dynasty, survive.《续汉书》原先有80卷但现在仅存有关东汉时期政策与法令的30卷。Records of the Later Han Dynasty, annals of the Eastern Han,shows innovation in the preservation and compilation of historical material.《后汉纪》作为东汉时期的编年史展现了历史资料保存于编辑上的创新。 /201510/398401呼和浩特人民医院治疗膀胱炎多少钱Soggy bottoms are preferred in the North – but southerners tend to favour a quick dunk。北方人通常把饼干底部都泡得软软的,而南方人则只是蜻蜓点水般稍微泡一下。Yes, England is divided when it comes to eating biscuits, according to a poll showing 65% of those north of Stoke are big dippers。没错,在吃饼干的正确方式这个问题上,英国内部意见不一,一份民调显示,斯托克城以北地区,65%的人都喜欢把饼干泡久一点。They happily wait for the biscuit to go soft before tucking in – risking it ending up in the mug。他们满怀欣喜地等着饼干慢慢泡软之后才吃——虽然有可能一不小心就让饼干在杯子里化掉了。But in the more tentative South, more than 50% of tea and coffee breakers minimise moisture with a brief plunge and delicate first bite。不过在更加谨慎的南方住民里,超过50%的人都只是把饼干稍稍蘸一下茶或者咖啡,再小小地咬下第一口。Custard creams are king in Yorkshire, says the Waitrose Food and Drink report, while chocolate digestives rule in Lancs, Oxford and Cambridge。《维特罗斯(Waitrose)食品和饮料报告》显示,蛋奶冻夹心饼干在约克郡(Yorkshire)的人气无人能敌,而在兰开夏郡(Lancs)、牛津郡和剑桥郡,巧克力消化饼干才是王道。Curiously Oxford prefers dark and Cambridge, milk。令人奇怪的是牛津郡的人喜欢就着只加少量牛奶(或奶油)的咖啡吃饼干,剑桥郡的人更喜欢就着牛奶吃。Ginger nuts are tops in the North East。东北地区人民的最爱是姜汁饼干。Traditional Rich Tea is a favourite in the south west and Wales while Midlands folk enjoy Malted Milk。传统的下午茶饼干是西南地区和威尔士地区人们的心头好,中部地区人民则青睐麦乳精饼干。Cookies are the number one choice in the East of England but bizarrely the Sussex coast breaks with tradition preferring KitKat bars to biccies。曲奇是东英格兰地区人们的首选,但 令人诧异的是,苏塞克斯郡沿岸地区的人们打破传统,他们更喜欢奇巧(KitKat)巧克力棒,而不是饼干。Unsurprisingly, shortb is the top choice in Scotland。黄油酥饼毫无意外地是苏格兰人民的最爱。Waitrose said: “The nation‘s dunking habits produced surprising results。 Choice of biscuit could definitely be linked to your postcode。”维特罗斯表示:“这个国家泡饼干的习惯导致了惊人的结果。你选择的饼干绝对可以和你居住的地区联系起来。”Londoners go for posh “breakfast biscuits”。伦敦居民喜欢更有腔调的“早餐饼干”。But if children did the shopping, we‘d all be eating Jammie Dodgers, according to data from 343 Waitrose stores。不过343家维特罗斯连锁店的数据显示:如果让孩子们购物的话,我们吃到的估计都是果酱夹心饼干。 /201510/405522呼和浩特治疗早泄的医院

鄂尔多斯市有泌尿科吗呼市第二附属医院治疗肛周囊肿多少钱The Jin, founded by Wanyan Aguda (known as Emperor Taizu), was a regime dominated by the Nuzhen people. Its capital was first in the Huining Prefecture (now Baicheng, south of Acheng, Heilongjiang Province), then in Yanjing (now Beijing), and lastly, in Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng, Henan Province). Ruled by nine emperors, and lasted for 120 years. At its height, it had a population of 44. 7 million people and its territory extended as far as the Outer Xing’an Ling Mountain in the north,the Huai River in the south,the coastline in the east, and Shaanxi in the west.金国是中国历史上以女真为主体建立的王朝,先建都会宁府(今黑龙江阿城南白城镇),后迁都燕京(今北京),再迁都至汴京(今河南开封),其创建者是金太祖完颜阿骨打。金共历九帝,前后120年,疆域盛时北达今外兴安岭,南抵淮河,东临于海,西至陕西,人口4470余万。The ancestors of the Nuzhen had first lived in the Changbai Mountains and the Heilongjiang River valley.女真族的祖先很早就生活在长白山和黑龙江流域。The name “Nijzhen” did not appear in historical records until the Five Dynasties period when it was under the control of the Khitan.五代时,女真之名始见于史籍,并受辽契丹所统治。The Nuzhen was in preliminary clan stage at the beginning of the Liao and then it grew quickly with the using of the iron tools and expansion of the population. Towards the end of the Liao, Nuzhen developed strong enough.在辽统治初期,它还处于原始氏族形态,但随着人口的增加与铁器的大量使用,使其快速发展起来,到辽末年,女真族已成为北方一不可小覷的力量。After its Wanyan tribe established a tribal union, all its tribes quickly got unified. In the 4th year of Tianqing(1114), Wanyan Aguda, the leader of the Nuzhens, performed a ritual with his armies on the bank of the Lailiu River (present-day Jianlalin River between Heilongjiang and Jilin) and declared war on the Liao.女真完颜部首领完颜阿骨打,在统一了女真各部后,于辽天庆四年 (1114)九月,率部誓师于涞流河(今黑龙江与吉林省间拉林河)畔,向辽朝的契丹统治者宣战。After his victories in Ningjiang and Chuhedian, Aguda assumed the imperial title in the 5th year of Tianqing(1115). He named his regime the Great Jin and used Shouguo as his reign title.他在取得宁江大捷和出河店之战胜利后,于辽天庆五年(1115)称帝建国,国号大金,年号收国。After winning a decisive victory in the battle of Hubudagang, the Jin carried out its plan to conquer the Liao.金朝建国后,在护步答冈会战中大败辽军,随后展开以辽五京为战略目标的灭辽之战。It attacked and captured five important Liao cities: the “eastern capital”(present-day Liaoyang in Liaoning), the “upper capital”(south of present-day Barin Left Banner in Inner Mongolia), the Mmiddle capitar, (present-day Damingcheng, west of Ningcheng in Inner Mongolia), the uwestern cap-ital” (present-day Datong, Shanxi) and the “southern capital” (present-day Beijing).攻取五京的前后步骤是东京(今辽宁辽阳)、上京(今内蒙古巴林左旗南)、中京(今内蒙古宁城西大名城)、西京(今山西大同)、南京(今北京)。The conquest of these “five capitals” by the Jin regime brought about the immediate fall of the Liao.这五部分的攻取对辽是致命的打击。In 1120, Jin made an agreement with the Northern Song to form a joint attack on the Liao. And in 1125, the Emperor Tianzuo of the Liao was captured and the north part of China was under the control of the Jin.公元1120年,金与宋签定“海上之盟”共同对辽,公元1125年,辽天祚帝被俘,金国完全控制了北方。Immediately after conquered the Liao, the Jin then turned against the Northern Song.在消灭辽国以后,金国把矛头直指向宋朝。Ascending the throne, Emperor Taizong (Wanyan Sheng), greatly encouraged by the Liao defeat, swept to attack the Northern Song successfully in the following wars out of the incompetence of rulers of the Song, though the army of Song resisted with all their mighty. And Jin seized Kaifeng, the capital of the Northern Song, captured the Emperors of Hui and Qin and put an end to the Northern Song in 1127.称帝之后,金太宗吴乞买(完颜晟)挟灭辽之威,大举进攻宋朝,虽然宋军民全力反抗,但由于宋统治者的无能,使得金国连连得胜,于金天会五年(1127)攻占了北宋都城开封,虏去徽、钦二帝,使北宋灭亡。Later the Jin waged many wars against the Southern Song, but was fought back by the troops of the Southern Song under the brilliant leaders of Yue Fei and Han Shizhong. The balance of power remained the same on two sides, the Jin and the Southern Song.南宋王朝的建立使得金国继续向南进兵,而南宋的抗金名将岳飞、韩世忠等人对金国的抵抗使得金军实力大降,无力再和南宋交战,形成了南北对峙的局面。While the rival dynasties existed side by side, the Jin succeeded in forcing the Xi Xia to become its subject state and the Southern Song to sue for peace.金在与南宋、西夏并立期间,迫使西夏臣附、南宋屈辱求和,始终维持其霸主地位。However ,the rise of the Mongols posed a threat since they were decided enemies of the Jin.但是,随着蒙古的兴起,金的强国地位受到了威胁。The hatred towards the Jin was deep into the marrow.金蒙世仇,结怨甚深,蒙古人对金“怨人骨髓”。Surrounded as it by the Mongolia to the north, the Western Xia to the west, and the Southern Song to the south, the Jin was in an unfavorable situation.金西北邻蒙古,西邻西夏,南邻南宋,处于西、西北、南三战之地,战略地位有明显的弱势。The best course of action would have been that of uniting with the Xi Xia and the Southern Song against the Mongols—as its alliance with the Xi Xia could prevent the Mongols from marching southward and a good relationship with the Southern Song would exempt it from southern threats.对待三国的战略,金的正确选择是结夏联宋,对抗蒙古。团结西夏,可以从西面牵制蒙古南下。成吉思汗于建国后对金“乃定议致讨,然未敢轻动”,其重要原因是担心攻金时西夏可能构成的侧面威胁。In this way, the Jin could avoid fighting on two fronts and have its strength focused on fighting againt the Mongols.联合南宋,可以免除后顾之忧,避免两面作战,全力对付蒙古。But instead, the Jin abandoned the Xi Xia, attacked the Southern Song and the Mongols, meaning that it had created three enemies for itself. The Jin became isolated and helpless.然而,金朝统治者却错误地选择了绝夏、攻宋、抗蒙的战略,结果三面树敌,自我孤立,致使形势急转直下。When the Mongols attacked the Xi Xia, the Xia asked the Jin for help, but the latter refused to. The Western Xia then surrendered to the Mongols. They joined together to attack the Jin who was now squeezed into a corner.蒙古攻西夏,西夏求援于金,金坐视不救,西夏投附于蒙古,与蒙古联手攻金,金处于西、北两面受敌窘境。To remove threats from the west and the north, the Jin removed its capital from Zhongdu to Bianjing and tried to win o-ver the south for compensating the loss of the north. Accordingly, it left the northern territories open to Mongolian conquest and began to attack the Southern Song but achieved almost nothing.金为减轻压力,从中都迁都汴京,采取弃北图南的战略,进攻南宋,企图挹彼注兹,失之于蒙而获利于宋,于是“南开宋战,西启夏侮,兵力既分,功不补患”。With pincers attacks by the Mongols and the Southern Song, the Jin gradually lost power and its downfall was unavoidable.结果,金北方尽失于蒙,南方受挫于宋,国土日蹙,国力日衰。In 1233, Wokuotai, the Taizong of the Yuan Dynasty took Bianjing, Emperor of Jin, Aizong fled to Caizhou and in the following years, Jin was destroyed by the joint force of the Mongolia and the Southern Song, which brought the Jin to an end.金国于天兴元年(1233),元太宗窝阔台帅军攻下汴京,金哀宗逃至蔡州,次年,蔡州在蒙古军与宋 军联合进攻下被攻破,金国至此宣告灭亡。The Jin’s political, military and economic system changed in its early and late periods.金国的政治、军事及经济制度前后有所变化。During the “tribal union” period, the premier and the union chieftains (clan elder in Nuzhen) shared the power of administering different Nuzhen tribes.After the founding of the Jin Dynasty, the premier and the union chieftains were replaced by four and later five chief executives, to form the highest authority under the emperor.女真部落联盟时采用国相制,国相与部落联盟长都勃极烈分治诸部。After conquering a number of the Liao and the Song territories during Emperor Taizong^ reign, the Jin adopted some of their practices and systems.金太宗时,占领辽、宋之地后,开始采用许多辽、宋制度。Both Emperor Xizong and the Prince of Hailing introduced reforms.金熙宗时,对各项制度作了改革。The Prince Hailing also move the capital to Zhongdu (present Beijing), and standarlized its regemens and carried out further reforms.金海陵王迁都中都(今北京),统一制度,又作了进一步的改革。During the reign of Emperor Shizong, a complete political system was set up.金世宗时,各项制度大体确立。The primary body, the State Council, helped the central government deal with state affairs. Under the State Council, there were “Six Boards”:the Board of Civil Service, the Board of Revenue, the Board of Rites, the Board of War, the Board of Punishments, and the Board of Works.中央设尚书省综理政务,下设吏、户、礼、兵、刑、工六部分掌政务。Local governmerits were divided into four levels.地方设路、府、州、县四级。The military service system was based on that of the Nuzhen, with those of the Qidan, the Bohai, the Xi and the Han integrated.金朝的军事制度是一种多成分的结合体,在原女真军制的基础上,广泛吸收了契丹,渤海、奚、汉等民族的军事制度,而有其自身的特点。Military organization was relatively simple, with emphasis placed on the cavalry and other arms developed at the same time. Its troops were made up of soldiers of many nationalities, either mercenaries or conscripts. Officers enjoyed high status.金朝军事机构较为简化,重视骑兵的作用,也逐步建立和发展其他兵种,军队中民族成分复杂,实行签军和募兵兵役制度,军事职官的地位较高。This system exerted great influence upon that of later dynasties.金朝的军制对后世的军制有一定的影响。The early stage of the Jin was economically backwards with the remaining features of the preliminary tribe.金国在刚刚建立起来的时候,国力非常落后,经济制度还存在着一些原始社会的残余。Since Taizong, Xizong and the King of Hailing, there were drastic changes happened : the Jin transformed from a nomadic tribe to a feudal society with agriculture as the fundamental support, which laid foundation for its further development.自太宗、熙宗、海陵王以来,金国进行了全面的转变,使其从原来的游牧部落变成了一个以农业为主的封建集权制国家,为其今后的发展奠定了基础。The farming, handicrafts and commerce flourished, but different areas achieved varying degrees of social and economic development in Jin. Although some features of traditional Nuzhen culture were inherited by the Jin, it was the Han culture and Liao culture that dominated the Jin society.金时,农业、手工业和商业都得到了发展,但各地区的经济发展存在很大差异,虽然保留和吸收了女真族的某些文化传统,但基本上是继承辽、宋的汉族文化。 /201602/426201Over the past few months, I’ve written a number of times on how nutrition recommendations are seldom supported by science. I’ve argued that what many people are telling you may be inaccurate. In response, many of you have asked me what nutrition recommendations should say.在过去几个月里,我多次在文章中提到,营养建议很少得到科学持。我的看法是,很多人对你们说的事情可能并不准确。对此,很多人问我有什么营养建议。It’s much easier, unfortunately, to tell you what not to do. But here at The Upshot, we don’t avoid the hard questions. So I’m going to put myself on the line. Below are the general rules I live by. They’re the ones I share with patients, with friends and with family. They’re the ones I support as a pediatrician and a health services researcher. But I acknowledge up front that they may apply only to healthy people without metabolic disorders (me, for instance, as far as I know).不幸的是,给出不建议的东西,要比给出建议容易的多。但在“结语”专栏(The Upshot),我们不回避难题。所以我来斗胆回答一下。以下是我的一般守则。我会把这些守则分享给病患、朋友和家人,作为一个儿科医生和卫生务研究人员,它们是我能够认可的。不过,我要预先承认,这些守则只适用于没有代谢障碍的健康人士(比如以我目前所知,我就算是一个)。These suggestions are also not supported by the scientific weight of rigorous randomized controlled trials, because little in nutrition is. I’ve inserted links to back them up with the available evidence. They are not “laws” and should not be treated as such. No specific nutrients will be demonized, and none will be held up as miracles. But these recommendations make sense to me, and they’ve helped me immensely.这些建议同样也没有通过严格的随机对照试验进行科学评估,因为营养学领域很少有这样的试验。我插入了链接,用现有据来持这些建议。这些建议不是“规范”,不应该被当成规范来执行。我不会把具体某个营养物妖魔化,也不会奉某个营养物为人间奇迹。但是我觉得这些建议是有道理的,而且对我帮助极大。Full disclosure: I did not invent most of these. I’ve developed them from ing the work of others, including what may be the most impressive “official” nutritional guidelines, those of Brazil, as well as from earlier suggestions from ers, as in this great NYT interactive graphic. It captures ers’ responses to food rules by Michael Pollan. He is, of course, the promulgator of the well-known advice: “Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants.”需要声明:这些建议大多都不是我提出的,而是我通过阅读别人的作品得出的,包括一些格外出色的“官方”营养指南,巴西提出的那些,还有较早前读者提出的建议,比如时报的这份精的互动图文里列出的。这些是读者对迈克尔·波伦(Michael Pollan)提出的食物守则的回应。而波伦就无需多说了,他推广了一个著名的建议:“进食。不要太多。植物为主。”1. Get as much of your nutrition as possible from a variety of completely unprocessed foods. These include fruits and vegetables. But they also include meat, fish, poultry and eggs that haven’t been processed. In other words, when buying food at the market, focus on things that have not been been cooked, prepared or altered in any way. Brown rice over white rice. Whole grains over refined grains. You’re far better off eating two apples than drinking the same 27 grams of sugar in an eight-ounce glass of apple juice.1. 尽可能从各类完全未经加工的食物中获取营养。这些食物包括水果和蔬菜,也包括未经处理的肉、鱼、禽和蛋。换句话说,在市场里购买食物时,要注意选择尚未烹调、制备或以任何方式改变过的。糙米代替白米,全谷物代替精加工谷物。同样是摄入27克糖,吃两个苹果要比喝一杯8盎司的苹果汁好太多。1b. Eat lightly processed foods less often. You’re not going to make everything yourself. Pasta, for instance, is going to be bought aly prepared. You’re not going to grind your own flour or extract your own oil. These are meant to be eaten along with unprocessed foods, but try to eat less of them.1b. 少吃轻加工食品。不可能所有食物都自己做。比如意大利面会去买已经做好的。你不会自己磨面粉或提炼食油。这意味着要同时进食轻加工食物与未经加工食物,但要尽量少吃。1c. Eat heavily processed foods even less often. There’s little high-quality evidence that even the most processed foods are dangerous. But keep your consumption of them to a minimum, because they can make it too easy to stuff in calories. Such foods include b, chips, cookies and cereals. In epidemiologic studies, heavily processed meats are often associated with worse health outcomes, but that evidence should be taken with a grain of salt (not literally), as I’ve written about before.1c. 更要少吃重度加工食品。即便是最重度加工的食品,也很少有高质量的据能够实它是危险的。但是你要尽量少吃这些食物,因为它们容易含高热量。这类食物包括面包、薯片、饼干和谷物。流行病学研究发现,重度加工过的肉类往往与健康状况恶化有关,但正如我之前所写,该据不能尽信。2. Eat as much home-cooked food as possible, which should be prepared according to Rule 1. Eating at home allows you to avoid processed ingredients more easily. It allows you full control over what you eat, and allows you to choose the flavors you prefer. You’re much less likely to stuff yourself silly if you eat home-cooked food. I’m not saying this is easy. Behavioral change takes repetition and practice. It also, unfortunately, takes time.2. 尽量在家吃,烹饪料理也应遵循守则1。在家里吃饭能让你更容易避开加工食材,全权控制自己所吃的东西,选择自己喜欢的口味。如果是吃自家制食物,你就不会那么稀里糊涂地填饱肚子。我知道这做起来并不容易。改变行为需要重复和实践。不幸的是还需要很多时间。3. Use salt and fats, including butter and oil, as needed in food preparation. Things like salt and fat aren’t the enemy. They are often necessary in the preparation of tasty, satisfying food. The key here is moderation. Use what you need. Seasoning is often what makes vegetables taste good. Don’t be afraid of them, but don’t go crazy with them either.3. 烹调过程中按需使用盐和油脂(包括黄油和油)。盐和油脂这类调味料并不是敌人。在烹调美味而令人满足的食品过程中,它们往往是必要的。其中的关键是适度。蔬菜往往是通过调味才变得好吃的。不要惧怕它们,但也不要过度使用。4. When you do eat out, try to eat at restaurants that follow the same rules. Ideally, you should eat at restaurants that are creating all of their items from completely unprocessed foods. Lots and lots of restaurants do. Follow Rule 1 even while out to dinner. Some processing is going to be fine, but try to keep it to a minimum.4. 在外面吃饭时,尽量到遵守这些规则的餐厅用餐。在理想的情况下,你应该在只使用未经加工的食材的餐厅吃饭。许多餐厅都符合此条件。即使是出外吃晚餐,亦应该遵从守则1。吃一些加工食材没有什么问题,可还是尽量少吃为妙。5. Drink mostly water, but some alcohol, coffee and other beverages are fine. As I’ve pointed out before, you can find a study to show that everything either prevents or causes cancer — alcohol and coffee included. But my take is that the preponderance of evidence supports the inclusion of a moderate consumption of most beverages.5. 以喝水为主,但偶尔喝一些酒、咖啡或其他饮料亦可。正如我之前所说,任何东西都能找到某个研究明它要么有助预防癌症要么导致癌症——酒和咖啡亦包括在内。但我的观点是,多数据持大部分饮料可适度饮用。6. Treat all beverages with calories in them as you would alcohol. This includes every drink with calories, including milk. They’re fine in moderation, but keep them to a minimum. You can have them because you like them, but you shouldn’t consume them as if you need them.6. 像对待酒精一样对待所有含热量的饮料。这包括了所有含热量的饮料,牛奶也在此列。它们可以适度饮用,但应保持在最低限度。你可以因为喜欢所以饮用,但不应该把它们当作必须摄入的东西。7. Eat with other people, especially people you care about, as often as possible. This has benefits even outside those of nutrition. It will make you more likely to cook. It will most likely make you eat more slowly. It will also make you happy.7. 和其他人一起吃饭,特别是你关心的人,而且次数越频密越好。这甚至有营养以外的益处。这会让你有更多下厨房的机会,很可能令你吃饭吃得更慢。这能让你快乐。I’ve avoided treating any food like the devil. Many nutrition experts do, and it may turn out they’re right, but at this point I think the jury is still out. I’ve therefore tried not to tell you to avoid anything completely. My experience tells me that total abstinence rarely works, although anecdotes exist to support that practice. I think you’ll find that many other diets and recommendations work under these rules. These are much more flexible and, I hope, reasonable than what some might prescribe.我一向避免视任何饮食如魔鬼。很多营养专家这样做,而人们最终可能会发现他们是对的,但目前我觉得还没有盖棺定论。因此,我一直尽量不说你应该完全避开某个东西。尽管现时传闻持相反做法,但经验告诉我,彻底戒绝很少是有效的。我想你会发现,有很多其他饮食和建议都适用于这些规则之下。它们更具灵活性,我希望相比有些人开出的方法,它们会是更加合理的。All of these rules are subtly trying to get you to be more conscious of what you’re eating. It’s far too easy these days to consume more than you think you are, or more than you really need, especially when eating out. I’ve found that it’s impossible to tell any one person how much they should be eating. People have varying requirements, and it’s important for all of them to listen to their bodies to know when they should eat, and when they should stop.所有这些规则都透过微妙的方式,试图让你对自己所吃的东西有更多的意识。现如今,你很容易就会摄取超过自己所想、或是自己所需的分量,出外用餐时情况更尤为严重。我发现,要告诉任何一个人该吃多少食物都是不可能的。人们均有不同的需求,而重要的是所有人都该听从自己的身体,从而了解何时进食,何时停止。One other thing: Don’t judge what others eat. One of my closest friends has been avoiding carbohydrates for months, and has seen remarkable results. Another was a pescatarian — a person whose only meat dishes are fish — for a year and was very happy with that. I, on the other hand, avoid no food groups in particular.还有一件事:不要妄论他人的饮食。我的一个好朋友已经连续数月不沾碳水化合物,效果非常好。还有一个坚持鱼素食——只接受鱼肉这一种肉食——已经有一年,感觉良好。而我呢,不避食任何食物种类。People are very different. Some may have real problems consuming even the smallest amount of carbohydrates. Others may be intolerant of certain foods because of allergies or sensitivities. It will most likely take a bit of experimentation, on an individual level, to find the actual diet within these recommendations that works for you. But the above rules should allow for a wide variety of foods and for remaining healthy. At least, I hope so.每个人都是不同的。有的哪怕只是摄入一丁点碳水化合物都会有麻烦。有的由于过敏或敏感而不能接受某种食物。每个人往往都需要自己去实验,在这些建议中找到适合自己的膳食。不过,以上的守则是包容各种食物的,并且是用于保持健康的。至少我是这样希望的。I’m curious what ers think of these. I welcome your comments to this column, as well as tweets to me in response.我对读者的想法很好奇。欢迎你们这篇专栏,也可以发推给我。 /201601/419984解放军第253医院人工流产多少钱Do you ever feel like you#39;re in over your head and at any moment you#39;re going to burst? You#39;re not alone. As humans, we overthink, overanalyze and dramatize. Lucky for us, we also have the power to take a deep breath, sit back and turn our lives around. It#39;s not easy to stop our negative thoughts from flooding through, especially during hard times, but it#39;s also not impossible. Here are the top 10 ways you can stop your personal insanity:你是否曾有过头脑发胀、随时要崩溃的感觉?其实,并非只有你如此。我们是人,处事总是思虑过度、分析过度,遇事爱夸大其词。但所幸的是,我们还能够去调整自己,回归生活,使之照常运转。虽然我们难以制止心中涌现的消极想法,尤其是身处逆境时,但这并不绝对。下面为大家介绍10种缓解崩溃情绪的方法。10.Meditation10.冥想The practice of meditation has been around for centuries, and for good reason. When you feel like you have 50 different thoughts running through your head every 60 seconds: Meditate. Sit comfortably, close your eyes and repeat a simple mantra. Keep it short and sweet, especially when you#39;re feeling stressed. For example, you can repeat #39;relax#39; or #39;breathe#39;, or even just start counting. You#39;re literally training your mind to sustain single-pointed concentration, which helps you prioritize your thoughts… and life.在几个世纪前,人们已经开始冥想,也实了冥想是有好处的。当你觉得每分钟有50种不同的想法在你的脑海里横冲直撞时:试下冥想。你只需调整出舒适的坐姿,然后闭上双眼,反复默念简单的祷语。当你感到紧张的时候,就更要注意保持祷语简洁性与愉悦性。例如,你可以反复默念“放轻松”或“深呼吸”,或者只是数数。冥想能让你把注意力集中在一个点上,这会助你理顺思路,从而更好地规划生活。9.Move Your Body9.运动Whether you like vigorous exercise or something more low-key, your body craves movement. It#39;s easy to practice at home; these 4 yoga poses to help you relax are easily accessible for anyone. Exercise with strong breath control and a little bit of sweat helps you release tension while embracing positivity and self-worth.不管你是喜欢剧烈运动还是休闲运动,你的身体都渴望运动。其实,在家里锻炼也是很方便的。这四个简单易学的瑜伽姿势可助你放松身体。运动时,深呼吸控制法和少量出汗都可助你缓解紧张的情绪、提高积极性以及提升自我价值。8.Be Honest With Yourself8.对自己坦诚Be true to yourself. This sounds obvious and simple, doesn#39;t it? It#39;s one of the hardest things to do. We#39;re always influenced by the people and media around us; it#39;s easy to lose yourself in the chaos. At the end of the day, always come back to what you want to do and don#39;t be scared to veer away from the crowd. It#39;s ok to become a little selfish, you#39;re the one that lives with your decisions, after all.做真实的自己,这听起来似乎很简单,不是吗?但是,做起来就非常困难。我们往往会受周围的人和媒体的影响,容易在混乱中迷失自我。而往往是在一天结束的时候,你才会回归到自己真正想要做的事情上。这时,不要为远离大众而感到害怕,即使这么做会显得有些自私也不要紧,毕竟你是有理想、有目标的年轻人。7.Clear Your Clutter7.整理杂物Are your magazines stacking up and trinkets suddenly taking over your countertops? Having clutter around the house can bring clutter into your life. Clearing and refreshing your space is a great way to start fresh; here are 6 simple ways you can renovate your kitchen space that are inexpensive space savers and re-vamps. Try to keep things off the floor and your draws from overflowing, this simple strategy can really shift into your life.你的杂志是否已经堆得很高了?你的小饰品是否已经占据了整个桌面?屋里的杂物放任不管也会使你的生活变得杂乱无章。从整理你的房间做起,开启新生活,也不失为一个好办法。这里有六个简单且经济实惠的方法能让你的厨房焕然一新。你可以试一下把东西搬离地面,同时不要把抽屉塞太满。这些简单的小策略都可以让你的生活变得更加有条理。6.Nourishment6.补充营养You are what you eat! Honestly… the saying is true. When you eat foods that not only fulfill your hunger but nourish your body, it makes you feel good physically and mentally. Having a fresh juice rather than can of soda gives a feeling of accomplishment, like you have control over your diet and your life.俗话说:“人如其食。”这是有道理的。你吃的食物不仅满足了你的温饱需求,还滋养了你的身体,令你身心健康。喝一杯新鲜的果汁所带来的满足感远胜于苏打罐头,这种感觉就像是你已经完全控制了你的饮食与生活。翻译:Humen 审校:阿饭 来源:前十网 /201601/420652呼和浩特子宫肌瘤哪家医院最好的

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