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  • Don: You know, Yael, no matter how much we talk about the need to stop global warming, sometimes it seems impossible. I mean, what are we actually doing about it?唐:知道吗,雅艾尔,无论我们口头上多么需要遏制全球气候变暖,但有时似乎是不可能的。我的意思是,我们实际都做了些什么?Yael: Well Don, I suppose theres no one solution, but things like hybrid cars can make a difference. And scientists are busy developing biofuels that could reduce our use of gasoline derived from oil. And then there are crops...雅艾尔:好吧,唐,我觉得没有万能的解决办法,但混合动力汽车能让事情有所不同。而且科学家们正忙于开发生物燃料,以减少使用从石油提炼出来的汽油。还有农作物...Don: You mean crops and plants that absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?唐:你是说农作物和植物能吸收大气中的二氧化碳?Yael: That, but also crops like corn and wheat with leaves that reflect sunlight back into space. Scientists have used computer models to show that in major croplands in the ed States and in Europe, planting crops with waxier leaves reflects more sunlight. In fact, switching to these crops could lower temperatures by about a degree during the summer.雅艾尔:是,但像玉米和小麦这种有叶农作物能够将阳光反射回大气。科学家就曾利用电脑模拟了美国和欧洲的大型农田,演示了叶子更光亮的作物会反射更多的光线。事实上,改种这种作物会使夏季气温下降一度。Don: So are farmers switching to these plants?唐:那么农民们会改种这类植物吗?Yael: Not yet, because right now they exist only as experiments. But with selective breeding and maybe genetic engineering it would be pretty simple to end up with seeds that produce plants with waxier and more reflective leaves.雅艾尔:还不会,因为目前处于试验阶段。但通过选择性繁殖和基因工程能培育叶子更光亮、反射性更强的种子,这就使事情变得很简单。Don: Cool. But theres only so much cropland on the planet? How would more reflective crops help stop global warming?唐:极妙。但地球上农田是有限的?反射性更强的作物如何帮助减缓全球气候变暖呢?Yael: It wouldnt, at least not globally. But in places where theres lots of wheat, corn and other crops, waxier leaves could make a regional difference.雅艾尔:不会减缓,至少从全球范围来说。但是那些大量种植小麦,玉米还有其他农作物的地带会因光亮的叶子变得有所不同。Don: I guess thats something.唐:我想是这样的。原文译文属!201210/202871
  • Science and Technology科技Climate and the solar cycle气候与太阳周期Chilling out in the winter sun冬日下的冷噤Stratospheric changes can lead to nasty cold snaps平流层变化引起讨厌的严寒THOSE unconvinced-and those seeking to unconvince others-of the reality of man-made global warming often point to the changeable behaviour of the sun as an alternative hypothesis.那些自己不信和那些游说他人不要相信人类活动导致全球变暖的人,常常将其归咎于太阳活动多变。A new study showing how the severity of winters in Europe, and warming in the Arctic, might be linked to changes in solar activity might seem to add to this case.一项新的研究似乎为此提供了新据:该研究显示欧洲冬日的严寒以及北极地区的温暖也许真与太阳活动有关。In itself, it does not, for the heat (or, rather, the cold) in question is being redistributed, not retained.就研究本身而言,它并不能提供新的据,因为所提到的热能(或者是寒气)是被重新分配而不是滞留固定的。But it does point to two other lessons about climate change: that hard data on the factors which affect it are sometimes difficult to come by;但它的确指出了关于气候变化的另外两个问题:一是有时候很难获得影响气候变化的因素的切实数据;and that computer models of the climate can be quite impressive tools for working out what is going on.二是计算机气候模型在探究气候现象方面是十分强大的工具。The suns activity waxes and wanes on an 11-year cycle, and over this cycle the amount of ultraviolet (UV) light the sun emits changes a lot more than does the total amount of energy.太阳活动的盛衰以11年为一个周期,在一个周期内,太阳放射的紫外线的变化幅度要比其放射的能量的变化幅度要大得多。The stratosphere, the part of the Earths atmosphere which does most to absorb UV, might thus be expected to particularly sensitive to the cycle.因此,地球大气中吸收最多紫外线的平流层也许对这一周期变化最为敏感。In a paper just published in Nature Geoscience, Sarah Ineson of Britains Meteorological Office and her colleagues compared the way that the Met Offices new and putatively improved climate model dealt with winters at times of high UV and at times of low UV, using data on the amount of ultraviolet the sun gives off that were collected by a satellite called SORCE.《自然地球科学》杂志刚刚发表的一篇论文上,英国气象局的莎拉?伊内森和她的同事们利用SORCE(太阳辐射和气候试验)卫星收集的太阳放射的紫外线数据,对比了气象局新建立的改良版气候模型对于紫外线峰值年与低谷年的冬天的处理方式。Dr Ineson found that at low UV levels the stratosphere in the tropics was cooler, because there was less UV for it to absorb, which meant the difference in temperature between the tropical stratosphere and the polar stratosphere shrank.伊内森士发现,热带平流层在紫外线低谷年的温度偏低,因为可吸收的紫外线较少,这就使得热带平流层与极地平流层的温差缩小。That changed the way the atmosphere circulated, and as those changes sp down into the lower atmosphere they made it easier for cold surface air from the Arctic to come south in winter, freezing chunks of northern Europe.这一温差变化会改变大气循环的方式,而低层大气循环方式的改变让冬天北极冷空气更易南下,冰冻北欧大片地区。These conditions looked similar to those seen in the past two cold European winters-which occurred at a time of low solar activity.这些状况与欧洲上两次均发生在太阳活动沉静期的严酷寒冬的状况十分相似。The Arctic itself, in models and in real life, was warmer than usual, as were parts of Canada.这种状况下,无论在气候模型中还是现实中,北极和加拿大部分地区都比平常要温暖。In contrast, northern Europe, swathes of Russia and bits of America were colder.相比之下,北欧、俄罗斯大部分地区以及美国小部分地区则比平常要冷。Why had this solar effect not been seen before?为何太阳在这方面的影响之前未被发现?To some extent it had.某种程度上说,的确有前人初见其端倪。Earlier modelling of a period of prolonged low solar activity in the 17th and 18th centuries showed similar patterns.早前一个的反映十七、十八世纪偏长的太阳活动低迷期的模型显示了类似的气候变化模式。That models of todays climate had not was, in part, because they used much lower estimates of the amount of UV variation over the solar cycle than those derived from the SORCE data, the most precise to be taken from a satellite looking at the sun.今日的模型未能发现这一影响的部分原因是,与SORCE卫星收集的最精确数据所计算衍生的数值相比,这些模型对太阳活动周期内紫外线值的变化幅度估计过低。It may just be that working with more realistic data made the model work better.也许就是更切实的数据让这些模型做得更好。This does not mean the question is settled.但问题并没有解决。Some scientists suspect the SORCE data may be exaggerating the suns variability, and if they were revised the link might go away.有些科学家认为SORCE卫星的数据有夸大太阳活动变化幅度的嫌疑,如果将数据加以修正,那么太阳活动与气候的所谓联系很可能也不复存在。There are other theories around seeking to explain the recent cold winters, too.还有其他一些理论也致力于找出近期严酷寒冬发生的原因。Improving predictions of future cold winters on the basis of this work, as the researchers say they would like to do, may thus prove hard.如研究人员所说,基于这项工作的成果,他们就有可能对寒冬做出更精准的预测。But though global warming has made people look to models as predictors of the future, that is not their strongest suit.尽管全球变暖使人们将气候模型视为预测工具,但这可不是它们最强大的地方。Something they can do much better is look at what happens when a variable such as UV is altered, compare that with the data, and thus gain insight into the mechanisms by which climate works.它们更精于研究当紫外线等某一变量变化时发生的情况,并将其与已有数据进行比较,从而了解气候运作机制。This new research provides a good example of what such an approach can achieve.此项新研究很好地给我们展现了这一方法的潜能。 /201211/207279
  • A Smooth Wake平静的尾流Female: Donne and I are on a fantacy cruise. The sun has set and were standing on the rear deck. Look at the reflection of the moon.多恩和我正在进行着一场不可思议的巡游。太阳下山了,照耀在(船的)后舱。看,月亮的影子。Male: You might expect a ships wake to be more agitated than the surrounding water. Instead, its a smooth path through the waves that can extend for miles behind the ship. How come?你或许还期望(船的)尾流要比四周的水更汹涌吧?相反,它却是一条穿梭于海浪间的、可以在船尾延伸至几公里的平静轨迹。如何形成的呢?F: The wake starts out smooth because the passage of the ship destroys whatever wave patterns were there before the ship came through. The reason it stays smooth has to do with tiny organic molecules—such as decomposed plankton—on the surface of the water.尾流一开始就是平静的,因为在船经过之后,它的路径变改变了之前波浪的路径。尾流保持平静的原因还与水面上微小的有机分子有关,比如说已分解的浮游生物。There are always some organic molecules on the oceans surface, but as the ship pushes along, it plows these molecules to the sides. This leaves the wake something like a winter road that has just been snow-plowed, with piles of snow on both sides of the road.海面上总是会有一些有机分子。但是随着船只前行,它会把这写分子推到一两边。这就让尾流有点像在冬天里刚刚开通的雪路一样,路两旁是成堆的雪。The center of the wake is relatively free of organic molecules, but the two sides each have an accumulated pile-up. These stretch behind the ship on either side of the wake like ribbons.相对来说,尾流的中间就没有了有机分子,而两边就堆积了很多。在船后面,两边倒偶像这样延伸,就像两条带子一样。M: Well, thats interesting. But how does this keeps wake smooth?嗯,有意思!但是它是怎样保持水流平静的?F: It turns out that a thin ribbon of organic molecules on the surface of water is really good at suppressing small waves. These two ribbons, on either side of the wake, act like guardrails, preventing small waves from entering and crossing the wake.水面上薄薄的有机分子带真的很能“镇压”周围的小波浪。尾流两边的两条带状物就像护栏一样,阻止小波浪进入甚至横穿过尾流。M: So thats why the wake stay so smooth!这就是尾流如此平静的原因啊! /201209/198715
  • A fanatic capital city, one of the largest the most densely populated anywhere in the world, also famous for its tireless workers for salary men.一座令人狂热的首府城市,世界上人口最为稠密的大城市之一,同时也因为男人们不知疲倦的工作而闻名全世界。And here in Tokyos A district a place thats known for corky ideas, one former salary man himself has come out with a very unique business, a co-sleeping specialty shop.这便是东京的A区,以产生各种新奇的想法而著名。曾经的男性工薪者自己开创了一个非常独特的生意,陪睡专卖店。Yes, people come here to cuddle. M tells me.是的,这位先生告诉我,人们来这里是来享受拥抱的。Before you let your mind run wild, he says, it is just cuddling, nothing more.他说,在你的乱思乱想之前,我先申请,只是拥抱,没有其他。Customers pay about forty dollars to sleep next to a girl for twenty minutes. Some customers are young men looking for simple companionship.为了睡在一个女孩身边20分钟,顾客需付大约50美元。有些年轻的男性来这儿只是为了看一看睡在一旁的陪睡女郎。21-year-old L visits the shop almost everyday. He tells me I like coming here, its unique and relaxing. I tried to stay awake, because I enjoy talking with the girls.21岁的L先生每天都是光顾这里。他告诉我,他喜欢来这儿,这里既特别又放松。我尽量不睡着,因为我喜欢和这些女孩谈话。Do you have a girl friend?你有女朋友吗?No, I dont, he says , I never have a lot chance to meet girls. So this is refreshing for me.没,我没有,他说,我没有太多机会可以认识女孩。因此这对我来说很新鲜。19 year old H is a student, she works here part-time.19岁的H陪睡女孩是个学生,在这儿兼职。She says most guys come here to relax and rest after working hard all day.她说大多数顾客来这儿只是在一天辛苦的工作之后放松一下。They clearly hit a nerve. It is about 9 Oclock on Thursday night right now. And just about every room is taken and you can see the place is not big, its about four hundred square feet in total.这是一个深入人意,抓住市场的创意。现在是周四晚上9点钟左右。但是每个房间都客满,你可以看到每间房间都不大,总共却有400平方英尺。There are add services as well, but again dont get any ideas.这里没有其他务,不要想别的!One thousand Yen about thirteen dollars, if you want to rest your head on the girls knees for three minutes, another thirteen dollars for a five-second hug.1000日元也就是13美元,如果你想把头在哪个女孩的膝盖上靠三分钟。如果想要一个五分钟的拥抱,再加13美元。M says he is surprised at all the attention his business is getting, and yes he is thinking of a possible expansion.M老板说他很吃惊他的生意越做越火,同时,他也想出了一个可能的原因。We might move to a bigger and cleaner space but maybe the simplicity is part of our charm, he adds.我们可能在走向更大更干净的空间,他补充到,但是可能简单正是我们的魅力所在。A simple idea in a stress out and sometimes lonely city.在一个充满压力,有时颇感孤独的城市的一个简单想法。201211/208602
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