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呼市第一附属医院妇科整形多少钱百度云知道

2018年04月26日 06:03:22|来源:国际在线|编辑:和讯手机版
As we get closer to relegating 2014 to the history books, your local stock market guru most likely couldn’t be happier to see those books slammed shut.2014年即将成为历史,各路股市专家也终于可以松一口气了。It’s been one of the worst years for investment decision-making on record, almost across the board. No strategy worked consistently, save for the type of shareholder activism that only a handful of Wall Street’s billionaire titans are able to engage in.从投资决策角度来看,2014年是有史以来最糟糕的年景之一,几乎可以说是全盘皆输。除了少数华尔街亿万富豪才玩得起的“股东积极主义”维权策略还算奏效外,没有哪种投资策略在这一年里始终灵光。For almost everyone else, it was a year of frustration against a backdrop of better-than-average returns for the most popular index in the land.对于更多的普通投资者而言,在标普500指数回报高于历史平均值的大背景下014年是充满挫折的一年。With a bit of help from Charles Dickens, let’s take a look back at the year in which almost nothing worked:我们不妨借用一些狄更斯的名句,来回顾下几乎各种战略都失灵的2014年:It was the best of times, it was the worst of times…这是最好的时代,这是最坏的时代……The Samp;P 500’s total return of 14% this year was 40% higher than its 25-year average annual gain. Wall Street’s chief strategists spent much of the last 12 months revising their targets higher from behind. The index printed over 50 all-time record closes, with nearly all investment management professionals racing to at least pull even. A few characteristics made the U.S. stock market particularly difficult to keep up with this year.今年,标00指数的总回报率4%,比该指5年期平均年化收益率高0%。过2个月,华尔街的首席战略师们一直在上调其目标值。标00指数出现0多次创纪录的收盘,几乎所有专业投资管理人士都卯足了劲,至少要跑平该指数。但有些因素让美股投资者要获得高于基准股指的收益,在今年尤为困难。It was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness…这是智慧的时代,也是愚蠢的时代……An odd assortment of Samp;P sectors led the market higher this year, with some strange bedfellows atop the leaderboard. Even if a manager had foreseen that the healthcare sector would gain 27% this year, would they have guessed that utilities would be in the No. 2 slot, with gains of 23%? Unlikely.今年领跑美国股市的标00公司的行业组合有些奇特,出现了一些令人意想不到的黑马。就算基金经理预见到了医疗保健行业今年将上涨27%,难道他们也能猜到公用事业行业将位列第二,上涨23%?不大可能。Given that every single Wall Street economist had called for higher rates at the start of this year and 67 of 67 economists surveyed by Bloomberg concurred, the rate-sensitive utilities industry would have been the last sector a rational person would want to overweight. Bets on the financial sector were slow to pay off while wagers on “cheapenergy stocks demolished portfolio performance in the third and fourth quarters, just as they had elevated it during the first and second.今年年初,所有华尔街经济学家都呼吁提高利率,彭社就这个问题调查7位经济学家的意见,他们全票赞同,有鉴于此,任何一个有理性的人都不会想要增持对利率敏感的公用事业股。把赌注押在金融股上的投资者,回报进展缓慢;而瞅准了“低价”能源股的投资者,投资组合业绩在第一和第二季度曾因此推高,却在第三和第四季度被大拖后腿,可谓“成也萧何,败也萧何”。It was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity…这是信仰的时代,也是怀疑的时代……Rounding out the top-performing sectors of 2014 was an unlikely pair: tech (+16%) and consumer staples (+13.2%)—the most aggressive and most defensive areas of the market, running side-by-side toward the finish line, with confounded spectators struggling to concoct a narrative for this. Why would the least cyclical sectors—healthcare, staples and utilities—lead the markets in a year in which unemployment plummeted and GDP growth gained momentum? Much to the chagrin of the pundit class, sometimes there are no satisfying answers. To e Kurt Vonnegut:另外两个014年表现上佳的行业可谓风马牛不相及:高科技(上6%)和必需消费品(上涨13.2%)。市场上最激进与最保守的两大投资领域前后脚撞线,留下困惑的旁观者们不知该如何解释这一现象014年,美国失业率大幅下降,GDP呈增长势头,为何领跑市场的却是医疗保健、必需消费品、公用事业等周期性最不明显的行业?令专家们懊恼的是,有些时候就是没有令人满意的。美国作家库尔特o冯内古特曾写道:Tiger got to hunt, bird got to fly;老虎要猎食,鸟儿要飞翔;Man got to sit and wonder ‘why, why, why?’人类想知道“这是为什么?”Tiger got to sleep, bird got to land;老虎要入眠,鸟儿要降落;Man got to tell himself he understand.人不得不告慰自己,原来如此。If you thought that getting sector over- and under-weights correct at the outset proved difficult, switching between them throughout the year was nearly impossible. A quantitative analyst from Nomura Securities explained to Barron’s in November that “industry leadership has been reversing from month-to-month at a rate unseen in decades of stock-market history. ‘Even if you’re picking the right stocks in a sector,he says, ‘things are moving around so much that your performance doesn’t persist.’”如果你认为一开始准确判断应增持和减持哪些行业的股票是件难事,在年内不断调整投资组合更是难上加难1月,野村券一位定量分析师向《巴伦周刊》表示:“行业领军者每个月都在变换,其变化速度之快,在股市数十年未见。即便你选对了某行业的个股,由于市场环境瞬息万变,业绩也根本无法持续。”It was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness…这是光明的季节,也是黑暗的季节……Getting sector calls right was the least of any investor’s problems this year because, outside of the brilliance of U.S. stock gains, the lights were off around the world.对投资者而言,今年对行业的准确判断还只是个小问题,因为除了美股,今年全球的投资好选择不多。With both the Samp;P 500 and Nasdaq returning over 14% while the Dow and MidCap 400 each kicking in close to 10%, you would assume that passive investors would have an awful lot to celebrate this year. And indeed, they would have, if it weren’t for those pesky overseas stocks that did nothing but drag on the performance of any diversified portfolio.鉴于标普500和纳斯达克指数都回升4%以上,道琼斯和标普400中型股指数也都回升了0%,你可能会认为今年被动投资者应该收获颇丰。确实,要不是那些恼人的海外股业绩不佳,大拖多元化投资组合的后腿,被动投资者原本应该值得庆祝。With the majority of professional advisors (myself included) preaching the benefits of global diversification to their clients, 2014 looks more like a draw than an outright victory in the harsh light of December’s low winter sun. Consider the fact that, through last week, the MSCI World Index gained just 2% on the year, with nearly 5% drops for both the MSCI Emerging Markets index and the EAFE index of developed markets outside of the ed States. Ironically, the single best-performing foreign market in the world, the Shanghai Composite of mainland Chinese equities (up 45%) is the only one that U.S. investors could not actually put their money into.大多数专业顾问(包括我在内)都会对其客户大力鼓吹全球化多元投资组合的好处,然而,2月看来,残酷的现实是2014年更像是个平局,而非大获全胜。事实上,上周根士丹利资本国际全球指数同比仅上涨了2%,而根士丹利资本新兴市场指数(MSCI Emerging Markets)和追踪美国以外发达国家市场的EAFE指数双双下跌了近5%。具有讽刺意味的是,除美国以外全球唯一一个表现上佳的市场——中国大陆股市的上综指(上涨了45%),也是唯一一个美国投资者无法进入的市场。Over 10- and 20-year stretches, geographic and asset class diversification have proven beneficial for returns and risk management. Unfortunately, you are not guaranteed to see the benefits of such a strategy during any 12-month period. In an era of 140-character writing and two-minute , should we be surprised that investors have trouble judging the success of their portfolios over long periods?0年和20年的时间跨度来看,地域和资产类别的多元化已经明对投资回报和风险管理有益。不幸的是,2个月内,不一定能看到此种战略的好处。在如今这个140字微消息和2分钟短视频盛行的时代,投资者不能以长期的表现来判断其投资组合的成败,又有何奇怪?It was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair…这是充满希望的春天,也是令人绝望的寒冬……One of the most discouraging aspects of 2014 for professional investors has been the start-and-stop nature of the recovery. We coasted into January on a trend of strengthening economic reports. Within a few weeks, a nationwide snowstorm seemingly drove the economic data off the side of the road.对专业投资者而言014年最令人沮丧的一点是,美国经济复苏时断时续014月,经济领域捷报频传。然而,在短短几周内,一场暴风雪席卷全美,各种经济数据似乎也因此停摆。Market watchers were forced to digest the reality of negative 2.9% GDP for the first quarter of the year. All of a sudden, everyone’s forecasts seemed too rosy—or at least too smooth—compared to the lumpy reality. This led to a raft of second-guessing on the timing of the Fed’s eventual exit from its bond-buying stimulus program. We went from confidence to WTF? in a space of a few weeks, with all the asset class rotations and market corrections that come along with a fresh bout of uncertainty.市场观察人士被迫接受一季度美国GDP负增.9%这一现实。突然间,同波诡云谲的现实相比,所有人的预测似乎都过于乐观,至少是过于平稳。这导致人们纷纷猜测美联储最终退出其债券购买计划的时机。短短几周内,我们从信心满满变成了垂头丧气,同时,伴随着不确定性的再次来袭,资产类别的交替以及市场调整也随之而来。Despite the fact that each market rebound ended up as a V-shaped affair, each successive rally was carried out with less and less individual stock participation. Glaring divergences between winners and losers, large caps and small caps, preoccupied the commentariat for most of the spring and summer. Deflationary concerns from Europe and the Japanese technical recession further confounded analysts, as Treasury yields and inflation indicators in the U.S. were driven lower despite the improving domestic economy.尽管每轮市场反弹最终都呈V形,每次连续的涨势中,个股的参与越来越少。今年春夏两季的绝大部分时间里,时事分析员们都专注于赢家与输家、大盘股和小盘股之间的明显差异。欧洲的通缩担忧以及日本的技术性衰退,使得分析师们愈加困惑,尽管美国经济正在好转,美国国库券收益率和通胀指标却双双下行。Put succinctly, there was no way to describe or explain the crosscurrents of 2014. And I’m not convinced that the benefit of hindsight will make what happened this year any clearer years from now.简言之,2014年种种相反的趋势无法描述和解释。我也不信,多年之后,人们凭借后见之明,能将今年发生的种种事情看得更清楚。We had everything before us, we had nothing before us…我们的前路应有尽有,我们的前路一无所有……While the Samp;P 500 is on track to conclude another stellar year of gains, those who sought to beat the index are poised to finish with a more dubious distinction. According to Lipper, 85% of all active stock mutual fund managers had been trailing their benchmarks through the end of November. In a typical year, there are nearly twice as many managers outperforming, with only around two thirds of funds struggling to catch up. Lipper says this is the worst year for active managers relative to the market in three decades.在即将结束的2014年,标普500指数再次实现亮眼增长,而那些本欲跑赢该指数的基金经理们,表现则没那么出色。Lipper公司称,截止11月底5%的活跃股票型共同基金经理业绩低于标00指数。而在正常的年份里,跑赢该指数的基金经理比例是今年的两倍,也就是说,通常只有约三分之二的基金表现不如标普500指数。Lipper公司称,这是30年来活跃基金经理相对大盘表现最差的一年。Stock pickers encountered difficulty this year in part because of concentration at the top of the market. Just five stocks—Apple, Berkshire Hathaway, Johnson amp; Johnson, Microsoft, and Intelaccounted for 20% of the market’s gains. If you weren’t at least equally weighted toward them, you had virtually no shot at making up for missing their enormous, index-driving gains. A majority of the market’s stocks did not perform nearly as well. According to the Leuthold Group, only 30% of Samp;P 1500 stocks posted gains exceeding the index itself. You’d have to go back to 1999 to see anything like this.今年选股遇到困难,部分原因在于市场顶部高度集中。苹果、伯克希尔o哈撒韦、强生、微软和英特尔这五只股票占去了市场涨幅的20%。如果你未持有上述股票,几乎就没有机会分享这场增长盛宴,而正是这几家公司的增长推高了标普500指数。市场上大部分股票的表现要逊色得多。研究公司路佛集团称,标500综合指数成分股中,仅0%的个股跑赢了该指数。上次出现这样的景象,那还是1999年的事。Fund shareholders weren’t wasting any time reacting to this year of disappointment. Collectively, they’ve added just billion to active stock-picking funds in the last 11 months, less than a quarter of the 2 billion they added in 2013, which was the first year of positive flows for the industry since 2007. This is not to say that they were sitting still. ETFs and passive index funds took in over 6 billion in net deposits through Thanksgiving, and Vanguard surpassed the trillion mark sometime in late summer. Investors seem to have decided that they’d rather bet on the horses than the jockeys, after all.在令人失望的2014年里,基金投资者们没有太多的动作。总体而言,过1个月中,主动选股基金仅新增了350亿美元资金,还不013年同期新增资金(1620亿美元)的四分之一013年是该行业自2007年以来首次实现资金净流入。不过,这并不是说基金行业毫无作为。截止感恩节,交易所交易基金(ETFs)和被动指数型基金吸纳了2060多亿美元净存款,行业领先者先锋集团管理的基金规模在今年夏末突破了3万亿美元大关。投资者们似乎已经决定,与其把宝押在“骑手”身上,不如直接把赌注押在“赛马”身上。We were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way我们都将直上天堂,我们都将直下地狱The malaise was not confined to those picking individual stock winners. Through December 1, aggregate hedge fund returns trailed the market to the point of farce. According to data compiled by Bloomberg, hedge funds were up an average of 2% on the year, just barely offering the coupon rate of a risk-free 10-year Treasury note. Over 1,000 funds are on track to close down in 2014, the worst year for liquidations since .萎靡不振的不光是那些挑选个股的基金。截2日,对冲基金整体回报严重落后于市场。彭收集的数据显示,对冲基金平均同比上涨了2%,其回报率也就勉强赶上无风0年期美国国债的票面利率014年将000多只基金倒闭,是009年以来破产清算最多的一年。Among the gargantuan hedge funds that make up a majority of the industry’s assets under management, dispersion of returns shot up to notable levels. And for every big winner, like William Ackman’s Pershing Square, there was a big loser to counterbalance it, like John Paulson’s Advantage Fund. Investors choose hedge funds for their “non-correlated returns,meaning a tendency to move opposite from the general market’s direction. They certainly got such returns this year, unfortunately.几家大型对冲基金的资产规模,占据了该行业的大半江山。各家的回报率相差巨大。每个像威廉o阿克曼旗下潘兴广场那样的,都对应着一个像约翰o保尔森旗下优势基金那样的大输家。投资者选择对冲基金,是冲着其“非相关收益”,意即与大盘走向背道而行的趋势。今年,他们绝对是获得了“逆市”的收益,可惜是在大盘表现出色的情况下“逆市”。Financial advisors and asset allocators who had been hoping to see some benefit this year from tactical strategies were also not spared the punishment of a capricious market. Of the top three tactical strategies in the country (Mainstay Marketfield, Good Harbor U.S. Tactical Core, F-Squared Premium AlphaSector Index), two had nearly imploded with double-digit losses while the third found itself under SEC investigation for misleading the public about its historical returns. The other giant tactical manager, Schwab’s billion Windhaven Diversified Growth product, looks to end 2014 with a return close to zero. So much for tactics.那些原本希望今年凭借战术策略获得些利益的财务顾问和资产配置人员,也在反复无常的市场中栽了跟头。全美前三位的战术策略产品中,有两款产品几乎因为高达两位数的亏损而崩盘,还有一款产品则因为向公众误报自身历史回报率而受到美国交会调查。另一家战术产品巨头嘉信理财旗0亿美元的Windhaven Diversified Growth产品014年的回报率几乎为零。战术策略原来不过如此。In short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only.简言之,那个时代与当今时代极为相似,一些最哗众取宠的权威人士,要么将其捧上天,要么把其贬得一文不值。When Dickens wrote about the French Revolution in A Tale of Two Cities, he did it with nearly a century of hindsight. Here, at the end of December, I don’t enjoy that luxury. As such, some of the trends I’ve written here are likely to remain in force for the foreseeable future, while others may have aly begun to fade. As one of this period’s “noisiest authorities,I insist only on your receiving this review with just one caveat in mind: Past performance does not guarantee future results.狄更斯在《双城记》中描写法国大革命时,距离事件发生已有近一个世纪。而我则是在今2月就回顾盘点这一年。因此,我在此描述的某些趋势,可能将在可预见的未来继续存在,而另一些趋势则可能已经开始减弱。作为当今时代“最哗众取宠的权威人士”之一,我只要求各位在阅读这篇文章时记住一点:过去的业绩并不能保将来的表现。来 /201501/354385Japans prime minister has rebuffed Chinas invitation to a military parade marking the end of the second world war in a setback to relations between East Asias two largest economies.日本首相安倍晋三拒绝了中国的邀请,不出席纪念二战结0周年的阅兵式。此举标志着东亚最大的两个经济体之间的关系遭遇挫折;Prime Minister Shinzo Abe will not attend the ceremony,; Yoshihide Suga, chief cabinet secretary, said on Monday. ;The decision is based on the situation in parliament.......and we have communicated this to the Chinese.;周一,日本内阁官房长官菅义伟表示;安倍晋三首相不会出席这一仪式。这一决定是基于国会的情况作出的……我们已向中方传达了这一决定;The Japanese prime ministers decision to skip the ceremony suggests that he is wary of being humiliated at a celebration of Japans defeat 70 years ago, outweighing the opportunity to improve neighbourly ties.安倍决定不出席这一仪式,说明他担心会在这个庆祝70年前日本战败的仪式上受到羞辱,宁可放弃与邻国改善关系的机遇。There has been a thaw in relations between Tokyo and Beijing since Mr Abe met Chinese president Xi Jinping last November, but the decision not to attend casts a shadow over that progress.自去1月安倍与中国国家主席习近平会晤以来,日中关系已有所解冻,但安倍的上述决定为这一进展蒙上了阴影。Mr Suga said Mr Abe had to stay in Tokyo to deal with security bills passing through parliament. The legislation would reinterpret Japans pacifist constitution, making it easier for its military to fight in defence of allies.菅义伟表示,为处理正在国会讨论的安保法案,安倍不得不留在东京。该法案将重新解读日本的和平宪法,减少日本军队为保护盟国而作战的障碍。Deciding whether to attend the Chinese parade has caused heartache for many national leaders, who have no wish to rebuff the rising superpower, but worry about becoming props in a display of military might.对许多国家的领导人来说,决定是否出席中国的阅兵式是个令人头疼的问题。这些领导人不想冷落这个崛起中的超级大国,但又担心这么做会变成为一场军力展示站台。Last week, South Korean president Park Geun-hye opted to attend, joining the leaders of the Czech Republic, Russia, Egypt, Serbia, Mongolia and four central Asian nations.上周,韩国总统朴槿惠决定与捷克、俄罗斯、埃及、塞尔维亚、蒙古及中亚四国领导人一道出席中方的庆典。Mr Abe is eager for a summit meeting with Mr Xi, and Japanese officials had considered whether he could skip the military parade but still attend other parts of the ceremony.安倍渴望与习近平举行峰会,日本官员也曾考虑过安倍能否不出席阅兵式、但仍出席庆典的其他活动。Hopes of a meeting between the two leaders were raised after China and South Korea gave a subdued response to Mr Abes statement on the 70th anniversary of the end of the war last week.上周,安倍发表了纪念二战结束70周年的讲话,中韩两国对该讲话的回应都比较克制,这点燃了日中两国领导人举行会晤的希望。The decision to stay away thwarts Mr Abes quest for a high profile China summit. Attending the parade might have facilitated meetings with Russias Vladimir Putin and Ms Park of Korea on the sidelines.但安倍的上述决定对他寻求日中举行高调峰会的努力构成了障碍。出席此次阅兵式本可为他在活动间隙会晤俄总统弗拉基米尔·普京和韩国总统朴槿惠提供便利。Instead, Mr Abe must now rely on occasions such as nexts months meeting of the ed Nations General Assembly in New York to meet his most important counterparts and advance his diplomatic agenda.如今,要想和习近平这个最重要的对手会晤、推进自己的外交议程,安倍必须仰仗下月纽约联合国大会会议等场合;As before with China, well continue to seek opportunities for frank discussion between the two leaders using occasions such as international meetings,; said Mr Suga.菅义伟表示:;像以往与中方的交流一样,我们会继续利用国际会议等场合,寻找机会促成两位领导人间的坦率对话;The prospects of Mr Putin visiting Japan this year a meeting eagerly sought by Mr Abe suffered a blow over the weekend when Russias prime minister, Dmitry Medvedev, visited one of the disputed Kuril islands.上周末,俄总理德米特里·梅德韦杰夫访问了有争议的千岛群岛中的一个岛屿,此举令普京今年访日的可能性大大降低。安倍一直渴望与普京展开会晤。来 /201509/396877

In November 1997, Kim Young-sam began the final weeks of his presidency by seeking a massive bailout from the International Monetary Fund in an attempt to rescue South Korea’s crisis-hit economy.19971月,金泳Kim Young-sam)以争取国际货币基金组IMF)的大规模纾困作为其总统任期最后几周的开始,试图借此拯救受到危机冲击的韩国经济。“We cannot avoid the criticism that we’ve hesitated on bold reforms,he said in a grim televised address, after failing to find alternatives to the tough conditions that would accompany IMF assistance. “The economic management of the past has reached its limit.”他表情严肃地在电视讲话中表示:“我们不能回避那种认为我们没有决心实施大胆改革的批评。过去的经济管理方式已达到极限。”在此之前,他未能找到替代方案,来避免因接受IMF援助而必须满足的苛刻条件。The Asian financial crisis brought a traumatic finale to a four-decade political career that was one of the most important in South Korea’s tumultuous journey to democracy. Kim, who died yesterday aged 87, was a leading opposition figure during 32 years of military rule, finally becoming the civilian president who brought that period to an end.亚洲金融危机为金泳三的政治生涯画上了一个令人难过的句号。他四十年的从政生涯,在韩国颠簸曲折的民主进程中极为重要。金泳三于昨日逝世,享7岁。他在韩2年的军事统治时期曾是头号反对派人物,并最终成为结束这一时期的文职总统。Born on the southern island of Geoje on December 20 1927, Kim became the youngest MP in modern Korean history when he was elected in 1954 at the age of 26. But he truly rose to prominence in the years after the authoritarian leader Park Chung-hee pushed through a new constitution in 1972 that in effect granted him absolute power.金泳92720日出生在韩国南部的巨济岛(Geoje)954年,26岁的金泳三当选议员,成为现代韩国历史上最年轻的议员。不过,他真正在政坛崛起,还是在1972年独裁领导人朴正Park Chung-hee)推动通过新宪法后的几年里。那部新宪法实际上赋予了朴正熙绝对的权力。Elected leader of the opposition New Democratic party two years later, Kim took the fore in demands for political reform. 两年后,金泳三当选反对党新民New Democratic Party)领导人,带头要求韩国实施政治改革。A climactic point came in 1979, when Kim granted sanctuary in his party headquarters to about 170 dismissed female workers from a wig factory, who had been evicted and beaten by police. The building was stormed by a thousand policemen, who injured dozens of people and killed one of the workers. The incident drew international condemnation, emboldening Mr Kim to step up his criticism of the government, which in turn prompted Park to have him expelled from parliament.1979年,局面发展到高潮。那一年,金泳三在其新民党总部为大70名被一家假发厂开除的女工提供庇护,这些女工此前曾遭警方的驱赶和殴打000名警察冲进新民党总部大楼,导致数十人受伤,一名女工丧生。这一事件引起了国际社会的谴责,鼓舞了金泳三加大对政府的批评力度,这反过来又促使朴正熙将金泳三逐出韩国议会。Park’s assassination later that year resulted in the accession to power of the repressive general Chun Doo-hwan, who oversaw the killing of hundreds of people following protests in the city of Gwangju in 1980. Kim marked the third anniversary of the atrocity with a 26-day hunger strike that ended only when he was detained and force-fed.同年晚些时候,朴正熙遭到暗杀,这使实行高压政策的全斗Chun Doo-hwan)将军上位,他980年光Gwangju)的抗议活动之后下令武力镇压,导致数百人死亡。金泳三在那次暴行三周年时进行了长达23天的绝食抗议,在被拘留和强迫进食后才结束绝食。Opposition to military rule continued to grow, and Kim played a big role in organising the protests that persuaded the government to hold direct elections in 1987. But when Kim and his fellow campaigner Kim Dae-jung both ran, the split allowed Roh Tae-woo, Chun’s chosen successor, to win the contest.反对军事统治的力量持续增强,金泳三在组织抗议、最终说政府在1987年举行直选中发挥了重要作用。但当时金泳三和与他一起开展运动的金大Kim Dae-jung)都竞选了总统,这种分裂造成全斗焕选择的继任者卢泰愚(Roh Tae-woo)赢得了大选。Both Kims ran again five years later but this time Kim Young-sam emerged triumphant. A year into his term, North Korea refused to allow international inspectors into a plutonium reprocessing plant, sparking a stand-off between Pyongyang and Washington. In his memoirs, Kim wrote that he had persuaded President Bill Clinton not to launch air strikes against North Korea’s nuclear facilities, telling him it would have prompted attacks on South Korea.金泳三和金大中都年后再次参选——但这一次金泳三获得了胜利。金泳三当选总统一年后,朝鲜拒绝让国际核查人员进入一处钚再处理工厂,这引发了朝鲜和美国的对峙。在回忆录中,金泳三写道,他说美国前总统比尔克林Bill Clinton)不对朝鲜核设施发动空袭,因为那将使韩国遭到袭击。Kim’s domestic record was mixed. He oversaw a law forbidding bank accounts under false names, a favoured tool of corrupt businessmen and politicians. In 1996 his predecessors Chun and Roh were respectively sentenced to death and jailed for life for crimes committed in office; Kim pardoned both in the final days of his presidency.金泳三的内政记录毁誉参半。他推动一项禁止用假名开设账户的法律获得通过,这种做法曾是腐败商人和政客青睐的手段996年,他的前任全斗焕和卢泰愚分别因掌权时犯下的罪行而被判处死刑和无期徒刑,金泳三在总统任期的末期赦免了两人。But he faced controversy over economic policy notably a labour law that gave companies the right to shed workers and declared the country’s second biggest union illegitimate. After weeks of demonstrations the government scrapped the law. This climbdown, along with the bribery conviction of a son (one of five children who survive him along with his wife Son Myung-soon), left his authority depleted.但他的经济政策面临争议——尤其是一部允许企业裁员的劳动法,以及宣布韩国第二大工会为非法组织。在数周的游行示威后,政府撤回了这部劳动法。这一退让、以及他的一个儿子(金泳三的五个子女之一,他与金泳三的妻子孙命顺(Son Myung-soon)依然在世)因受贿被判罪,让他的权威消失殆尀?Yet perhaps more than for his time as president, Kim will be remembered for his defiant work in opposition as characterised by his most celebrated aphorism, delivered in the face of state intimidation in 1979: “Dawn will come even if you wring the rooster’s neck.”比起金泳三任总统时的作为,人们可能更多地会因他在野时的反抗活动而铭记他——这些反抗可以用他在1979年面对政府恐吓时发表的最著名的一句格言来概括:“黎明总会到来——即使你拧断了公鸡的脖子。”来 /201511/412216

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