2018年04月26日 06:01:27|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度开放

The plague has killed hundreds of millions, sweeping across entire countries and bringing civilizations to their knees. Even though we now know more than those who suffered through the biggest outbreak, knowing more about the disease makes it no less frightening.鼠疫曾杀死上亿人,横扫全世界并使人类文明屈膝。尽管现在我们对这种疾病的了解比那些在鼠疫世界性大流行中死难的古人要更多,但这并不妨碍我们进一步了解它以减轻对它的恐惧。10、There Are Different Types鼠疫有不同的类型We hear most about the bubonic plague, but that’s actually just one of three plague varieties. The bubonic plague is distinguished by swollen lymph nodes, called “buboes,” which give the disease its name. This type is sp only through the bites of fleas and blood contact with the infected insect; there is no way that bubonic plague can sp from one person to another.我们都听说过黑死病,其实它只是三种鼠疫之一。黑死病会使得腹股沟淋巴结肿大。这也是它学名(淋巴腺鼠疫)的由来。黑死病只能通过跳蚤和与染病昆虫的血液接触两种方式传播,而不能通过人际传播。Similarly, septicemic plague is sp only through breaks in the skin and by blood contact. It worsens as bacteria multiply in the blood stream. Septicemic plague has many of the same symptoms as bubonic plague, including fever and chills, but it lacks the bubonic plague’s telltale nodes.类似的,败血症鼠疫通过皮肤创口和血液接触传播。它的病因是细菌在血液中大量繁殖。败血症鼠疫与黑死病在症状上十分相似,包括发烧和发冷,只是没有它标志性的淋巴结肿大。The third type is the only one that can transmit from person to person. Pneumonic plague is airborne and can pass from one person (or animal) to another just by breathing in close proximity to someone. The different types of plague can mutate into one another; pneumonic plague and septicemic plague are often complications of untreated bubonic plague.第三种鼠疫是唯一一种通过人际传播的。肺炎型鼠疫通过空气,仅凭呼吸就可以在人人,人畜,畜畜之间传播,不同的鼠疫通过变异能够相互转化;肺炎型鼠疫和败血症鼠疫往往是黑死病的并发症。Because the different types have similarly devastating effects, we’ve long thought that bubonic plague was the disease that swept across Europe during the Black Death. New research supported by DNA evidence suggests the Black Death wasn’t bubonic plague after all but the faster-sping pneumonic plague.因为不同类型的鼠疫都有相似的严重症状,所以我们很长时间都以为黑死病(淋巴腺鼠疫)是在黑死病时期席卷欧洲的罪魁祸首,但新的研究表明在黑死病时期肆虐的并非淋巴腺鼠疫,而是能够快速传播的肺炎型鼠疫。(注:全文中认为黑死病是起源于中国的,依据是第二次世界鼠疫大流行的发源地是中国云南。这是错误的,因为第一次世界性鼠疫大流行的发生地仅限于东罗马帝国和地中海地区,与中国无关。事实上鼠疫是世界性的疾病,古代长期在全世界范围内流行,不能简单的将其起源归到中国) /201408/319893

Emissions from coal plants in China were responsible for a quarter of a million premature deaths in 2011 and are damaging the health of hundreds of thousands of Chinese children, according to a new study.根据一项新的研究,中国燃煤电厂排放的气体导致了2011年25万人过早死亡的结果,并且损害着几十万中国儿童的健康。The study by a US air pollution expert, commissioned by Greenpeace, comes as many areas in northern and eastern China have been experiencing hazardous levels of air pollution in recent weeks.这项研究是由一名受绿色和平组织委任的美国空气污染研究专家进行的。正好近几周,中国北部和东部的许多地区一直遭受着严重级别的空气污染。In some eastern cities including Shanghai, levels were off the index that tracks dangerous pollution, with schools closing and flights being cancelled or diverted. Sales of air purifiers and face masks have soared with many retailers selling out of stock as residents try to protect themselves from the poisonous smog. In Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces visibility was reduced to less than 50 metres earlier this week and in the city of Nanjing a red alert for pollution was maintained for five consecutive days.包括上海在内的一些东部城市中,污染等级超出了探测污染严重级别的指数,导致学校停课,航班取消或改变航道。空气净化器和面具的销售量一路飙升,许多零售商都卖出了已有的存货,因为市民们想保护自己,免受有毒烟雾的侵害。在江苏省和浙江省,这周刚开始能见度就降到不足50米。在南京市,连续五天都持续着空气污染红色预警。The analysis traced the chemicals which are made airborne from burning coal and found a number of health damages were caused as a result. It estimates that coal burning in China was responsible for reducing the lives of 260,000 people in 2011. It also found that in the same year it led to 320,000 children and 61,000 adults suffering from asthma, 36,000 babies being born with low weight and was responsible for 340,000 hospital visits and 141 million days of sick leave.该分析中还追查了由燃煤而产生的空中飘浮化学物质,并且发现这些化学物质会导致许多损害健康的结果。据估计,2011年中国的燃煤导致26万人减寿。并且在同一年,发现该污染还使32万儿童和6.1万成人遭受哮喘病的痛苦,3.6万体重过轻的婴儿出生。还导致了34万次的病房探病和1.41亿天的病假。;This study provides an unprecedentedly detailed picture of the health fallout from China#39;s coal burning,; said Dr Andrew Gray, a US-based expert on air pollution, who conducted the research. Using computer simulations, Gray said he was able to ;draw a clear map tracing the trail of health damages left by the coal fumes released by every power plant in China, untangling the contribution of individual companies, provinces and power stations to the air pollution crisis gripping the country.;安德鲁?格雷士(Dr Andrew Gray)是美国研究空气污染的专家,并且进行了这次的研究。他说:“这项研究就中国燃煤对人体健康带来负面影响的问题提供了一个前所未有的详细概况。”通过电脑模拟,格雷说他可以“画出一个清晰的地图,追踪探索中国每一个发电厂排放的煤烟所导致的损害健康的痕迹,弄清个体公司、省市还有发电厂各自导致空气污染的程度,毕竟这次污染危机是关乎整个国家的命运。”China#39;s air pollution problems frequently make headlines around the world.中国的空气污染问题频繁地登上各国的头版头条。Isabel Hilton, editor of China Dialogue, an independent website that publishes information and debate on the environment in China, said coal is the main cause of the country#39;s air pollution problems. Coal burning in China ;produces heavy metal pollution and produces particulate pollution on a scale that is getting quite extraordinary,; she said.《中外对话》(China Dialogue)是一个讨论中国环境问题及提供其资讯的独立网站。它的编辑伊莎贝尔?希尔顿(Isabel Hilton)说,煤炭是国家空气污染问题的主要原因。她还说中国的燃煤“导致重金属污染和粉尘污染,其规模相当惊人。”China is the world#39;s largest consumer of coal, which is its main energysource, and is responsible for around half the world#39;s coal consumption. The impacts of its reliance on coal are becoming more well known and recently there was much online discussion after an eight-year-old girl was diagnosed with lung cancer which her doctor blamed on air pollution.中国是世界最大的煤炭消耗国,煤炭是中国最主要的能源,也将近占据世界煤炭总消耗量的一半。中国对煤炭依赖的负面影响越来越被人们所熟知。最近,有个八岁的小女孩被诊断为肺癌,医生说是空气污染所致,这一事件引起了网上热烈的讨论。According to Gray#39;s study, while the growth of coal consumption has slowed, 570 new coal-fired plants are either being built or are planned, and if they go ahead would be responsible for a further 32,000 premature deaths each year.根据格雷的研究,虽然煤炭消耗量的增长速度下降了,但570个新燃煤电厂正处在建设或规划中。所以,如果继续下去,燃煤电厂的排放会导致每年增加3.2万过早死亡的人。In September, the Chinese government announced a plan to tackle the high levels of air pollution including for the first time measures to cut coal consumption. Under the plan, China aims to cut air pollution in some of the worst affected areas including Beijing by 2017.九月,中国政府公布了一项计划来控制严重的空气污染,包括首次公布削减煤炭使用量的措施。根据计划,中国旨在2017年前消除污染最严重地区的空气污染,包括北京。Hilton said that the reductions in the plan would not be enough to make a difference within a short time frame. ;It is going to be difficult to make a difference very shortly. Much more radical things will have to happen,; she said.希尔顿说该计划中的削减措施不会在短期内见效。她说:“在很短的时间内改变现状非常困难。要有更多彻底的,根治性的措施。”;The government has been forced into much greater transparency on the data,; she added. ;But I do think the ambition has to be raised quite a lot.;她还强调:“政府被迫在数据上提高了透明度,但我认为这种决心应该再大一点才行。” /201312/269424

A new breed of watchmaker is breaking the industry#39;s mold of elegant-if-conservative designs by crafting timepieces out of unusual and exotic materials, including pieces of classic sports cars and parts of the Statue of Liberty. 钟表行业“传统即高雅”的设计理念正在被新一代钟表商所颠覆,他们正在使用罕见且奇特的材料来打造钟表,其中包括取自经典跑车以及自由女神像的材料。Take RJ Watches SA#39;s Moon Orbiter, a watch inspired by the Apollo missions that took the first men to the moon. Each timepiece contains metal from the Apollo 11 spacecraft used by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin to get to the Sea of Tranquility in 1969. 让我们以RJ Watches SA制造的Moon Orbiter腕表为例,这款腕表的灵感源自实现了人类首次登月的阿波罗登月计划。每块Moon Orbiter腕表都含有取自“阿波罗11号”(Apollo 11)宇宙飞船的金属,1969年,尼尔·阿姆斯特朗(Neil Armstrong)和巴兹·奥尔德林(Buzz Aldrin)正是乘坐“阿波罗11号”宇宙飞船抵达宁静海(Sea of Tranquilit)的。The Geneva-based watchmaker, commonly know as Romain Jerome, also secured moon dust at an auction, incorporating the extraterrestrial particles in the timepiece#39;s dial. 这家总部位于日内瓦的钟表商为人所熟知的名字是罗曼·杰罗姆(Romain Jerome),该公司还在一次拍卖中将月面尘埃收归囊中,并在这款手表的表盘中用上了这些来自外太空的颗粒。#39;We are offering our customers the opportunity to wear a piece of history,#39; Chief Executive Manuel Emch, said at the BaselWorld watch show, which is running this week. The company has also produced watches using metal from the ill-fated passenger liner Titanic and copper removed from the Statue of Liberty when the New York statue was renovated for its 100th anniversary. 罗曼·杰罗姆的首席执行长曼纽尔·埃姆什(Manuel Emch)在本月举办的巴塞尔钟表珠宝展(BaselWorld)上表示:“我们向消费者提供的是佩戴历史的机会。”罗曼·杰罗姆还曾以取自“泰坦尼克号”(Titanic)沉船上的金属与纽约自由女神像上的铜件(百年庆典整修时被替换下来的)为原料制造过手表。Romain Jerome#39;s creations might be out of this world but the company#39;s strategy isn#39;t. Watchmakers are increasingly turning to unusual materials, including wood and gold-and-ceramic blends, to differentiate their products in an industry crowded with Swatch Group #39;s Omega and Longines lines and Compagnie Financière Richemont SA#39;s Cartier and IWC lines, as well as Rolex SA#39;s eponymous brand. 罗曼·杰罗姆的腕表或许称得上是世间极品,但是该公司的策略却并非独步天下。为了在行业中脱颍而出,在这个充斥着斯沃琪集团(Swatch Group )生产的欧米茄(Omega)和浪琴(Longines)、历峰集团(Compagnie Financiere Richemont SA)生产的卡地亚(Cartier)和万国(IWC)以及劳力士集团(Rolex SA)生产的知名腕表的钟表世界中,钟表商越来越青睐与众不同的材料,包括木材以及融合了黄金和陶瓷的新材质。Among the more wild efforts are a Richard Mille SA watch made entirely of sapphire, that sells for a cool .8 million, and the million Hallucination wristwatch created by British jeweler Graff that contains more than 100 carats of diamonds. 其中登峰造极的两款作品要属理查德·米勒(Richard Mille SA)打造的全蓝宝石腕表和英国珠宝商格拉夫(Graff)打造的镶嵌有超过100克拉 石的Hallucination腕表了。前者的售价为180万美元(约合人民币1,120万元),后者的售价为5,500万美元(约合人民币3.4亿元)。Scalfaro Watch amp; Jewellery#39;s GmbH Co. amp; KG timepieces appeal to both watch and automobile enthusiasts by incorporating parts of some of motoring#39;s most storied cars. The company, based in Neuhausen, Germany, has melted down parts of a Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Gullwing and a Porsche 917 to make its limited-edition watches. The parts are often donated by owners--material from a Ferrari 250 GTO owned by Pink Floyd drummer Nick Mason was turned into luxury watches. Scalfaro Watch amp; Jewellery制造的GmbH Co. amp; KG腕表吸引了腕表爱好者和汽车爱好者的目光,因为历史上最具传奇色的一些汽车的配件被融合进了这款腕表的制作材料中。这家总部位于德国诺伊豪森(Neuhausen)的公司将一辆梅赛德斯-奔驰(Mercedes-Benz) 300 SL Gullwing和一辆保时捷(Porsche) 917的零件融化后制成了限量款腕表。用以制表的汽车零件往往是车主捐献的——平克·弗洛伊德(Pink Floyd)乐队的鼓手尼克·马森(Nick Mason)捐献的一辆法拉利(Ferrari)250 GTO就被用于打造奢华腕表。The company, whose watches cost from between EUR4,000 and EUR10,000 (,500-,800), works with the engineers who designed the cars. #39;For our customers it is a way of expressing their passion for the car,#39; said company co-founder Alexander Kuhnle, #39;Our watches tell a story. They contain the DNA of the cars and their engineers.#39; Scalfaro与参与上述汽车设计的工程师展开了合作,该品牌腕表的售价从4,000欧元至10,000欧元不等(约合人民币34,500元至人民币86,200元)。该公司的联合创始人亚历山大·库恩勒(Alexander Kuhnle)表示:“对我们的顾客来说,这是他们表达自己对汽车的热情的方式。我们的腕表会讲故事。在它们身上蕴含着这些汽车与打造这些汽车的工程师的DNA。”Some watchmakers take a more natural approach. Italy#39;s Lowell srl uses mahogany, pine and a host of other woods to make what it calls environmentally friendly watches that cost between EUR300 and EUR400. The company uses plastic from recycled bottles for the straps, it builds the cases out of wood from a furniture factory. 一些钟表商在材料选取上更加追求自然。意大利钟表商Lowell Srl选用了桃花心木、松木以及多种其他木材制成了该公司所称的环保型手表,这些手表的售价为300欧元至400欧元(约合人民币2590元至人民币3450元)。该公司选用塑料瓶回收制成的塑料作为腕表表带的材料,并用来自一家家具厂的木料做成了腕表的表盒。#39;Stainless steel watches are everywhere,#39; said Andrea Rovatti, the marketing director. #39;Not many people make wooden watches.#39; Lowell Srl的营销总监安德里亚·罗瓦提(Andrea Rovatti)称:“不锈钢表比比皆是。制作木表的商家可不多。”Hublot, owned by France#39;s LVMH Mo#235;t Hennessy Louis Vuitton SA, is creating new materials to distinguish its wristwatches from the pack. 法国酩悦·轩尼诗-路易·威登集团(LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton SA)旗下的品牌宇舶(Hublot)正在打造能够使自己的腕表与众不同的新材料。Its Big Bang Ferrari Magic Gold, which costs nearly 32,000 Swiss francs (,000), uses a blend of ceramic and 24-carat gold, an amalgam that carries gold#39;s luster but is resistant to scratches. The company also launched a 150,000-franc watch earlier this year with a dial made from osmium, an extremely shiny metal from the same family as platinum. 宇舶的Big Bang法拉利魔力金表(Ferrari Magic Gold)采用了陶瓷与24K金的复合材料,这种材质不仅能够彰显出黄金的奢华,还具有防刮特性。这款腕表的售价接近32,000瑞士法郎(约合人民币226,000元)。今年早些时候,宇舶还推出了一款售价为150,000瑞士法郎(约合人民币106万元)的锇表盘腕表,锇属于铂族金属,颜色极其绚丽。#39;We don#39;t want to repeat the past,#39; said Chief Executive Ricardo Guadalupe. #39;We want to make the watches of today with technology that didn#39;t exist before.#39; 宇舶首席执行长里卡多·瓜达卢佩(Ricardo Guadalupe)表示:“我们不愿复制历史。我们希望用前所未有的科技来打造今天的腕表。” /201404/293275

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