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楼主:青年微博 时间:2017年11月23日 10:00:14 点击:0 回复:0
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Struggling with that last minute exam prep? Paint your walls yellow and red.还在为迎战考试而作最后奋斗吗?把墙刷成黄色和红色吧。Brightly coloured rooms can boost your concentration levels, scientists have discovered.科学家发现,色鲜艳的房间能提升你的注意力集中水平。Students say they prefer to study in environments with pale colours which they feel are most relaxing, but researchers have found the opposite works better.学生们说他们更喜欢在浅色环境里学习,这让他们感到最为放松。但研究者发现,相反条件下的学习效果更好。Levels of focus in students are higher when they are surrounded by vivid colours, a study from Curtin University, Australia found.澳大利亚科廷大学的一项研究发现,当学生处在色鲜艳的环境中时,注意力更集中。Student participants were asked to a passage and answer multiple-choice questions adopted from a university entrance test in rooms with six different colour schemes.参与研究的学生被安排在六种不同色的房间里阅读一段文章并回答多项选择题,题目选自大学入学考试。The rooms were pale and vivid shades of blue, red and yellow.房间的颜色分别是浅淡的蓝、红、黄和鲜艳的蓝、红、黄。Their ing comprehension scores were significantly higher in the vivid red and yellow rooms.在鲜艳的红色和黄色房间里,他们的阅读理解分数明显更高。 Lead author Aseel Al-Ayash said: #39;Bright colours can support students#39; learning performance by positively affecting psychological and physiological states.该研究的第一作者阿西尔#8226;阿娅施表示:“鲜亮的色能对人的心理和生理产生积极影响,从而有助于学生的学习表现。”#39;If the ing tasks are difficult, the vivid colour conditions may increase arousal to optimal levels.#39;“如果阅读任务很困难,鲜艳的色可能将兴奋度提升到最佳水平。”Several past studies have indicated the colours red and yellow are more stimulating than blue and green.过去的一些研究已经表明,比起蓝色和绿色,红色和黄色更具有刺激作用。For example, student pulse rates increased in red and yellow conditions, but decreased in blue.比如,在红色和黄色环境下,学生的心跳速度会加快,但在蓝色环境下会降低。This is consistent with the Yerkes-Dodson Law, which proposes that arousal improves performance up to an optimal level, with additional arousal causing a drop off in performance.这符合耶克斯-多德森定律——适度兴奋可以提升工作效率至最佳水平,过度兴奋则会导致效率降低。Ironically, two-thirds of participants believed vivid red wasn#39;t a suitable colour for a study room, associating the colour with depression, discomfort, annoyance and elements such as danger.而讽刺的是,三分之二的参与者认为,学习的房间不适合采用鲜艳的红色。他们将红色与沮丧、不适、恼怒和危险联系起来。But given their improved learning outcomes, perhaps a bit of discomfort, aside from last minute cramming, is what they need.但考虑到学习效果的提高,或许除了最后关头的恶补,些许不适感正是他们所需要的。It seems red and yellow may be the future of study areas, with Curtin and other Western Australia universities expressing a keenness for the work.鉴于科廷大学和其他西澳洲大学对此研究的热情,红色和黄色或许会成为未来学习室的主色调。 /201606/451716Next time you raise an eyebrow at the views of your partner, friend, sibling or colleague, remember they could be helping to make you smarter.下一次当你被伴侣、朋友、兄弟姊或同事的观点惊到时,请记住他们可能会帮你变得更聪明一点。New research shows that intelligence is not fixed but can be boosted throughout adulthood by family members, bright mates and intellectually stretching careers.一项新研究显示,智力不是固定不变的,而是在整个成年期都会受到影响,家庭成员、聪明的配偶以及拓展智力的职业都会促进智力的提高。Stimulating households where people talk, make jokes and challenge each other can boost IQ levels by several points, as can jobs that mentally energise employees.可以谈话、说笑、互相叫板的这种活跃的家庭,以及能激励员工思考的工作,都可以使智商水平提高几分。The study challenges the commonly held notion that intelligence is ‘static’ by the age of about 18.人们普遍认为,智商到了18岁左右就“静止”了,此研究否认了这个说法。Current scientific consensus suggests that intelligence is controlled by genes, with environmental factors such as schooling and nutrition playing a part up to this age. After this point, IQ scores stabilise.目前科学界的共识表明,智力由基因控制,教育和营养等环境因素在18岁之前也有一定的影响。18岁之后,智商就稳定了。But James Flynn, Emeritus professor of political studies and psychology at the University of Otago in New Zealand, argues that people can ‘upgrade’ their own intelligence throughout their lives.但是新西兰奥塔哥大学政治学和心理学退休荣誉教授詹姆斯#8226;弗林说,人们能一辈子“升级”自己的智商。He believes intellectual stimulation from others is crucial as the ‘brain seems to be rather like a muscle – the more you use it, the stronger it gets’.他认为,他人的智力刺激非常关键,因为“大脑似乎和肌肉非常像——你用得越多,就越强壮。”However, the reverse is also true – so people who share a home or workplace with the intellectually challenged risk seeing their IQ levels nosedive as a result.然而,反过来说也成立——所以,与脑筋不太好使的人同居一室或一起工作,会有智商直线下降的风险。Professor Flynn analysed US intelligence tests from the last 65 years and correlated the results with people’s ages. This enabled him to compile new IQ ‘age tables’.弗林教授分析了美国过去65年的智力测试,研究了测试结果与年龄的相关性。通过这项研究,他编制了新的智商“年龄表”。He found the ‘cognitive quality’ of a family alters the IQs of all members, especially children.他发现一个家庭的“认知特性”能改变所有家庭成员的智商,特别是孩子。It can ‘lift’ or hold them back, depending on the ‘gap between their brightness and that of their siblings and parents’.他们的智商提高或降低,取决于“他们本人的智力水平和兄弟、父母智力水平的差异”。A bright ten-year-old with brothers and sisters of average intelligence will suffer a five to ten point IQ disadvantage compared to a similar child with equally bright siblings, the ‘age tables’ revealed.“年龄表”显示,一个10岁大的聪明孩子,如果兄弟智商平平,智商会比有同样聪明的兄弟的相似孩子低5到10分。However, children with a low IQ could gain six to eight points by having brighter siblings and special educational treatment to help pull them up.但是,低智商的孩子,如果有更聪明的兄弟,并受到特别的教育,智商就可以提高6到8分。Professor Flynn, whose book, Does Your Family Make You Smarter? comes out next month, also concluded that although genetics and early life experiences determine about 80 percent of intelligence, the remaining 20 percent is linked to lifestyle.弗林教授也总结说,尽管基因和早年人生经验决定80%的智商,还有剩下的20%受生活方式的影响。弗林教授的书《你的家庭让你变聪明了吗?》将在下月出版。This means that people can raise their IQ, or allow it to fall, by ten points or more.这说明人们可以提高自己的智商,或任其下降,幅度可达10分或更多。Professor Flynn suggests that the best way to boost IQ levels is to socialise with bright friends, find an intellectually challenging job and marry someone cleverer.弗林教授建议说,提升智商最好的方法就是和聪明的朋友交往、找一个挑战智力的工作,以及同比你聪明的人结婚。 /201606/447430

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