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‘This Land Is Your Land’: The Life, Music and Politics of Woody GuthrieVOICE ONE:I'm Mary Tillotson.VOICE TWO:And I'm Steve Ember with the VOA Special English program, PEOPLE IN AMERICA. Today, we complete our story about songwriter and singer Woody Guthrie. (MUSIC)VOICE ONE: Woody Guthrie Woody Guthrie grew up in Oklahoma and Texas during the nineteen twenties. A short time later, many farms in these states failed. Extreme dry weather ruined the soil. This area became known as the Dust Bowl. Like many people, Woody left for California to find work. However, many people could only find work on farms gathering fruit or other crops. These workers often lived in camps with poor conditions. Woody visited these farm worker camps. He played his guitar and sang songs he wrote that described the conditions at the camp he was visiting.VOICE TWO:Labor union organizers in California found Woody Guthrie useful to their cause. They urged him to go to New York City to make recordings of his songs. Woody liked the idea and left California for New York City in nineteen forty. There he met Alan Lomax, an expert on America's traditional music. Lomax worked for the ed States Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. He collected and recorded traditional American folk music. When he heard Woody sing, Lomax knew he had found a true singer of American folk music. VOICE ONE:Alan Lomax recorded many of Woody's songs for the Library of Congress. He also helped Woody find work in New York. One company agreed to record some of Woody's songs. The record he made was called "Dust Bowl Ballads." The songs told stories of people who had lost their land. Many music critics praised Woody and the songs he wrote. Lomax also helped Woody get a job with CBS Radio. He sang and played folk music on a radio program that was broadcast across the ed States. VOICE TWO:Woody and several other musicians joined together to write political protest songs. One of these was Pete Seeger. Woody wrote performed with a group called the Almanac Singers. Later, some members of the group formed the folk singing group called the Weavers. It was during this time in New York that Woody wrote what became his most famous song, "This Land is Your Land." He described the beauty and richness of America that he had seen during his travels. He believed America should be a place that belongs to rich and poor people alike. The first version of his song expressed opposition to private property. (MUSIC)VOICE ONE:In nineteen forty-one, the Interior Department asked Woody Guthrie to write songs supporting the building of the Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River in Washington state. He wrote twenty-six songs in a month. The best known of these is "Roll On Columbia."(MUSIC)VOICE TWO:Woody Guthrie wrote a book about his early life in Oklahoma and Texas. It was published in nineteen forty-three. He called it "Bound for Glory." He described his childhood, and the pain of watching his mother slowly becoming insane. He also wrote about his travels and the needy people he saw in many parts of America. One book critic wrote: "Someday, people are going to wake up and realize that Woody Guthrie and his songs are a national treasure, like the Yellowstone or Yosemite parks." VOICE ONE:During World War Two, Woody joined America's Merchant Marine. The Merchant Marine transported soldiers and supplies across the Atlantic Ocean to Europe. Later, Woody served in the Army. He returned to New York when the war ended. Woody's wife had left him a few years earlier. In nineteen forty-five, he married Marjorie Mazia. She was a dancer with the Martha Graham dance group. Woody and Marjorie had a daughter named Cathy Ann. In nineteen fifty, Woody began writing songs for children. These became very popular. Here is one called "Riding in My Car." It shows his sense of fun and humor. (MUSIC)VOICE TWO:One day, while Woody and Marjorie were away, a fire started in their house. Their daughter Cathy Ann was severely burned. She died the next day. Woody was crushed by her death. He remembered how his sister had died the same way. He was never the same after Cathy Ann died. He had trouble earning money. He began drinking alcohol. Woody and Marjorie had several more children after Cathy Ann's death. But their marriage ended. Woody Guthrie began noting something strange about himself. He found that the words he wrote often did not make sense. And he had sudden attacks of uncontrollable shaking. In nineteen fifty-two, doctors confirmed his worst fears. He had Huntington's Chorea, the same disease of the brain and nervous system that had killed his mother. Woody Guthrie was forty years old. VOICE ONE:There was no treatment for the disease. His condition got worse. In nineteen fifty-four, Woody Guthrie traveled one more time across America. He wanted to see the places where he had lived and the workers' camps where he had sung. Old friends had trouble recognizing him. Instead of a young man full of life, they saw an old man who could not speak clearly or control his shaking. Finally, he entered a hospital because he could no longer care for himself. But while he seemed to be forgotten, his music was not. By the late nineteen fifties, folk music became popular again in the ed States. More Americans began listening and playing the songs of Woody Guthrie.Bob Dylan Young folk singers, like Bob Dylan, came to New York to visit Woody in the hospital. Dylan and others copied the way Woody sang and played the guitar. And like Woody, they wrote protest songs that called for social and political justice. VOICE TWO:Woody Guthrie remained in the hospital until he died in nineteen sixty-seven. His family and friends visited him each week. In the last years of his life, Woody could hardly speak. But his family and friends knew he still believed in the causes he had sung and written about all his life. They knew this because when they sang his songs, Woody's eyes would become brighter and his defiant spirit would shine through. (MUSIC: "Hard Travelin'")VOICE ONE: This VOA Special English program was written by Shelley Gollust. It was produced by Paul Thompson. I'm Mary Tillotson.VOICE TWO: And I'm Steve Ember. Join us again next week for another PEOPLE IN AMERICA program on the Voice of America. Article/200803/31355。

Photographer Margaret Bourke-White Helped Create the Modern Art of PhotojournalismWritten by Shelley Gollust (THEME)VOICE ONE:I’m Barbara Klein.VOICE TWO:And I’m Steve Ember with People in America in VOA Special English. Today we complete our report about photographer Margaret Bourke-White. She helped create the modern art of photojournalism. (THEME)VOICE ONE: Margaret Bourke-White Margaret Bourke-White began her career as an industrial photographer in the early nineteen thirties. Her pictures captured the beauty and power of machines. They told a story – one image at a time. The technique became know as the photographic essay. In nineteen thirty-six, American publisher Henry Luce started a new magazine, called Life, based on the photographic essay. In this magazine, the pictures told the story. Bourke-White had worked as a photographer for one of Luce’s other magazines, called Fortune. Luce chose her to work on his new magazine.VOICE TWO:Margaret Bourke-White took the picture that appeared on the first cover of Life magazine. It was a picture of a new dam being built in the western state of Montana. The light on the rounded supports showed the dam’s great strength. The small shapes of two men at the bottom showed the dam’s huge size. Bourke-White was no longer satisfied just to show the products of industry in her pictures, as she had in the past. She wanted to tell the story of the people behind the industry: In this case, the people who were building the dam. VOICE ONE:The dam in Montana was a federal project. Ten thousand people worked on it. Bourke-White took pictures of those people – at the dam, in the rooms where they lived, and in the places where they had fun. With her pictures in Life magazine, she told a story about America’s “Wild West” in the twentieth century. (MUSIC)VOICE TWO:Margaret Bourke-White was a social activist. She was a member of the American Artists Congress. These artists supported state financial aid for the arts. They fought discrimination against African-American artists. And they supported artists fighting against fascism in Europe. In the nineteen thirties, Bourke-White met the American writer Erskine Caldwell. Caldwell was known for his stories about people in the American South. The photographer and the writer decided to produce a book to tell Americans about some of those poor country people of the South. They traveled through eight states, from South Carolina to Louisiana. Their book, “You Have Seen Their Faces,” was published in nineteen thirty-seven. It was a great success.Caldwell’s words were beautiful. But Bourke-White’s pictures could have told the story by themselves. They showed the faces of people in a land that still wore the mask of defeat in America’s Civil War.(MUSIC)VOICE ONE:In nineteen thirty-eight, some countries in Europe were close to war. Bourke-White and Caldwell went there to report on these events. They produced another book together, this time about Czechoslovakia. It was called “North of the Danube.” The next year Margaret Bourke-White and Erskine Caldwell were married. They continued to work together. By the spring of nineteen forty-one, Europe had been at war for a year and a half. Bourke-White and Caldwell went to the Soviet Union. They were the only foreign reporters there. For six weeks, Bourke-White took pictures of the Soviet people preparing for war. Then, one night in July, Soviet officials announced that German bomber planes were flying toward Moscow. No civilians were permitted to stay above ground because of the coming attacks.VOICE TWO:As others were hurrying to safety, Bourke-White placed several cameras in the window of her hotel room. She set the cameras so they would remain open to the light of the night sky. Then she joined the others in rooms under the hotel. While she waited for the bombing attack to end, her cameras recorded the explosions, which lit up the rooftops of the city.Before leaving the country, Bourke-White received permission to meet with Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. She returned home with his picture and a series of other photographic essays for Life magazine. She also had enough material for a book on the war in the Soviet Union. Margaret Bourke-White’s marriage to Erskine Caldwell ended in divorce in nineteen forty-two. Article/200803/30517。

Being a parent is the biggest responsibility we can have in our lives. It's scary if you think about it. You have to look after a tiny baby for years and years. It is your duty to make sure that little baby grows up into a wonderful, happy and responsible human being. Parenting means knowing everything from day one. This is a shock to many parents. I didn’t have any parenting lessons. I suddenly had a baby to look after. But it's not that scary. In fact, parenting is life's biggest joy. I can't put into words how wonderful it is to be a parent. My biggest worry is that society doesn't focus on parenting. We really should have classes at school on being good parents. I'm sure we would reduce the number of problems in society if we did this. Article/201106/141835。

呼啸山庄 Chapter2 相关名著:查泰莱夫人的情人 Article/200809/47236。

One day, the teacher inquired Peter: "How much is four minus four?" Peter was tongue-tied. The teacher got angry and said: "What a fool! You see, if I put four coins in your pocket, but there is a hole in your pocket and all of them leak out, now what is left in your pocket?" "The hole." Replied Peter.一天,老师问彼得:“4减4等于几?”彼得张口结舌答不上来。老师生气地说:“真笨!比如我给你衣袋里装进4个硬币,可你衣袋上有个窟窿,硬币全从这里漏掉了,那么,你衣袋里还剩下什么?”“还剩下个窟窿。”彼得答道。 Article/200805/38255。

While thus engaged, Elizabeth had a fair opportunity of deciding whether she most feared or wished for the appearance of Mr. Darcy, by the feelings which prevailed on his entering the room; and then, though but a moment before she had believed her wishes to predominate, she began to regret that he came.吃东西的时候,达西先生走了进来,伊丽莎白便趁此辨别一下自己的心情,究竟是希望他在场,还是害怕他在场。辨别的结果,虽然自以为盼望的心情多于害怕的心情,可是他进来了不到一分钟,她却又认为他还是不进来的好。He had been some time with Mr. Gardiner, who, with two or three other gentlemen from the house, was engaged by the river, and had left him only on learning that the ladies of the family intended a visit to Georgiana that morning. No sooner did he appear, than Elizabeth wisely resolved to be perfectly easy and unembarrassed; -- a resolution the more necessary to be made, but perhaps not the more easily kept, because she saw that the suspicions of the whole party were awakened against them, and that there was scarcely an eye which did not watch his behaviour when he first came into the room. In no countenance was attentive curiosity so strongly marked as in Miss Bingley#39;s, in spite of the smiles which oversp her face whenever she spoke to one of its objects; for jealousy had not yet made her desperate, and her attentions to Mr. Darcy were by no means over. Miss Darcy, on her brother#39;s entrance, exerted herself much more to talk; and Elizabeth saw that he was anxious for his sister and herself to get acquainted, and forwarded, as much as possible, every attempt at conversation on either side. Miss Bingley saw all this likewise; and, in the imprudence of anger, took the first opportunity of saying, with sneering civility,且说达西原先同自己家里两三个人陪着嘉丁纳先生在河边钓鱼,后来一听到嘉丁纳太太和她外甥女当天上午就要来拜望乔治安娜,便立刻离开了他们,回到家里来。伊丽莎白见他走进来,便临机应变,下定决心,促使自己千万要表现得从容不迫,落落大方。她下定这个决心,确实很必要,只可惜事实上不大容易做到,因为她看到全场的人都在怀疑他们俩;达西一走进来,几乎没有一只眼睛不在注意着他的举止。虽然人人都有好奇心,可是谁也不象彬格莱那么露骨,她在她对他们两人中间随便哪一个谈起话来,还是满面笑容,这是因为她还没有嫉妒到不择手段的地步,也没有对达西先生完全死心。达西看见哥哥来了,便尽量多说话;伊丽莎白看出达西极其盼望她跟他处熟起来,他还尽量促进她们双方多多攀谈。彬格莱把这些情形看不眼里,很是气愤,也就顾不得唐突,顾不得礼貌,一有机会便冷言冷语地说:;Pray, Miss Eliza, are not the ----shire militia removed from Meryton? They must be a great loss to your family.;;请问你,伊丽莎白,麦里屯的民兵团不是开走了吗?府上一定觉得这是一个很大的损失吧。;In Darcy#39;s presence she dared not mention Wickham#39;s name; but Elizabeth instantly comprehended that he was uppermost in her thoughts; and the various recollections connected with him gave her a moment#39;s distress; but, exerting herself vigorously to repel the ill-natured attack, she presently answered the question in a tolerably disengaged tone. While she spoke, an involuntary glance shewed her Darcy with an heightened complexion, earnestly looking at her, and his sister overcome with confusion and unable to lift up her eyes. Had Miss Bingley known what pain she was then giving her beloved friend, she undoubtedly would have refrained from the hint; but she had merely intended to discompose Elizabeth, by bringing forward the idea of a man to whom she believed her partial, to make her betray a sensibility which might injure her in Darcy#39;s opinion, and perhaps to remind the latter of all the follies and absurdities by which some part of her family were connected with that corps. Not a syllable had ever reached her of Miss Darcy#39;s meditated elopement. To no creature had it been revealed, where secrecy was possible, except to Elizabeth; and from all Bingley#39;s connections her brother was particularly anxious to conceal it, from that very wish which Elizabeth had long ago attributed to him, of their becoming hereafter her own. He had certainly formed such a plan, and without meaning that it should affect his endeavour to separate him from Miss Bennet, it is probable that it might add something to his lively concern for the welfare of his friend.她只是不敢当着达西的面明目张胆地提起韦翰的名字,可是伊丽莎白立刻懂得她指的就是那个人,因此不禁想起过去跟他的一些来往,一时感到难过。这是一种恶意的攻击,伊丽莎白非要狠狠地还击她一下不可,于是她立刻用一种满不在乎的声调回答了她那句话。她一面说,一面不由自主地对达西望了一眼,只见达西涨红了脸,恳切地望着她,达西的更是万分慌张,低头无语。彬格莱如果早知道这种不三不四的话会使得她自己的意中人这样苦痛,她自然就决不会说出中了。她只是存心要打乱伊丽莎白的心思,她以为伊丽莎白过去曾倾心于那个男人,便故意说了出来,便她出出丑,让达西看不起她,甚至还可以让达西想起她几个曾经为了那个民兵团闹出多少荒唐的笑话。至于达西想要私奔的事情,她一点也不知情,因为达西先生对这件事一向尽量保守秘密,除了伊丽莎白以外,没有向任何人透露过。她对彬格莱的亲友们隐瞒得特别小心,因为他认为以后要和他们攀亲,这也是伊丽莎白意料中的事。他的确早就有了这个打算;也许就是为了这个原因,便对彬格莱的幸福更加关心,可并不是因此而千方百计地拆散彬格莱和班纳特的好事。 Article/201203/175128。

They say that Los Angeles is changing. In the past two weeks, a young woman was shot, and then her body was dropped off on a sidewalk and set on fire. This happened in broad daylight in a nice neighborhood. Another young woman's body was found lying in a dumpster. The decomposed body of another young woman was found in a park.An 8-year-old girl was standing with her mom in the kitchen when a bullet from a gang member's gun killed her. The little girl and her mom had just arrived in America. The gang member was shooting at other gang members in the street outside. A hospital van driver pushed a paraplegic out of the van onto a Skid Row sidewalk and drove off. A mentally ill patient in a nursing home was slapped repeatedly by a staff member. The staff member's buddy took a cell phone of the assault. It showed the staffer laughing as the patient cried.A local TV station reporter went to a huge produce warehouse and filmed a worker urinating on a platform right next to boxes of fresh lettuce. Rats were shown walking throughout the warehouse and nibbling on the produce. Every day, this produce is distributed to hundreds of unsuspecting restaurants and supermarkets in Los Angeles. LA is changing, all right - for the worse. Article/201104/131423。

Broadcast: January 9, 2005(MUSIC)VOICE ONE:I’m Mary Tillotson.VOICE TWO:And I’m Steve Ember with the VOA Special English program, PEOPLE IN AMERICA. Today we tell about the Marx Brothers. They made many funny movies in the nineteen-thirties and nineteen-forties that are still popular today. (MUSIC)VOICE ONE:There were five Marx Brothers. The most famous were Julius, Leonard and Adolph. They were born in New York City between eighteen eighty-six and eighteen-ninety. Their father made clothing. Their mother wanted them to become performers. Julius, Leonard and Adolph started performing when they were children. Along with their two brothers, they performed in stage shows called vaudeville in New York. They sang songs, danced and told jokes. Julius, Leonard and Adolph Marx began making funny movies in nineteen twenty-nine. They changed their first names. Julius became Groucho. Leonard became Chico. Adolph became Harpo. Another brother, Herbert, appeared in the first five Marx Brothers movies. He was called Zeppo. He did not play a funny man like the other three. He played a good-looking young man. VOICE TWO:Groucho Marx looked funny. He had large black eyebrows and a hairy mustache. But they were painted on his face. He spoke very quickly. And he walked in a funny way. He played people with funny names, like Rufus T. Firefly. Otis B. Driftwood. And Doctor Hugo Z. Hackenbush. Groucho was not a very nice person in the movies. He often insulted or made fun of rich or important people. He made fun of doctors, college officials, opera singers, diplomats and government officials. He even insulted his son, played in this example by Zeppo. (SOUND)((ZEPPO: Dad, let me congratulate you. I’m proud to be your son.GROUCHO: My boy, you took the words right out of my mouth. I’m ashamed to be your father. I’d have horsewhipped you if I had a horse. You may go now. Leave your name and address for the girl outside and if anything turns up, we’ll get in touch with you. Where are you going?ZEPPO: Well, you just told me to go.GROUCHO: So that’s what they taught you in college. Just when I tell you to go, you leave me. You know you can’t leave a schoolroom without raising your hand, no matter where you’re going.ZEPPO: Anything further, father?GROUCHO: Anything further, father? That can’t be right. Isn’t it “anything father, further”? The idea! I married your mother because I wanted children. Imagine my disappointment when you arrived!))VOICE ONE:Chico Marx talked as if he was born in Italy. He spoke English that was not correct. Many other funny men spoke as though they came from other countries. They were making fun of themselves and other immigrants who did not speak English well. Chico also made funny jokes about words and expressions that sound alike but have different meanings. For example, in one movie a woman sings with a very high falsetto voice. She says “I have a falsetto voice.” Chico then says, “Well, my last student had a false set of teeth.” Chico also was known for performing what was called the comedy of the absurd. He talked about things that were so untrue or unreasonable that they were funny. Here is an example. Chico is supposed to spy on someone called Rufus T. Firefly. Chico reports his progress to the man who asked him to spy on Firefly. To “shadow” someone is to secretly follow that person. (SOUND)((CHICO: Well, you remember you gave us a picture of this man and said follow him?MAN: Oh, yes.CHICO: Well, we get on the job right away. And in one hour, even less than one hour, we lose the fix. That’s pretty good work, eh? MAN: I want a full, detailed report of your investigation.CHICO: All right. I tell you. Monday we watch Firefly’s house. But he no come out. He wasn’t home. Tuesday we go to the ballgame, but he fool us. He no show up. Wednesday, he go to the ballgame, but we fool him. We no show up. Thursday was a double-header, nobody show up. Friday it rained all day. There was no ballgame. So we stayed home. We listened to it over the radio.MAN: Then you didn’t shadow Firefly!CHICO: Oh, sure, we shadow Firefly. We shadow him all day.MAN: What day was that?CHICO: It was Shadowday (Saturday)! That’s some joke, eh, Boss!))Chico also played the piano in a funny way. Chico did to music what he did to the English language. He made fun of it. (MUSIC)VOICE TWO:Harpo Marx had curly yellow hair, but it was not really his hair. It was false hair, called a wig. He never said a word in any of the movies. Instead, he acted out what he wanted to say. He could make people laugh without saying a word. People always knew what he was thinking. He made funny sounds with horns and whistles to express his thoughts and feelings. In one movie, a kind policeman tries to give him some advice to stay away from bad people. As the policeman shakes Harpo’s hand, you can hear pieces of silver that Harpo has stolen fall out of his clothes. (SOUND)((POLICEMAN: You better come with me, young fellow.GROUCHO: Don’t take him away, officer.POLICEMAN: All right. I’ll let him go this time. But I want to give you some advice. You’re running around with the wrong kind of people. Why don’t you go home?CHICO: He got no home.POLICEMAN: Go home for a few nights. Stay home. Don’t you know your poor old mother sits there, night after night, waiting to hear your steps on the stairs?CHICO: He got no stairs.POLICEMAN: I can see a little light burning in the window.GROUCHO: No you can’t. The gas company turned it off.POLICEMAN: Now, what I’m telling you is for your own good. And if you listen to me, you can’t go wrong.))As you might have guessed from his name, Harpo Marx was famous for playing the musical instrument called the harp. He made beautiful music like this on the harp in several movies. Article/200802/28038。

About 25 years ago, I worked as an orderly on the overnight shift in a South Carolina hospital to put myself through school. The building we were in at the time was one of those WPA jobs from the Roosevelt era, and even though it was small and somewhat outmoded, it had been the only place for emergency services in our county for more than 40 years. But at the time this incident I’m writing about happened, a new, state-of-the-art hospital had just been finished a few miles down the highway, and while we weren’t completely out of the picture, a lot of our services, including the emergency room, had been shifted to that site.  Like I say, I was working my way through school at the time, and my shift generally ran weeknights from 10:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m. There wasn’t a whole lot to do after midnight, so sometimes after the shift supervisor had run out of creative ideas for make-work, and assuming our remaining patients were quiet and settled in for the night, she’d let me “relax” with my schoolwork in the employee lounge during the quiet of the wee hours.   The lounge was right next to the second floor nurses’ station. Article/200903/63889。

I have too many clothes. I have many clothes I’ve only worn once. Sometimes I even find something at the back of a drawer that I never even wore. I bought it, put it away, and then forgot about it. I’m sure I don’t need so many clothes. I don’t think anyone really needs 11 pairs of jeans and 32 sweaters. I won’t tell you how many pairs of shoes I’ve got. That’s way too embarrassing. The simple truth is I love clothes and I love shopping. Maybe I have a problem. I’m sure I’d be a lot richer if I didn’t buy so many clothes. I like brands, so the clothes I buy are quite expensive. One day I’m going to have a big clearout. I’ll take all the clothes I no longer wear and give them to charity. Article/201104/131255。